November 30, 2011 18:07
Kaliningrad scientist said MK.RU, the time machine is possible.
There may be a time machine, they are stable, and their existence does not have great energy, the researchers said Artyom Yurov, Pedro Gonzalez Diaz and Martin Prada Marun. In an interview with head of the Department of Theoretical Physics MK.RU and Doctor of Physics and Mathematics of the Russian State University named after Artem Yurov Kant told what was done in conjunction with the opening of Spanish scientists.
DA: Artem Valeryanovich, your opening an energy source for the "time machine" pushed away from the ideas of Einstein. You could not talk about this popular?
The point is this: Einstein created two theories of relativity. One is called special (SRT), and the second overall (GR). Stations are in school (though very superficial, especially in our time, when introduced USE), where it is said that you can not move faster than light. In fact, this is not quite what says SRT. The theory says that light can not catch up, but does not prohibit the existence of hypothetical particles that from birth travel faster than light. However, Einstein believed that these particles do not and here's why: it is possible to show that if something is moving faster than light, it is possible, in principle, to send back in time — in the past. It is on this basis of physics always have concluded that you can not move faster than light. These particles and in fact did not find all calmed down.
But not all so simple. There is a second theory of relativity — relativity. It describes and explains the well-known phenomenon such as gravity or the force of attraction of the world. According to general relativity, gravity is no power there, and there is absolutely fantastic phenomenon: all bodies have mass curves the space around it and slow down time.
In general, the fact that we live in a curved space, has been known for a hundred years. The most glaring example: if a comet flies past the sun, its path is curved. We think that it attracts the sun, but not really the point. Imagine a sheet that was pulled and placed in the middle weights. Bent sheet. Let him go now you ball. He rolls down to the weights, but we do not believe that plummet pulled the ball, as the land supposedly attracts a fallen apple. In fact, just a sheet twisted.
The next question asked by Einstein (with Rosen), and not whether the warp space so that it appears tunnelchik (we now call them wormholes or wormhole), which connects two distant, in outer space points. It's like in the movie "Window to Paris." It turned out that the equations of general relativity — is allowed, but the wormhole (in those days they were called Einstein-Rosen bridges) it is terribly unstable formation. Enough to get there and one photon breaks molehill! That means they can not be concluded, Einstein, and as such was the situation until 1985, when the legendary American astrophysicist Kip Thorne and his students Morrison Yurtsever not figured out how to stabilize the wormhole and did not give it to fall apart. All this is true in theoretical physics, and if physics says that something is possible, then it is possible. Unless, of course find no error. But now in the court in 2009, but did not find her, so there is every reason to seriously molehill.
Now imagine that this molehill made and it connects the Earth, say the star to which the light is coming few years. We are using a wormhole, we can get there almost instantly. In other words, we have managed to "beat the light", though not directly, but to cheat — to "cut" through the wormhole! Therefore, by using wormhole to travel through time! On this account there is a lot of work, though there is little popular — they are all designed for physicists and specialists in general relativity. But the work is written with a huge number of 1985. Been described many different types of computer time.
By the way, do not have to use the wormhole. A similar effect occurs around a rotating cylinder. Curved space there and there may be closed loops of time. But that is another story. And the cylinder must be truly cosmic proportions. In 2007, American physicist Mallet received a grant to the experimental setup, arranged on the same principle, only there it was rotating laser beam. However, in his calculations, and found a bug setting, naturally did not work. So all hope is now on molehills.
Referring to the works and K. Thorne, who showed that stabilize a wormhole can be filled with the very substance of its strange properties. In particular, it should have a negative pressure. For such substances, they proposed to use so-called. Casimir vacuum, but I will not talk about it in detail, because still no one knew where to get the wormhole, but still such that it did not collapse before we somehow wobbled there Casimir vacuum.
But in 1998, the situation became even more interesting. Just for explosive intelligence, I would say. Astronomers have discovered that the universe is filled with a 74 per cent something invisible, but uniform and creates a negative pressure again! This is something called dark energy and the problem of checking the physical nature of dark energy is now one of the most important problems in physics. "Dark" — because it is not visible in a telescope, but creates stunning effects — in particular, it accelerates the universe! Ie Now the universe is not just expanding, but fans, speeds! And does this dark energy.
What is it? Apparently, dark energy is a scalar field. All were held in the school term vector field — for example, the electric field or magnetic induction. Vector field defined at each point of the magnitude and direction. Well, the scalar field is constructed quite simply — it is defined at every point of its size, and the direction he has no.
More — more. Astronomers have carefully studied the scalar field, measuring the expansion rate of the universe, and suddenly came to the conclusion that dark energy may be even more fantastic thing than thought. The school teaches that the total energy is the sum of kinetic and potential. For fields that is true too. It turned out that the kinetic energy of the scalar field — dark energy — could be negative! Can you imagine? Never before have we experienced anything like this. This is a really, some unrealistic, in terms of physics object — a scalar field with negative kinetic energy. He even began to name not dark and phantom energy or just a phantom, to emphasize what a strange and amazing thing. Many theorists came out of himself — "phantoms can not be!" They said, "their existence is contrary to the basic principles of physics." But not everything is decided by theorists and experimentalists, that is, those who measure. And they go on to say that the real phantoms. Theorists (but not all) and became, little by little to get used to the phantoms, ie to ensure that such facilities exist.
