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Drums "Rates"The important elements of strategic deterrence in the nuclear triad of the Russian Federation are mobile missile complexes "Topol". But there were "poplar" not for one day, and it paved the way to the design team led by Alexander Nadiradze. The first step in this direction was the complex "Temp-S" and "Rate-2C. "

NEW CLASS OF ARMS

Alexander D. Nadiradze was born August 20, 1914 in the town of Blaze (Georgia), but his whole life is inextricably linked with Russia. After completing his studies at the Metropolitan Aviation Institute, he worked in various defense KB. In 1958, on the advice of Sergei Pavlovich, he was transferred to the Queen of Vladimir Chelomeya KB KB-1 and assigned to the main designer of the NII-1.

NII-1 created in 1946 on the outskirts of Moscow (on Birch alley) on the basis of any repair shops in the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering in the execution now widely known decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, "Problems of missile weapons" on May 13, 1946.

Engaged in the development of the NII-1 relatively small ammunition: bombs, mines, torpedoes, etc. Positions head designer before joining Nadiradze in the structure of the NII-1 was not.

Drums "Rates"Alexander D. Nadiradze

He headed the NII-1 director, led the development of each munition (supervised, coordinated) is a leading designer. By the way, is widely understood in defense circles NII-1, it was because its director since its inception to death in 1961 was Sergei Bodrov, filmed previously as Deputy Minister of Agricultural Engineering personal orders of Joseph Stalin.

In 1961, Alexander was appointed director Nadiradze — the main designer of the NII-1 (in 1965 renamed as the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology, now FSUE "Capital Institute of Thermal Engineering) and headed it in for 26 years, before his death in 1987.

Since joining CB-1 and especially after 1961, Alexander Nadiradze has focused the team he led to the development of acute demanded by the Russian Army, a new class of weapons — mobile tactical missiles frontline mission as a means to deliver nuclear weapons on the respective theaters.

Naturally, these missiles could not by definition be liquid because of their low combat and operational features — a long preparation for launch, limited-time duty in the Wet, the need to deliver to places of deployment of missiles and fuel storage component there. On the other hand, the solid propellant charges when power required either in the USSR in the world or not.

Dedication to work by Boris Zhukov team Luberets KB "Alliance" was able to make the required powder charges, but the huge swings caused even the theoretical possibility of stability features, especially in mass production.

In such criteria was developed and went spirited pace of development of missile system "Temp." These criteria emerged first feature excellent disposition Alexander Davidovich.

Do not indulge in the euphoria of the first successful launches without rubbing Points military customers and management of the country, he insisted on the need to clarify the direction of work — shift to drop-in fuels. In general, the reliability, the highest quality pre-ground tests, the ability to resist with all this, though what type of administrative pressure "And we'll meet Mayday?", "How to tell them to report to the Central Committee (the president)?" is still a "highlight" of the team of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology.

At no time was developed and passed flight tests of the mobile missile system "Temp-S". All was done and was in service with the Russian Army from 1966 to 1987, more than 1,200 rockets.

Second relevant feature of Alexander Nadiradze was no fear of bookmarks first design limit features all the characteristics not only missiles, its charge, and all the components of the complex. And about his possible "squeeze" of subcontractors during the subsequent works all probable and unworkable "juice" to this day strolling legend.

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To give just one example. For complex "Temp-S" collective KB Minsk Automobile Plant by Boris L. Shaposhnikov was specially created four-axle cars MAZ-543. With its weight of 20 tons, it had the same capacity (ratio 1:1).

Later on chassis MAZ-543 (MAZ-543A, 543V-MAZ, MAZ-543M) were installed 10's weapons and now are in service in the Army, Air Defense Missile Forces and others. Extensive use it to find the chassis and in the economy. "Plans" Alexander Nadiradze with staff Boris Shaposhnikov, no reprimands or orders, as apartments, houses, and they skillfully knocked out of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus.

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For the creation of the complex "Temp-S" Capital Institute of Thermal Technology was awarded the Order of Lenin. Alexander Davidovich, as his first deputy Vyacheslav Gogoleva and Deputy Director of the Institute for Science of Design and Boris Lagutin were awarded the Lenin Prize laureates.

It so happened that in the upcoming Capital Institute of Thermal Technology on the theme of the missile class worked only on paper, as the complex "Temp-S" and did not require replacement of the troops. Warranty extension complex has ensured its long-term livelihoods.

In the upcoming development of mobile missile systems for the Army smallest, army range assumed Kolomenskoye KB by Sergey Invincible, created in the upcoming missile complex "Oka", "Iskander".

