I have always had a negative attitude to Stalin, especially after reading Solzhenitsyn's books. Often driving around with lectures in the Union, I indignantly slushival questions about when will rehabilitate Stalin. At the same time, asked this question not only the pensioners, the last war, and a lot of people my age, that is, born after the Russian majestically. At that time I was not aware of them, "How is it that — I thought, — so many people were killed, so many mistakes, let us make …"
My attitude to Stalin began to change only in Canada, after reading books about the Stalin period, written in the 70s-90s. Earlier, I could not imagine to what extent it is possible to falsify history. In most of the "scientific" books Stalin portrayed almost mutt, but Western politicians — majestic strategists and strategies.
After reading all this nonsense meeting with Ludo Martens' book "Another look at Stalin" launched my attitude to the "Pope of nations" to 180 degrees. Yes, the creator — the chairman of the Workers' Party of Belgium, ie left-wing people. But it must be understood that even the favorites of many left-wing parties in the West, even those that are referred to as communist, avoid affect topic of Stalin, so as not to scare own "constituency" brainwashed bourgeois propagandists. Martens did not fear, because he is interested in the truth about Stalin. I was just double-check and the number of citations, referring to the sources which he used. And I have never found a fraud. Moreover, such estimates and facts I managed to find in the works of other authors, is not mentioned in the book Martens. In the end, everyone on their shoulders all the same, I dare lay, its head, viscera in being able to distinguish the truth from the mindless propaganda. For example, two doctors, M. Geller and A. Nekrich, once wrote a book "Utopia in power. History of Russian Union from 1917 to real time." It is such a place: in 1939, "it is estimated that 8 million Russian people, or 9% of the total adult population, were in concentration camps." In a footnote, "clarification": "Estimates of the Russian prisoners in the camps in 1939 range from 8 million to 17 million we took the low figure may be very low, but, despite this, it is still soft-spoken." With the wealth of different sources, this figure source not found. From where it was taken, on whose estimates — is said. Naturally, this can not believe the creators. They just made their anti-communism. Because of this, they have lived. Martens as his book is unlikely to bring even one cent, as in the West, it is prohibited to sell, and to "take out" it could then (in 1995) only from the Internet.
I carefully braked on sources not like going to write much about Stalin. And in order to inexperienced reader did not give in to the magic of outstanding figures, namely, the Stalinist period, as many of them — the ideological lies.
Russian reader is familiar with the era of collectivization in the textbooks and books, all the same, a 2-words I wish to recall where it Stalin "got it into his head" start collectivization.
It was dictated by the need for both external and internal causes, while in the middle of the last bolshennuyu role to play not only the social side (sharpening of the class struggle in the countryside), and the purely financial side. Although the NEP period, in 1922-1926 gg., Agricultural products have gained the pre-revolutionary level, but the overall situation was very depressing. As a result of the free market appeared spontaneously 7% of farmers (2.7 million people) were again without land. In 1927, 27 million farmers have been horseless. Overall, 35% were classified as poorer farmers. The best part, medium-sized farmers (about 51-53%) had antediluvian tools. Number of rich kulaks — is from 5 to 7%. Fists controlled about 20% of the grain market. According to other reports, the kulaks and the top layer of the middle peasants (about 10-11% of the peasant population) in 1927-1928. accounted for 56% of sales of agricultural products. As a result, "in 1928 and 1929. Again had to ration bread, then sugar, tea and meat. Between 1 October 1927 and 1929, prices for agricultural. Products increased by 25.9%, grain prices rose on the open market by 289%. " The economic life of the country, so Makarov, began to define the fist.
About fists modern "democratic" press in Russia writes as the best of the Russian peasantry. Another picture of them made a Doctor of E. Dillon, who has lived a few years, the 10-s in. He writes: "Of all the monsters of humanity, whom I had ever met while traveling (in Russia), I can not recall a more vicious and vile than fist. "
Naturally, after the beginning of collectivization began dispossession, anti-priced seal as Stalin's "genocide" against the kulaks and "not poor farmers." Robert Conquest in his works calls a toll: 6.5 million kulaks were killed during collectivization, 3.5 million died in Siberian labor camps.
Many historians, including German scientist Stephen Merle, in his works revealed falsification of Conquest, "a source" who had emigre circles, on which cited the Anglo-American ideology. After declassification Gulag archives was posted real statistics "Victims of Stalinism," including with regard to the kulaks. Martens, referring to Nicholas Bert V. Zemskova, Arch Getty, Gabor Rittersporna, etc., results in the following numbers. It turned out that the more violent dispossession of the period, in 1930-1931., Peasants were expropriated assets 381,026 kulaks who, along with their families (and that's 1,803,392 people) were sent to the East (ie, in Siberia) . To the places of their settlement to January 1, 1932 TO GET 1,317,022 people, 486,000 more people on the path of escape. This is instead of 6.5 million Conquest.
