Against the background of the entry into service patrol ship "Yaroslav the Wise", began sea trials SSBN "Yury Dolgoruky", a successful end of the municipal trial PLA "Nerpa" Project 971I passed virtually unnoticed a fundamental event for the Russian Navy. In the Black Sea Fleet on January 17 was enrolled the first and still the only modern antimine ship (PLA) — Marine minesweeper (MTSCH) "Vice-Admiral Zakhar'in" project 02668. The construction of several promising PMC Project 12700 "Alexander".
"Dream" lasts …
But this only underscores the general poor state of mine-sweeping forces of the Russian Navy. His ability to mine so low that they cast swing fundamentally able to provide the criteria of modern mine deployment of the Russian Navy from its own database.
Now our fleet, so far formally — in combat potential — the second in the world, Mine force substantially inferior even to such a "powerful naval powers," as Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Pakistan.
Included in the Russian Navy MTSCH 266M project, basic trawlers (coastal minesweeper) project in 1265, raid trawlers (pmin) Project 10750 obsolete even at the time of construction, are capable of beating just fine with anchor-personnel mines, and even then in a normal environment. Such a situation has emerged because of blunders in the military-technical management policy of the Soviet Navy in the 70's and 80's. Then the West unfolded the total construction of the last generation of PMC, which is the command of the Russian Navy practically "woke". How annoying would it sounds, "dream" that lasts to this day. For example, on our Pacific Fleet, there is no general or 1st (!) Minesweeper with only relatively effective, although outdated Russian MI fade away, "Musk deer" (development of the late 80's).
The highest resistance protivotralnaya modern pieces bottom mines (or, for example, the anchor min) virtually eliminates effectively combat them by the "classical trawling." Mines are "smart" multi-channel detection (including hydrodynamic — imitable actually) and sophisticated signal processing purposes.
Taken together, it is worth noting that currently in the process of fighting in a number of cases of all kinds can be used and mines with low pre protivotralnoy resistance. But it depends on the willingness of first refusal or the parties to the conflict to take into account constraints of international law, in accordance with which "… the warring parties must do everything possible to remove the set min, and any party to remove their own mines." For example, when blocking ports of Vietnam mine productions U.S. Navy aircraft used specifically mines such as the Americans were well aware that they themselves and have to clean up after them (which was made as soon as possible).
Note also that the modern multi-channel fuses widely available on the world market, and the development of the mine forces to create with that in mind.
What is a modern PMC?
The ideology of the modern PLA has developed and implemented more in England first 60: trawler equipped with effective to fade MI, providing detection of mine (or minopodobnogo object). To organize and defeat the object from the board of PMC produced a desert Mine Action unit (PPA), which produces and dopoisk survey found object (or own a television camera fades away). Mine mines destroyed unit. To ensure the highest efficiency of mine action PMK were equipped with an automatic system for mine action (ACS PMD), a subsystem of a clear position and location. With all of this search min PMK is ahead on the course (in other words, he has no need to "walk the Mines"). In order to increase mine productivity, this standard pattern is often supplemented by towed underwater vehicles or unmanned boats, specially designed for side-scan sonar (SSS) with high resolution. This type of PMK was named trawler-seeker min (TSCHIM).
The vast majority of PMK zabugornyh fleets with 70-80s is TSCHIM — as the newest buildings, and upgraded from legacy minesweepers. With all this the presence or absence of trawls (contact and non-contact) becomes secondary. But given the need to combat broadband mines (they have a huge target detection range and warhead as torpedoes or missiles for its destruction), set in the bottom position in deep water (which is particularly pressing issues for us in the north), and the newest puzzles — deployable combat systems underwater situation (including anchor buoys) need a special PMC deepwater trawl pin that provides the trawl-side at the shortest distance from the ground.
The new direction of development of the mine forces was the use of modular systems for mine, with equipment that surface warships main classes, boats and submarines gain the ability to conduct effective self of mine action, without the need to provide specialized PMC. More fascinating antimine NPA RMS AN/WLD-1 U.S. Navy, representing a semisubmerged remote controlled (and built in the ship's system SQQ-89v (15) with a towed unit HBO (serial model of helicopter mine system AN/AQS-20), capable of long lead independent search for meaningful minutes away from the media. Issue and the rise AN/WLD-1 carries out regular ship Lifting lowering device. has been announced in the delivery, all by 2011 plans to acquire 47 AN/WLD-1.
The development of advanced search and destruction of mines now led to a significant increase engine performance and effectiveness of mine forces. According to Hector Donahue (Royal Australian Navy), a member of the Gulf clearance in 1991, out of 1238 min, neutralized mine action by coalition forces destroyed: STIUM — 93%, divers — 3%, "other means" — 1% (maybe "among them" landmine cruiser "Princeton" and the helicopter "Tripoli").
In the course of the operation "Shock and Awe" in 2003 disguised court-mine layer were captured special operations forces (SOF) allies destroyed NLA and Iraqi divers about 100 minutes (about half a thousand minopodobnyh found objects).
Directs attention to themselves — mine act now moved away from the "highly specialized" and become all-encompassing, involving diverse forces and means: the lighting system in the theater environment, exploration, CCO.
With the first project TSCHIM 02668 (CMDB developer "Agate") fleet now received a ship, filled with modern Mine complex, including MI fade away "Livadia" (from the ship's side and mine fade away PPA) — a developer ZAO "Aquamarine" NPA Mine, mine action information system (developed by the NGO "Mars"), promising contact with trawls and trawl-imitators . But despite the successful passage MTSCH "Vice-Admiral Zakhar'in" municipal trials, now in the Navy, he is one! For comparison: in the Polish Navy — 3 upgraded TSCHIM project 206FM, Estonia — 5 TSCHIM, Latvia — 5 TSCHIM. Comments are unnecessary.
Fleet begins with a trawler, and in the criteria even when little is not provided out of the Navy bases, the construction of surface ships and submarines of the major classes of naturally raises questions. Now mine effective actions provided even civilians systems, including commercially produced in our country. For example, they are conducted to survey the route "Nord Stream", "Gazprom". Taking into account the importance of the fleet for the Russian Federation, including taking into account the role of naval strategic nuclear forces, today's archaic and
antediluvian mine Navy forces practically question its fighting capacity.
In this connection, the following measures are necessary:
— Continuous construction project promising PMK 12700 should be a higher priority projects of the Navy;
— upgrades are in the ranks of outdated PMK, equipping them with modern tools of mine;
— equipping the ships main classes as soon as possible modular container of mine systems — mounted on the ship's regular boat of 371, 1390 and new types (rigid-inflatable boats Series BL-820 and BL-680) search and destruction of mines to solve their tasks offshore trawlers ( provide output of the Navy bases);
— the development and adoption of PPA for submarines and ships of the main classes capable of including the provision of anti-mine in ice criteria.