COMPLEX "TEMP-2C"

In 1965, after the removal of Nikita Khrushchev was, as you know, restored branch system of economic management. Also excellent is clear that for all that has been created so called "nine" — a set of sectoral ministries of defense. The least understood of consolidating the functions of these ministries.

Without claiming to be a complete analysis, the creator will allow themselves to affect only a nuance that relates specifically to the subject of true article — the creation of mobile missile complexes strategic focus. On the one hand, and military missile gallakticheskaya topic moved to the newly made by the Ministry of General Machine Building, on the other — all teams with at least some experience in the development of mobile missile complexes entered the recreated by the Ministry of Defense Industry.

As they say, the circle is closed.

It is not that Minobschemash not tried to do a solid fuel rocket and mobile theme. Was developed in the late 60s at the Kapustin Yar has successfully passed
the tests set 8K96 missile with a solid mid-range (index launcher — 15U15), developed in KB "Arsenal" (chief designer — Peter Tyurin).

Without explaining the circumstances to adopt Russian Army complex was not adopted. At about the same time at Plesetsk underwent flight tests complex 8K99 intercontinental missile, developed by the "Southern" running Misha Yangel.

Unlike missile 8K96 rocket 8K99 (index launcher 15U21) had a mixed set — the first stage of the rocket was solid-, second — liquid. The original flight test period was marked by a number of failures, and therefore the appropriate governmental decision flight tests were halted.

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Misha was allowed Jangel dostrelyat remaining missiles, but, despite the fact that about 10 launches were successful, the fate of the complex was sealed.

At the same time Sergey Pavlovich Queens, refused fundamentally unlike Misha Yangelya CB and CB Vladimir Chelomeya from the transition to a liquid rocket technology for heptyl and other "poison", made an attempt to compete with them in combat missile issue.

Mine was developed missile system 8K98 (8K98P) with a three-stage solid-fuel missile of intercontinental range (starting weight — 51 tons). Albeit with some difficulty, the complex passed flight tests at the Plesetsk in test management, under the command of Colonel Pyotr Shcherbakov.

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Further, since it is not a specific participant in the events, and I quote from the book "Polygon special significance" (Prentice. "Consent", 1997).

"November 4, 1966 at 11:00 Moscow time on combat crew separate engineering and testing under the command of Yuri Yashin, the technical manual test engineers and professionals in the main test site was launched missile RS-12. This was the first test starting at the site …

Flight tests missile RS-12 after upgrading lasted until January 1972, was held 50 one run. During the pilot duty control test was carried out 40 100 two combat-capable missile launch of this class. "

The complex 8K98P was adopted by the Russian Army and deployed in the main in the missile division in the city of Yoshkar-Ola.

But the creation of a batch of missiles 8K98P was not enough — about 60 rockets. Subsequent attempts to return to solid fuel (up to the end of the 70s) and mobile (ground) Related companies Minobschemasha did.

And now, with full skepticism Minobschemasha ("a lot of") and neutral indifference Minoboronprom ("not our"), Alexander Nadiradze puts in front of him and the team task: "Creating a mobile ground with a solid set of intercontinental-range missile with a single warhead."

After the respective pre-design studies, respectively, and development work is in the 1967 index of "Air-2C."

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As for the rocket "Temp-S", all charges for the missiles "Air-2C 'developed in Ljuberetsky KB" Alliance "by Boris Zhukov and his first deputy Vadim Hungarian. The work was hard, but surely.

In the suburban Hotkovskoe Design Office of Capital Institute of Thermal Technology was "seconded" last party secretary Victor Protasov, created from the ground up best in the country design and manufacturing company for the development of fiberglass (later of carbon materials). Shells engines, transport and launch container missile silo launcher — all fiberglass, and all that — KTB. And now the Central Research Institute of Special Machinery by Vladimir Barybina holds in these matters leading position not only in Russia, but also in the world.

By the end of 1968 it became clear that the rocket goes. Remained unresolved two important issues: the adoption of solutions at the starting weight of the rocket (this conversation below) and on the developer control the rocket.

Development of control systems for missiles "Air-2C" was entrusted to that which came Ministry of the Defense Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics, which, to put it mildly, in this matter, "not attracted to." Objective we have to say that the Central Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics always been, and to this day is the principal designer of the hydraulic drive (chief designer — now that would be a shame as it may sound, the late Yuri Danilov) of all the missiles of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology, is also the developer of ground-hydraulic drive for all launchers Plants in which the missiles ever laid.

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Again Alexander Nadiradze takes courageous solutions: increasing the starting weight of the rocket from 37 to 44 tons and immediately turns to the management of the country with a proposal for the substitution of missile control system designer.