As for the "3.5 million deaths in the camps," the total number of dispossessed never exceed the number in the 1,317,022 people. Thus, in 1932 and 1935. the number who left the camp surpassed the number of arrivals to 299,389 people. From 1932 until the end of 1940 the number of deaths clearly due to natural causes was equal to 389,521 people. These included not only the dispossessed, and the "other category", who arrived there after 1935
In general, only a fraction of the 63 million kulaks "first category" was shot "for counter-revolutionary activities." The number of victims of the deportations, mostly from hunger and disease, was about 100 thousand people. During the years 1932-40. about 200 thousand fists in the camps died of natural causes.
Even more brazen lies — the number of "famine" in Ukraine in 1932-34. The spread of such: Dale Dalrymple refers to a figure of 5.5 million people, Nikolay Prikhodko (who collaborated with the Nazis during World War II) — 7 million, WH Gamberlen and E. Lyons — 6 to 8 million, Richard Stalet — 10 million, Hosley Grant — 15 million people. In the 2-last cases it should be understood that the population of Ukraine in 1932 was equal to 25 million people.
Analysis of the sources of these figures showed that some of it came from the Hearst press, the well-known pro-Nazi sympathies, some were fabricated during the McCarthy era (1949-1953 gg.), Some came from the fa
scist "sources" of Ukrainian immigrants who collaborated with the Nazis.
For example, many special on "Ukrainian famine" is often referred to the data given in the articles by Thomas Walker, published in the Hearst newspapers in February 1935 This reporter "gave" figure — seven million dead and a lot of photos of the dying children. Canadian journalist — Douglas Tottl in "Fake, famine and fascism: the Ukrainian genocide myth from Hitler to Harvard" exposed mass falsifications about all the name-giving figures, including Walker and driven. It turned out that this is not no journalist, and an offender who escaped from the Colorado bullpen after serving two years instead heaped 8 years. Decided to earn some money on fakes of the USSR (the demand was large), some method in the UK received a transit visa to move from Poland to Manchuria, and so spent a Russian Makarov Union 5 days. On his return to his homeland all the same after a while, was arrested and confessed to the court that the Ukraine "his foot had never set foot." And his real name — Robert Green. The photo depicted a dying hungry kids in 1921 and these "sources" of the Hearst newspapers in their time have produced a lot.
The situation in Ukraine has been really difficult. In 1932-33. Hunger took from 1 to 2 million deaths in the country. With all this honest scientists call the then four prerequisites disaster. First associated with the opposition kulaks who on the eve of collectivization destroyed the cattle and horses (so as not got "commies"). According to Frederick Schuman, during the years 1928-1933. the number of horses in the USSR fell from 30 million to less than 15 million cattle — from 70 million head (including the 31 million cattle) to 38 million (including 20 million cattle), sheep and goats — with 147 million . to 50 million pigs — from 20 million to 12 million second reason — the drought in some regions of Ukraine in 1930-32. 3rd — typhus epidemic that raged in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus at the time. (On fever shows even Halsey Grant — creator of the number of 15 million people). In addition, the reform of agriculture in the collectivist harmony were illiterate and at the same time angry fists on farmers who, naturally, could not breaking anything.
Of course, these numbers are in the 1-2 million people — not 5-15 million, though still considerable. But do not forget, this was a period of fierce class struggle: the most severe on both sides: from the poorest farmers, and by the kulaks. "Who's Who" is not only in the sense of the exploiters or exploited, and in the sense of the past or the future. Since the victory of Stalin's collectivization took the band to the 120 million farmers from the Middle Ages, illiteracy and darkness.
"Great Purge" YY 1937-1939.
Anti-communists can exercise their brains on the causes of hunger in the capitalist Russian Federation in 1891, which enveloped the 40 million people out of them, according to official figures, killed more than 2-million; hunger 1900-1903. (Also covered about 40 million people have died 3 million adults); famine in 1911, when she died, though smaller — 2 million. I understand: they, anti-communists, those "famine" is not exciting. Do not pay for them.
Pay for more. For example, for the macabre fable about "baseless" the repression of the Stalinist regime against the Trotskyites, Bukharin, the Stalinist terror during the "Lofty clean", that is, with respect to the top of the military, including Tukhachevsky. But the memoirs of participants of different komplotov very soft-spoken belie the legend, made during the Khrushchev. Among them, for example, stand testimony escaped in 1948 in the UK, GA Tokayev Russian army colonel, Party Secretary of the Air Force Academy. Zhukovsky in the years 1937-48., Very candidly described the goals, methods and techniques of the overthrow of the military top "of the Stalinist regime."
One of the legends of massive propaganda in the West, as well as in today's Russian Federation, is the myth of terror in 1937-1939, .. Already mentioned Conquest in his works gives the figure of those arrested between 7 and 9 million people. It is taken from the memoirs of former prisoners who claimed to have 4 to 5.5% of the Russian population was in jail or deported. However, other anti-communist professor — Zbigniew Brzezinski in one of his own works slandered that precise estimates can not be, and the error can vary in the range of several hundred thousand or even a million.
