External differences between Su-35 and Su-27 small: keels first such shorter the Su-27 (although more rudders), and «sting» between the smallest engines nacelles. On the new plane is missing a large air brake, available from the Su-27, to reduce the speed he uses different angles differences rudders. A nose landing gear has two wheels instead of the 1st predecessor.
But inside the aircraft are all very changed. He resettled with 2 engines with variable thrust vectoring AL-41F1S («117C product»), with each thrust with afterburner to 142.2 kN, which is 16% higher than the characteristics of the Su-27. New fighter resettled auxiliary power unit TA14-130-35 for auxiliary power systems on board. Its design new materials applied. Supplies fuel to 11.5 tons at 22% higher than the volume of the Su-27. Inside the cockpit has an electrical flight control system, consisting of a 2-mm 380h290 functional monitors IFI-35, and three malehankih screen and display system on the windshield with a huge viewing angle IKSH-1M. The Su-35 is mounted wire control system with quadruple redundancy. Oxygen is produced onboard generator that avoids charging oxygen tanks after each flight. Sukhoi has also introduced a form of service for many systems «as» unlike their substitution by resource indicators, and this increases the maintainability of a fighter.
Advanced radar and EW system
Severe configuration also touched avionics systems of Su-35. The main target location system — SH135, which consists of N135 radar «Irbis» and EW system «Khibiny». N135 radar was developed by NIIP. Tikhomirov, and mass production is carried out by the Municipal Ryazan Instrument Plant. RLS is a development system N011M «Bars», which is installed on board the Su-30MKI developed for the Indian Air Force order, and just like its predecessor, the radar antenna is armed with a passive phased array. On «Irbis» have a number of modules «Leopard», including the timing receivers low and ultra-high frequency, and power amplifier. Unique Indian BTsVM standing on the «Bars», was replaced by the Russian system. Solo 35.01 responsible for signal reception, and Solo-35.02 is responsible for information processing and management radar, instead of microprocessors Indian RC1 and RC2, standing in the «Bars».
Compared to the «Bars», «Irbis» uses a wider range of operating frequencies (so increasing resistance to interference), has a larger horizontal viewing angle + / -125 °, increased detection range and more than the highest resolution. The radar can accompany up to 30 air targets, eight of which might actually be alternately accompanied with an accuracy sufficient for their simultaneous destruction of missiles «air-to-middle range» with an active seeker. Two objectives can be immediately fired missiles with semi-active homing, and it requests from the radar to illuminate the target. In the «air-land» radar can detect four targets on the ground. Average output power of 5 kW and the peak can reach 20 kV. This gives the possibility to use radar mode «early warning» (limited to 100 ° sector x100 °), which can detect target class «fighter» at a distance of 350-400 km in the frontal hemisphere, or up to 150 km in the review of the rear hemisphere. In the course of ordinary search modes (covers sector 300 ° x300 °) radar can detect fighters at a range of 200 km in the absence of clouds or 170 km when the review of the underlying surface. Radar «Irbis» can also systematize goal («large», «medium» or «low»), and sort them by type, for example, «helicopter», «cruise missile» or «fighter», comparing them with the memorized library purposes.
The airborne radar with phased array Irbis-E
Complex EW «Khibiny-M» is the Kaluga Radio Engineering Research Institute. The complex consists of the intelligence unit, which captures radiation from radar or air-based air defense, electronic warfare unit also. Part of the system operates at a high frequencies of favorite (wave H and J) and is embedded in the airframe. If necessary, the Su-35 containers can be suspended, which extends the capability of the system due to the addition of the ability to operate at medium wavelengths (E through G). The Su-35 also has units shooting traps HC-50 for 14 rounds., Which are on the «thorn» in the rear fuselage.
Passive detection system
IRST station OLS-35 Su-35 was designed Scientific Production Company «Precision Instrument Systems» (NPK SEC). This is an unusual choice for the Sukhoi, which is focused on the production of the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant, installed in other types of machines KB, including developed fighter T-50. RL-35 has infrared and electro-optical camera, which use a common optical unit, a laser rangefinder and also highlighter purpose. System is mounted in the nose of the Su-35, its area autotracking + / -90 ° in azimuth, — 15 ° / +60 ° in elevation. Aerial target the size of the Su-30 can be found at a distance of 90 km in the rear hemisphere or 35 km — in front. OLS-35 can accompany four air targets at once, with all this without sending any signals that may alert them to the irradiation. Su-35 pilot also resettled helmet targeting system, although its type has not yet been made public.
NPK SEC also produces for the Su-35 shot container «air-land», that are equipped with electro-optical, infrared and laser TVs and laser designator that allows the pilot to direct fighter air attack on a target illuminated by a third party. The container may accompany up to 4 ground targets at once.
Su-35 resettled more perfect board defense, also produces NPK SEC. Infrared warning of missile consists of six sensors located in the front part of the fuselage to provide all-aspect coverage. The system can capture the rocket launch MANPADS at a range of 10 km, missiles «air-air» — 30 km and a large rocket «surface-to-air» — 50 km. Two sensors detect laser irradiation on boards placed in the forward fuselage. They can be found at a range of laser rangefinders 30 km.
The detection system of radar detection, the Su-35 system consists of L150-35 «Pastel» development of Omsk TsKBA, which stands on modern Russian combat aircraft. L150 also gives target coordinates for anti-radar missiles.
Inflated ability to defeat the purposes of
The Su-35 will be able to use all types of tactical missiles facing armed Russian Air Force, or that will be taken into service. The first time a guided missile was launched from aboard the Su-35 July 27, 2012 Although it was not made public starting any details, apparently, it was a missile «air-air» medium-range R-73. New types of missiles currently being implemented in the creation in Russia include medium-range missile R-77-1 and short-range P-74M. The following options are known as K-77m and K-74m2, are under development. It is believed that the Su-35 also will be able to use long-range missiles K-37M, which is current undergoing tests. Equipping fighter missile K-100 Novator Design Bureau, with which the aircraft exhibited in public, not planned, and the development of missiles has since been discontinued.