In July 1969, is a corresponding decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, states the basic co-operation (the main designer of the control system rocket appointed Nicholas Piljugin) and the main tactical and technical characteristics, the basic terms of installed work. Customer — Rocket Forces, gritting his teeth, gives, as he was ordered to the decision, "Tactical and technical requirements for the development of mobile missile system" Temp-2C "# T-001129."

Some DETAILS

Previously mentioned launchers and 15U15 15U21 complexes 8K96 and 8K99 have been designed in KB-3 under the control of the Kirov factory deputy head designer Nicholas languid chicken on the basis of the T-10. To describe them as briefly as possible, the main tasks they have done — they went and shot them. Creator, who took the role of another young spices in their design and implementation of missile launches, does not remember the harsh prirekany during start-up in the address of KB-3.

At the same time, if these launchers described as a system of tools, we can say that they went bad (ie, off-road use only hard court, as they broke the asphalt, life was just a stroke of 3000-5000 km), is very complex was their operation (difficult access to many elements of the chassis, the replacement of some special systems sought removal of adjacent systems, etc.).

Because, on the one hand, the development of tracked launcher (index 15U67) for missiles "Air-2C" was entrusted to CB-3 Kirov factory (and the task — for a missile with a launch weight of 37 tons — a team of perfectly mastered KB), and, On the other hand, Alexander Nadiradze immediately foresaw the development of missiles "Air-2C" and a self-propelled launcher on car chassis (index 15U68). Development launcher 15U67 and ground equipment complex as a whole was assigned to the same creators of PU and chas
sis for the rocket "Temp-S" — EDO Volgograd plant "Barricades" (chief designer — Jora Sergeev), CB Minsk Automobile Plant by Boris Shaposhnikov.

Now the main thing, without which, according to the views of the creator, could never be made no-capable combat duty, mobile ground missile systems.

Here creator must lead relatively longish quote from the story of Misha Kolcovs "night blindness", written in 1932: "I do not know what a" complex. "This word, if ever something and mean, now of the endless references at numerous meetings, first in the State Planning Commission, has lost his forever. "complex" refer to just about anything, but in most cases, nothing. At the word "complex" I say no. At the "complex" I have nothing to do objection. "

So now, if I was useful to characterize the life and work of Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze one sentence, I would put it this way: "It was a genius in rocket technology and people, perfectly understood the significance of the word" complex ".

If the task of curating the creation of the launcher, means of providing transport, handling missiles (the so-called CSR — a complex of facilities) is somehow mastered a small section of ground equipment Metropolitan Institute of Thermal running Sinyagina Cyril, whose main task was the development of transport and launch container what is "complex," the institute did not know anybody.

I think that if this was not aware of, and no one in the Soviet Union.

In any case, the nominal regimental structure, already held joint flight tests complexes 8K96 and 8K99, is a 6 standing in a circle tracked launchers and located in the center of the circle moving the regiment command post, consisting of a large number of different types of cars on car chassis. In some places near the same mobile power. The fact that people need to eat and sleep that they need to be protected, and Mikhail Tyurin Peter Yangel or wonder, or thought that the case of the military. Not sure they understood or gave tribute to such notions as "camouflage", "vitality".

In the bowels of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal these questions (from the standpoint of who are experienced "elders" — a purely secondary) to interest only a very small group of young engineers, Organizational design sector, first as 19 in the structure of the rocket SKB-1, led by Boris Lagutin, and then, after a mission Last Deputy Director for Science and Design — in the independent section 110. What do these guys, they are there to advance, not enough people knew and how much more aware of, but, as "products" in the form of piles of drawings, blueprints, etc., they are not given, and there scribbled some reports, posters and so on, all of them considered unless loafers, then, in any case, second-class citizens.

And so, guided, of course, the famous Stalinist principle of "cadres decide everything," Alexander Nadiradze perceives revolutionary recruitment solution.

In October 1970 order of the Minister of Defense is the industry that soilless rocket scientist Vyacheslav Gogoliev moved to the post of Deputy Director — Head designer for the post of deputy head designer for the design, he was assigned to supervising only 2-offices (on the rocket and propulsion systems) for the position First Deputy Director — Head designer appointed 43-year-old Boris Lagutin.

The first order of Alexander Nadiradze after the announcement of the Minister of the order in the structure of the institute created encompassing compartment (6), for the position of chief appointed 30-year-old Alexander Vinogradov. 6 becomes the head office in the Institute.

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"TEMP-2C" AS SYSTEM Cannon

The basic unit of the complex is the missile regiment.

In the regiment consisted of three divisions and a mobile command post of the regiment.