You may ask, where do the wormhole? The fact that the Phantoms play a fundamental role. Large Spanish physicist Pedro Gonzalez-Diaz showed that phantom perfectly stabilize wormhole, without the Casimir vacuum! In other words, if the phantoms real, real and molehills and even more than that, with the growth rate of expansion of the universe will be spontaneously molehill GROW. Phantoms of molehills — it's kind of like water for fish, with water containing food and all that is necessary for the growth of the fish. All this has spurred interest in the wormhole and computer time. But it became one more difficulty. It turned out that the existence of a stable wormhole to the size of a man is required to upload there as much energy as is contained in several galaxies! If the phantom is, they certainly already spontaneously pumped energy into molehills and molehills are already growing. Sooner or later, molehills become big enough, but … only in 5 billion years! And talk about creating molehills and time machines in the lab … alas! It was a cruel blow for all those who love to fantasize about time travel and the conquest of the universe through wormholes. But even here it was not so simple bad!
There is a science — the theory of strings. This modern version of the unified field theory that was made before his death, Einstein was working in vain. String theory has not yet been created, but there are already a number of statements that inevitably arise in any form. For us the main thing is the idea of higher dimensions. It turns out that string theory can be consistently formulated only if, in addition to the three known spatial dimensions (time is not counted) to add six more "small" and one "large", or as the physics — the macroscopic. Our universe is a bit of a sheet of paper (though three-dimensional) embedded in the volume (though a four).
The term — brane. Bran — is our universe embedded in a higher dimension. So we, along with Pedro González-Diaz investigated phantoms and wormholes on the brane and found many interesting things. The most important thing for us, that's what — on the branes that we've learned, wormholes size of a man is not required for its stabilization of these inconceivable energies. How long does it — we have not yet learned to calculate, but is unlikely to get something beyond. Probably, such wormhole could be stabilized at energies that are already available or will be available. But the stars and galactic scale — no need! Of course, if we live right on a brane.
DA: Earlier you claimed that you can create a time machine in the lab. How so?
In fact, I have argued is not quite so. It is only that the energy (literally insurmountable) limitations that makes it virtually impossible to create a time machine macroscopic size, may not work if we live on the brane. In other words — if the true core of the theory of strings (note that this science is still in its infancy!), Then create a wormhole (and hence the time machine) suitable for transportation, say a person, not an electron — is possible. Another question — how? Here it until dark, but it can be assumed that at the beginning will be set up small "krotovinki" accelerator, and then they can inflate to macroscopic size.
DA: Some organizations — military or some other — interested in your ideas?
The idea of a time machine has taken root in physics in 1985, but little interest in the "military", etc. not caused. Besides there were two reasons. First, I think that the military do not read papers (and this is very tricky theoretical physics — physics, requires good preparation of the reader). Second, there was (and still is, to be honest, no) prescription of how to create such a thing in the lab. And the energy to do this, the old calculations, required a truly stellar! Even Galactic.
At the present level of human development, the creation of wormholes, which would be interesting from the point of view of practical applications, I have not even dreamed of. But now, the situation may change. I think the point is this: If in the laboratory (for example on the Large Hadron Collider) will be able to create even a tiny wormhole, the military immediately interested and research these topics may be at the "closed".
DA: Imagine you suddenly create a time machine. It works. All walks start at times. Universal and historic chaos did not come out of it?
To be honest — I do not know. But I think — I doubt it. Judge for yourself — if something bad would happen, it would have already happened. Well, once everything is in order, it means that the chaos will not. Such is the logic is turned inside out, but the other is not present! By the way, there is an interesting point: let's create a time machine in 2025. So, from now on you can travel in time back and forth, but not lower than in 2025! In other words, since we do not have a time machine, then the guests from the future to us can not fly! Therefore, their absence among us can not be evidence of the impossibility of time travel.
DA: You know perfectly well that such topics as "The Time Machine", "teleportation", "levitation" and other causes, most scientists (and not only) grin, and the people to make such ideas are accused of charlatanism. You may have already come across this?
You see — this is the real physics, not deception or fraud. How to argue with the theory of relativity? Time machine, apparently, is possible if the correct theory of relativity. Well, who can argue with the theory of relativity, but the ignorant, which we have become, unfortunately, a lot! But I do not understand why you link all in one number: the time machine, teleportation, levitation …
I agree with those who reproach lovers in exotic pseudoscientific quackery. In fact, I was on their side! What other levitation? On the TV show God knows that "anomalous zones" … Some psychics "witches" from the screen look into the crystal ball and "communicate with the spirits" … The number of senility per capita in Russia surpasses all boundaries.
Here's an example: when Kip Thorne and K. published his first work on the time machine in the journal Phys.Rev.Let. in the West, there was a boom. All wrote about it — say, physicists argue that the time machine is possible. It's true sensation! And the real thing. And it was in 1985. The only countries in which the people were not aware, this is Africa, and Russia. We have at this time everyone was looking at Chumaka and Kashpirovsky … And now the same thing. Newspapers and TV are involved in the stupefaction of the people are very active. That there is one "Club of curiosity" in "Komsomolskaya Pravda"! This is all for whom they write? For idiots or for those who go there "right path"? So how then distinguish what a time machine — a serious subject or another otuplyalkoy? As a person without special training to understand? I will say this: look, which publishes the people working in this direction. If in serious scientific journals (which are all known and quite a bit), it's worth considering.
DA: How to respond to your ideas scientists and our foreign?
Normally. We work in groups. The results of which I spoke above were obtained in collaboration with Pedro González-Diaz, and Martin Prado Moruno (Madrid). Published in a very prestigious international journal Nucl.Phys.B, passed extremely harsh selection of reviewers. A bad job there does not seem to print.
DA: In the 21st century, a time machine, you may receive?
Who knows. I, thank God, a physicist, not Pavel Globa. Wait and see!
Posted on October 19, 2009 © «Moskovsky Komsomolets"