More information Conquest looks followed by: the beginning of 1934 in the gulags pounded 5 million man, during 1937-38. — More than 7 million, ie recruited 12 million people, 1 million of them were shot, and 2 million died for various reasons during the 2-years. As a result, by 1939 the Gulag were 9 million people, "not counting those who was sitting there on criminal charges." Next Conquest calculation leads to such figures: during the years 1939-53. average death rate in the gulags was 10%. A number of prisoners were unchanged at an average of about 8 million people. As can be seen, for this period of time was destroyed about 12 million people. Brothers Medvedev increasing these numbers: in gulags were between 12 to 13 million people.
After the publication of Gulag materials appeared: in 1934, the Gulag system was from 127 to 170 thousand people. A clearer figure — 507 307 people, and if we mean non-political prisoners. "Political" is 25-35%, ie About 150 thousand people. Conquest to them, "added" another 4,850 thousand.
In 1934, there were in fact 127 million people and a maximum of 500 thousand in 1941 and 1942. During the "Lofty treatment" of prisoners grown from 1936 to 1939 to 477,789 people. According to Conquest, a year in the Gulag came a gust of about 855 thousand people (if we understand him a figure of 12 million), essentially in peacetime wafted 49 thousand people.
Such fabrications and forgeries on the "Bolsheviks of old times," and the other victims "of the Stalinist terror."
As can be seen from these figures, the victims of Stalinism was in the 10's times smaller than they are represented in the anti-communist propaganda. But they were. Was it possible to do without them? Of course, you can … at the theoretical level. If:
a) not resisted collectivization fists;
b) Bukharinites would not protect them;
c) Trotsky organized komploty and would not be tied to Hitler's Germany (as reported yet Churchill);
g) Tukhachevskiy not prepared to anti-Stalinist komplot;
e) ohamevshie Russian officials have thought more about the case, and not of his own pocket, etc.
And all together would not act against socialism, for which Stalin fought with his associates. Were it not for Stalin, smarter and more cunning than all of them, the big question is what would have happened to the Soviet Union, and of the whole world. But the then Russian people, and at first the Communists, in contrast to today's Democrats are unlikely to become Germans lick boots, as did the Europeans. So in all of these "clean-up" was a big reason not only from the standpoint of the interests of the Russian state, and from the standpoint of the whole of Europe, and perhaps the entire world.
South American scientists have much much written about Stalin's totalitarianism. Can they suggest a topic for future works, how many Jews would remain on the ground, without this "totalitarianism." Speculate guys at your leisure.
Stalin, of course, was a dictator. But not only because of his own character, as was pointed out already Lenin. Teran his time and made the scene.
It is necessary to provide for themselves what time, for example, the end of the 20s. In Italy — Fascism in Germany, the Nazis striving for power with the anti-communist and anti-Soviet applets. Democratic powers — Britain and France — and incite support this fascism against the Soviet Union. In the East, Japan is preparing for war, or with China or the Soviet Union. Inside the country's NEP. Although in economic terms, there is a certain improvement, the newly revived aggressive classes, leading to a "sharpening of the class struggle," especially in the countryside. Economics of land. Outside the threat is real. An old Bolsheviks still dream of a world revolution. The enemies of all stripes are beginning to take effect. How can there be democracy in these criteria? In such circumstances, could only be a tough dictatorship, which was formed in the 30s.
Stalin was a sensitive strategist and tactician in the realization of the goal of "building socialism in one country." Even before the revolution, he was the only one of Lenin's guard, who did not rule out the ability of that "Our homeland is the only state, along the path of socialism," while the majority of the party relied on social services. Revolution in Europe. Under Stalin laid the foundation of socialism in the USSR. The very process of laying took place in extraordinary circumstances requiring tough measures against all enemies of socialism, both internal and external. But firmness against the enemies of the new society, eventually turns into a boon for the general population, and to strengthen the Russian state. During the time of Stalin's control, incomplete 30 years, land, poor, dependent on foreign capital in the country reincarnated powerful military-industrial power worldwide, in the center of the modern socialist civilization. Impoverished and illiterate population of royal Russian Federation was one of the literacy and education of nations in the world. Despite the relative loss of mental capacity due to the emigration of protsarskoy and bourgeois intellectuals in the years of revolution and war, plain, appeared brand new Russian creative and scientific intelligentsia, not inferior to the earlier generation. In other words, even the initial step of socialism, with its mistakes and tragedies in the process of folding the new society has shown enormous inner potential of socialism as a system that just freed socialist Russian human genes from the old shackles and chains of European modernization, including in the form of capitalism. There was the usual thing: a liberated the inner essence of the Russian people finally found its footing, ie the outer shape of a socialist superstructure and the base, embedded Lenin and Stalin strengthened.
Stalin, of course, allowed many tactical errors, but strategically was a head taller than the politicians of the world. He beat them all, and not only won the war, and defended socialism, then spread to one third of the world. Under Stalin Russian Alliance became a superpower. What's the price? — Awful. But I would like to know how would have done today criticism of Stalin at that time? A In general, for sure, I know. Russia would sell even to Hitler, even though Churchill, Roosevelt, though. Since it is just something that most people and hated.