As part of each division 9 of machines: 2 self-propelled launchers on 6-axle car chassis "MAZ-547A", the machine up and running on the chassis "MAZ-543A", 2-car diesel power plants (each with four diesel units capacity to 30 kW) to the chassis "MAZ-543A", 2 car household maintenance (machine-dining room, a machine-hostel) on the chassis "MAZ-543V", 2 car security (car guard duty shift on the chassis "MAZ-543A" and the machine military post on the chassis of the BTR-60).

As part of mobile command Fri Regiment and 9 machines: machine command, control and communications vehicle chassis "MAZ-543-A", the car on the chassis of tropospheric communication "MAZ-543V", 2-car diesel-electric power, 2 cars and 2 Welfare machine guards.

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All machines have been developed in the framework of a unified development work "Creating missile system" Temp-2C ", held joint flight tests in its composition and were adopted by Russian army uniform resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers.

The complex also included equipment that provides up-cycle missiles and ground equipment units: means of transportation and handling of missiles, their storage in arsenals, routine maintenance and training aids.

Joint flight tests of the complex "Temp-2S" (a complex of MS-14) started the first rocket launch March 14, 1972 at 21 hours 00 minutes from the cosmodrome "Plesetsk". Flight Design step in 1972 was rather difficult: 2 run (second and fourth) of 5 were bad.

But in the upcoming failures were not. Only during flight tests were conducted 30 starts. Joint flight tests were completed in December 1974, the launch of two volley of missiles.

Mobile ground missile complex "Temp-2C" was adopted by the Russian army of the CC of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers in 1976. But in accordance with the Contract on the limitation of strategic offensive arms was considered like undeployed.

All 42 series made missiles "Air-2C" carrying on combat duty at Plesetsk on Fri constant dislocation in storage.

For the creation of complex Capital Institute of Thermal Technology was awarded a second Order of Lenin. Alexander Nadiradze was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

Two employees of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology (Alexander Vinogradov, Nikolai Nefedov), chief designer of the Minsk Automobile Plant, Boris L. Shaposhnikov, the first deputy head designer of OKB Volgograd plant "Barricades" (at the time of awarding the title is Chief Designer — Head of OKB-1) Valerian Sobolev, deputy head Design for Testing Research Institute for Automation and Instrumentation Igor Zotov, also chairman of the State Commission for the joint flight tests, Lieutenant-General Alexander Brovtsinu laureates were awarded the Lenin Prize.

More than 1,500 workers of cooperation that created complex "Temp-2C", was awarded the merits of the government, about 30 have been awarded the title of winners of the Municipal Prize of the USSR.

Despite the seeming relatively modest operational deployment "Temp-2C", do not forget that he not only was the basis for the future development in the USSR mobile missile topics, and has permitted to accumulate operating experien
ce, cook both civilians and military personnel. About civilians from me, I hope, will have the opportunity to tell the forthcoming, immediately, ending, I will mention only some of the forthcoming service military professionals Plesetsk test site specifically involved in joint flight tests.

Head of the landfill, Lieutenant-General of the Union of Russian Hero Galaktion Alpaidze after leaving in 1975, down about 20 years he was deputy director of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology Supervision of warranty, he brought a worthy contribution to the deployment and operation of facilities "Pioneer" and "Topol".

The chief test of Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Mazyarkin with the rank of lieutenant-general commanding the Kapustin Yar. He died in retirement in the town of Minsk.

Head of the department of probation inclusive governance Colonel Gennady Jasinski seconded by the CC of the CPSU in 1973, at the disposal of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology. Major-General, the permanent manager of technical tests in 1992-1997 first deputy general designer and director of the Institute, from 1997 to the true time — first deputy general designer of the testing and warranty supervision.

His deputy, Lt. Col. Mike Zholudev, group chief Major General Albert Zhigulin — promoted to major general, deputy commander of the completed service Plesetsk test site.

Mayor Basil Kurday, Lieutenant Alexander Bal, the commanders of the first crews lieutenant Dmitry Bespalov, Eugene Rezepov resigned from all positions of command in the central apparatus of the Ministry of Defence and the Plesetsk test site in the rank of colonel.

Excuse me, those who were not referred.

And in conclusion. Creator endlessly grateful for the life of the venerable school Director — General Designer venerable Metropolitan twice the Order of Lenin Institute of Thermal Boris Nikolayevich Lagutin and prematurely left us Konstantinovichu Alexander Vinogradov.

The creator hopes that it will turn out all the same to persuade Boris Lagutin write a memoir of Alexander D. Nadiradze a book that veterans want to publish for a long time before the 100th anniversary of the day or his birthday.

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