Chronicles of the second world war: the pre-war period

Years ahead of the declaration of war between the Axis countries and the anti-Hitler coalition in 1939 were languishing for many countries of the world. 10 years earlier began Lofty depression, as a result of which no work left much of the population in Europe and America. Nationalism swept over Germany, which was outraged by the rigidity of punitive measures of the Versailles peace treaty that ended the First World War. China and the Empire of Japan was at war with the time that in 1931, Japanese troops invaded Manchuria. Germany, Italy and Japan took advantage of the entry in the not so long ago formed the League of Nations, carrying out numerous incursions into the adjoining country without many negative consequences themselves. In 1936 in Spain broke out plainclothes war, which has become a kind of dress rehearsal for a future second world war. Germany and Italy supported the nationalist movement led by General Francisco Franco, and about 40 thousand foreigners came to Spain to fight against fascism. For a couple of years before the second world war, Nazi Germany began to create the preconditions of the conflict. Country rearmed, signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union, annexed Austria and invaded Czechoslovakia. At this time the United States took a few laws of neutrality, trying to avoid interference in international conflicts: the country was recovering from the stateliness of many years of depression and the effects of dust storms. This photo essay highlights the steps leading up to the second world war. (45 photos) (See all articles in this series, "The Chronicles of the second world")

In the picture: Adolf Hitler at the age of 35 years after his release from Landsberg bullpen, Dec. 20, 1924. Hitler was found guilty of treason for the company "Beer Hall Putsch" in 1923. This image was made soon after he graduated from dictating the book "Mein Kampf" own deputy Rudolf Hess. At 8 years old, in 1933, Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. (Library of Congress)

The Japanese fighter is armed on the captured area is stately Chinese wall during Sino-Japanese War in 1937. The confrontation between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China lasted from 1931, but in 1937, the conflict escalated. (LOC)

Japanese aircraft bombed the facilities in China in 1937. (LOC)

Japanese soldiers engaged in a street battle in Shanghai, China, 1937 year. At the Battle of Shanghai, which lasted from August to November 1937, were involved in about one million soldiers. In the end, Shanghai fell, and human losses on both sides amounted to 150 thousand dead. (LOC)

One of the first images of the Japanese occupation Beypina (Beijing), China, Aug. 13, 1937. Japanese troops under the flag of the rising sun pass through the gate Jong-man, leading to the palaces of the Forbidden City. Almost a 2-steps is building a South American embassy, where during the brutal fighting hiding U.S. citizens. (AP Photo)

Japanese soldiers with bayonets pierce the prisoners Chinese fighter. Their supporters watch the execution from the edge of the ditch. (LOC)

The head of the government of Nanjing, the Chinese General Chiang Kai-shek (right) sits next to General Lung Yun, chairman of the government of Yunnan Province, to Nanjing, June 27, 1936. (AP Photo)

Chinese woman inspects the body's own relatives who died during the Japanese occupation of Nanjing, February 5, 1938. All of her family members, most likely, have been brutally killed by Japanese soldiers. (AP Photo)

Buddhist monks from the temple of Asakusa preparing for Sino-Japanese war and the future of air attacks in Tokyo, Japan, May 30, 1936. (AP Photo)

Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (center) stands with members of the Nazi party after the march in Rome, Italy, 28 October 1922. Thousands of fascist blackshirts occupied strategic positions of principle on most of the areas of Italy. After the march lord Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a new government, which opened the way to dictatorship. (AP Photo)

Italian soldiers of targeting them during the second Italo-Ethiopian war in Ethiopia in 1935. Italian troops under the command of Mussolini annexed Ethiopia and connected it with Eritrea, founding the colony of Italian East Africa. (LOC)

Italian soldiers raised the national flag over McAllen, Ethiopia, in 1935. The ruler Haile Selassie sent a League of Nations call for help, which remained unanswered, and Italy had freedom of action with regard to East Africa. (LOC)

The soldiers, loyalists uchyat ladies shooting, so that they could defend Barcelona from the fascist army of General Francisco Franco in time Civilian war in Spain, June 2, 1937. (AP Photo)

As a result of explosion under the five-story building "Casa Blanca" in Madrid, Spain, killing 300 fascists, March 19, 1938. Supporters of the government for more than 6 months tunneling length of about 550 m to lay explosives beneath the building. (AP Photo)

Rebel throwing a hand grenade over the fence of Stitching wire Loyalist soldiers, who are aiming machine guns, in Burgos, Spain, September 12, 1936. (AP Photo)

German Stuka dive bombers «Stuka» in the Legion "Condor" fly over Spain during the war, civilian clothes, May 30, 1938. Black-and-white symbol in the form of shaped as lette
rs "X" on the tail and wings of the plane — it's Andrew's cross, the emblem of the Nazi air force Franco. (AP Photo)

10's family hiding in an underground metro station in Madrid during the bombing of the town of airplanes Franco, December 9, 1936. (AP Photo)

Bombing of Barcelona Nazi air force, under the command of Franco in 1938. During the war in Spain plainclothes bombing civilian objects for the first time have become so extensive application. (Italian Airforce)

Relatives of people trapped under the rubble after an air attack in Madrid, waiting for news, Jan. 8, 1937. On the faces of women affected nightmare that had to go through a civilian residents. (AP Photo)

Volunteers Popular Front scoff surrendered to the Spanish rebel captivity, accompanying him in the military field tribunal in Madrid, Spain. (AP Photo)

A squad of experienced Nazi machine gunners along the band takes the position of the front near the city of Huesca in northern Spain, December 30, 1936. (AP Photo)