Of missiles «air-surface» Su-35 can use anti-radar missiles Kh-31PM and X-58USH, anti-ship missiles Kh-31AM, X-35U and X-59MK, universal missile Kh-38M with different GOS also guided bombs caliber 250 -, 500 — and 1500 kg. Marketing materials in 2005 contained information that the Su-35 can be equipped with anti-ship missiles languid Caliber-A and Yakhont.
Russian «additional» fighter
The program Su-35BM was launched 10 years ago to produce aircraft for export. It was financed only by Sukhoi and its partners, the new aircraft model was shown at the Dubai Airshow in November 2003 was expected that the Su-35 will be ready in 2007, and he was seen as a «transitional» type of fighter, allowing you to save the download of before production starts 5th generation fighter PAK FA/T-50. But his perspective and constructive role inside the company changed in comparison with the original plans.
Russian Air Force requirement to equip 30 squadrons in service each of which shall be 12 T-50 fighter, currently being regarded as unattainable, first because of the price fighter fifth generation. If you wish to have 30 Air Force squadrons, they need more than usual and a cheap plane as a complement to the T-50. Second plane must also meet the requirements of Russian Air Force, including a range of 3,000 km, which excludes the possibility of purchasing a light fighter. Evolution of Russian plans affected the fate of the Su-35, who was elected as a complement to the T-50, and this paved the way for large domestic orders.
When President Misha UAC Pogosyan recently asked about the future of the Su-35, it is confirmed that it will modernize and performed for many years with the PAK FA as its more a cheap candidacy. Pogosyan refused to clarify the difference in cost between with 2 aircraft, but according to him, the fighter fifth generation will «cost no more than $ 100 million», while the Su-35 to be «cheaper, in order to maintain competitiveness in the the market. «
The concept of mixed fleet of luxury / deshevenky aircraft led to the fact that in August 2009, the Russian Air Force ordered 48 Su-35, to be delivered by 2015, the price of 1.4 billion rubles. ($ 45 million) each. During the contract followed a complaint from the aviation industry that the cost of the aircraft was below its cost. In accordance with State applets arms, a little later will be ordered another batch of 48 Su-35, to be delivered in 2016-2020.
Test pilot Sergei Bogdan made the first flight of the Su-35 (b / n «901») February 19, 2008 with the airfield KnAAPO. Second plane («902») started tests of October 2, 2008, for which was due to follow the third («904», the plane with the number «903» was used for static tests), but April 26, 2009 he burned on the runway. This event was a severe blow to the program there, because b / n «904» was the first fully kitted instance, and its loss is slowed down tests for many months.
May 3, 2011 KnAAPO flew Su-35S-1. This third flight of the Su-35 was the first aircraft in the configuration ordered by Russian Air Force. Su-35S-1 w / o «01» was aimed at testing center in Akhtubinsk May 28, 2011 with the aim of passing the municipal testing. Second board (Su-35S-2 «02») flew on December 2, 2011, followed by January 17, 2012 followed by the Su-35S-3 (b / n «03») and Su-35S-4 («04») February 19, 2012 the first four copies of the Su-35 are used for testing, collars «01» and «04» at the present time are in Zhukovsky, a second pair — Akhtubinsk. Everyone carries camouflage, including three color schemes and grayish blue. 100th flight on programmke Su-35 was made March 23, 2009, the 300 th — September 19, 2010 and the 500th April 4, 2012 By the beginning of 2013 aircraft made 1,000 flights.
6 more Su-35 were formally transferred to the Air Force in December 2102 and a trip to Akhtubinsk in late January («06», «07» and «08») and the middle of February («09», «10» and «11») 2013 They were painted in gray camouflage with gray lower surfaces. Some of them must be sent to the Center for operational implementation and aircrew training in Lipetsk.
By the end of April, it was released 12 Su-35, including two models and 10 production Su-35S. In 2013 and 2014. KnAAPO should release 12 aircraft per year, plus 14 in 2015 to perform an initial contract for 48 aircraft.
Despite the success of the Su-35 in the domestic market, it has not yet entered service outside Russia. He was offered the PRC since 2006, and China was considered by the manufacturer as launch customer, but he showed no enthusiasm for the new procurement options huge batches of Su-27 (including the start of production of its own, unlicensed versions of the Su-27). Instead of the Chinese want to buy small batch of aircraft — four to six cars, or even some of them are installed on the system, such as a radar «Irbis» or engines AL-41FS. Russian side stated that it is ready to implement in China more than 48 aircraft.
China’s enthusiasm for the aircraft was considered lost until 25 March 2013, when it became clear that it has signed a contract to supply 24 aircraft to China. It amazed the Russian side, which stated that only signed «framework agreement» for the supply of fighters. First announcement of the contract appeared in the Chinese media, while information on past deliveries of Su in China usually came from Russian sources. Maybe that using such leakage China tries to put pressure on Russia, insisting on selling 24 rather than 48 aircraft.
Negotiations with Libya to supply 12 Su-35 have gained an advanced stage in 2009, when the fighter was presented Libyan delegation. But regime change in the country lowered the chances of concluding the contract. The Su-35 was also excluded from the Brazilian tender for new functional fighter.
In 2013, Sukhoi and UAC intensified efforts to sell the Su-35 for export. According to their representatives, negotiations with the representatives of 10 states, and the emergence of the aircraft to the Farnborough Air Show can be considered as the beginning of modern international advertising company.
Original publication: Air International, June 2013 — Piotr Butowski