In the period between the two world wars-name Poland made her a tank building industry. Municipal factory supplied the army with armored vehicles, tankettes and light tanks. But after the second world war, while in the Warsaw Pact, the Polish military industry was to create only tanks developed and adopted for service in the Soviet Union. They became a major producer of machine-building plant "Bumar Labendy" and the latest Russian tanks, producing up to 1993, were the T-72, which the Poles released 1610 pieces. But should not be considered as if the Poles simply replicated the Soviet design and nothing more. In Poland, there are two fairly strong research organization — Host Institute of weapons and equipment, and research and design center devices. They not only have made their own, different from the Russian, the construction of tank truck TVZ-3 training tank and tank management T-72M1K, and made profound modernization of the T-72, which appeared as a result of the new standard main battle tank, the title PT-91 "Tvardy. "In 1992, for extensive testing has been constructed an experimental batch of these machines. Layout from your own tank" Tvardy "different first modern fire control system SKO-1M" Drava ", designed and made in Poland.
Another new element — active armor type "Erava-1" (single-layer) and "Erava-2" (double-layer). Similar protection against chemical ammunition for T-72 at the time, and Russian engineers have developed, but the "Erava" posted on another great and protects the surface. In addition, "Tvardy" provided with a coating, the suction radiation exposure, a system of "Obra-4"-warning laser irradiation of the tank, 12-barrel 81mm smoke grenade launching system "Cloud" and single-barrel 80 mm grenade launch system antilazernyh " Tellurium. " On the tower is installed anti-aircraft armament model ZU-72. A driver has a passive night vision device "Radomka." The bottom under the driver's seat enhanced additional armor. At the end of 1994, with the start of mass production at the beginning of the RT-91 installed French system Fire control "Savan-15T". The main armament, box and chassis saved from the T-72, but set a new Polish 12-S12U-cylinder turbo diesel power 625 kW (2300 r / min) at which the tank has a maximum speed of 70 km / h, while in the long term is meant to use more powerful, 735-kilowatt (ie, 1,000-strong) unit. Run a tank with a filling achieves 650 km. RT-91 is intended for the Polish army at first, but if they wish, they will be able to purchase this tank approximately $ 2 million. Poles are aware that "Tvardy" — the last chance ever to some extent adapted to the current requirements of the design adopted by the armament in 1972 but Poland needs tank the last generation, and the work on it was started in 1995 in hopes to mid-1998 to make driving tests layout, relatively betrothed "gorilla."
Unlike RT-91, "Gorilla"Will have a Western-style tower with almost vertical walls, on top of the basic armor should cover a clay broneplitki and active armor to protect against piercing and hollow shells, also a special layer to absorb the electric light. Engine — diesel engine capacity of 1000 kW.'s Main armament Russian: two machine guns, 125-mm smoothbore gun with automatic loading (capable also serve to launch anti-tank 9M 119 "Svir"), striking targets at a distance of 5000 m and penetrates armor up to 700 mm. systems and fire control unit together with a box, developed specifically for "Gorilla", should be computerized. Poles seek out the possibility of cooperation in the development of the 55-ton tank from the military industry of France, Israel and South Africa. yet hard to say whether the will in the long term replacement of obsolete RT-91 "gorilla" — the price of the development of modern machines commensurate with the cost of creating the best Western tank "Leopard." But to buy a lot of modern tanks — at least in the West, at least in the East — not less, in the latter case, suffers its own industry.