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appeals to civilization on the radio of white houses in Washington, DC, September 3, 1939. Roosevelt vowed that he would make every effort to preserve neutrality. Congress passed several laws of neutrality, the official prescribing non-interference in the conflict. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Riette Kahn sits in an ambulance provided by the Spanish government to the American film industry in Los Angeles, California, September 18, 1937. Spanish first tour in the United States, which had to raise funds "to help patrons of Spanish democracy" during the Spanish Civil War civilian clothes, got the title of «The Hollywood Caravan to Spain». (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Two American Nazis in the form of standing in the doorway has recently opened the New York headquarters of his party, April 1, 1932. The title of "National Socialist German Workers' Party" or «NSDAP» (from it. «Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei») is usually reduced to the "Nazi Party". (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

The enormous accumulation of dust close to a small ranch in Boise City, Oklahoma. During the years of dust storms, "Dust Bowl" in the central part of North America was destroyed arable layer of soil. As a result of severe drought, improper ways of farming and destructive storms, millions of acres of farmland have become ineligible for nutrition of crops. This image was made April 15, 1935. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

In the photo, known under the title "Migrant Mother", captures Florence Thompson and her three children. The famous picture comes in a series of portraits of Florence Thompson and her kids, made by photographer Dorothea Lange in Nipomo, California, first in 1936. (LOC / Dorothea Lange)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Zeppelin "Hindenburg" flies over Manhattan past the Empire State Building, 8 August 1936. The German airship headed for Lakehurst, New Jersey, from Germany. May 6, 1937 "Hindenburg" exploded in the skies over Lakehurst. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

March 16, 1938 United Kingdom organized a massive demonstration of preparedness to gas attack. Two thousand volunteers in Birmingham donned gas masks and took part in the exercises. In time improvised gas attack on these firefighters were pushed over the full equipment of rubber boots to masks. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini greet each other during a meeting at the airport in Venice, Italy, June 14, 1934. Mussolini and his associates arranged for Hitler's idea, but the details of these conversations clearly small. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Four fascist fighter sing about the Berlin branch o
f the company «Woolworth Co.» A symbol of protest against the presence of Jews in Germany in March 1933. The Nazis believed that the founder of the company «Woolworth Co.» Was a Jew. (AP Photo)

Chronicles of the Second World War: the pre-war period

Nazi billboard display at the exhibition, which opened in Berlin on August 19, 1932. Shield advertised Nazi gramophone industry, which produced the recording, made only members of the National Socialist movement. (AP Photo)

Thousands of young people came to listen to their own leader, Reichsführer Adolf Hitler, who spoke at the convention of the National Socialist German Workers' Party in Nuremberg, Germany, September 11, 1935. (AP Photo)

People greet Adolf Hitler which rides in a motorcade through the streets of Munich, Germany, during the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the founding of the National Socialist Movement, November 9, 1933. (AP Photo)

The Germans pay tribute to the unknown soldier, lined up in the shape of a swastika, Germany, August 27, 1933. (AP Photo)

The German army shows its power more than a million inhabitants of the country during the national prazdnichka harvest in the town of Bückeburg near Hanover, Germany, October 4, 1935. In the photo: 10's tanks lined up in rows before the start of the demonstration. Soon after Hitler came to power in 1933, Germany began to rearm at a rapid pace, ignoring the provisions of the Versailles contract. (AP Photo)

Thousands of Germans came to the meeting of National sotsilistov in Berlin, Germany, July 9, 1932. (AP Photo)

Group of German women lined up in a row before the lesson musical culture with the help of the youth movement "Hitler Youth" in Berlin, Germany, February 24, 1936. (AP Photo)

The Congress of the Nazi Party in Nuremberg, Germany, September 10, 1935. (AP Photo)

Yankees Jesse Owens (center), who won Lutz Long of Nazi Germany (right) competing in the long jump, gives the honor during a ceremony awarding medals at the Summer Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. Third place went to Japanese Naoto Tajima. Owens took first place in the 100 and 200 meters, long jump and relay 4 × 400 m He became the first athlete to win four gold medals in one Olympics. (AP Photo)

The British Prime Minister Sir Neville Chamberlain was photographed on arrival from Germany at the airport «Heston» in London after talks with Hitler, September 24, 1938. Chamberlain signed the "Munich Agreement" which allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. (AP Photo/ Pringle)

The members of the organization "Hitler Youth" burn books in Salzburg, Austria, April 30, 1938. The public burning of books, convicted of anti-German or Jewish-Marxist ideology, everywhere practiced in Nazi Germany. (AP Photo)

Mass gymnastics on "Zeppelin" in Nuremberg, Germany, September 8, 1938. (AP Photo)

The windows of shops owned by Jews, were broken during the anti-Jewish demonstrations in Berlin, received the title of "Crystal Night", November 10, 1938. Attack aircraft and civilian inhabitants hammers broke shop windows of Jewish shops and the streets of the town were littered with broken glass. 91 Jews were killed and 30 thousand Jewish men were deported to concentration camps. (AP Photo)

One of the largest shops armory «Rheinmetall-borsig» in Dusseldorf, Germany, August 13, 1939. Prior to the war, the German factories produced hundreds of pieces of military equipment in year. Soon, this figure had risen to 10 s of thousands. Exceptionally in 1944 was ranked 25 thousand fighters. (AP Photo)

Annexed Austria preparing for the arrival of Adolf Hitler. City streets were decorated and renamed. A laborer carries a sign with the new title of the area «Adolf Hitler Place» in Vienna, March 14, 1938. (AP Photo)

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