Since the mid-40's created a number of Innovative industries such as nuclear, missile, computers, electronics, where we are, at least not inferior to the United States, and often ahead. All other countries were far behind.
If the atomic bomb appeared in the USSR in 1949, 4 years after the United States, the first in the world of the hydrogen bomb RDS-6 had already been Russian. First in the world's first atomic power plant was commissioned in the Soviet Union in the summer of 1954, one year earlier than in the UK, and for 2 years earlier than in the U.S.. Exclusively in the USSR were made nuclear icebreakers ("Lenin" — 1959). The only aircraft in the world with a nuclear engine, M-50A, took to the skies in 1960, was created in the USSR in the bureau VM Myasishcheva. Only nuclear submarines appeared in the U.S. in 1955 at 3 years earlier than USSR.
The merits of the Soviet Union in rocketry and astronautics from the first satellite launched in October 1957, are widely known.
Already in 1948, when the U.S. and the UK, only scattered groups engaged in the development of individual samples and computers in the world there has never been the 1st existing products in the USSR under Stalin's initiative was made clear Institute of Mechanics and Computer Technology (ITM and VT) Academy the USSR and the Special Design Bureau of N245 («SKB-245"), as was written in the decree of the Government: "… for the development and implementation of the creation of computer equipment for systems management of defense facilities." In 1951 he created the first Russian digital computer SECM — a descent as the industry standard. It is seen that the first industrial computers in the U.S. (UNIVAC 1) and in the UK (Ferranti Mark 1) also appeared in the same 1951. In 1953, the series begins the creation of BESM, "Arrow" and M-2 (for military applications) that were at the level of the best American computers ever since and greatly exceeded the computers of other states.
It must be emphasized that in the 50s and Russian electronics were at the highest level. Industrial development of semiconductor transistors in the United States began in March 1958 by Fairchild Corp. at a cost of $ 150 apiece. And the information about the properties of Russian "crystalline transistors" was placed in the sixth issue is popular magazine "Radio" for 1955 year, and in 1956, two years earlier than in the U.S., started industrial establishment. Fall of 1957, I, as a third-year student LETI, worked at the Department of automation and remote control of practical development of digital devices with transistors P-16. At this time transistors USSR were not only readily available, and cheap (in terms of the South American means the least bucks apiece).
Even more striking success of the economy as a whole despite the complete absence of external loans and small amounts of oil resources (gas money was not there.) Already in 1947, the industrial potential of the Soviet Union was one hundred percent recovered, and in 1950 it grew by more than a factor of 2 with respect to the pre-war 1940. None of the countries affected by war, by this time did not come out even in the pre-war level despite the massive cash injections from the U.S.. For example, Japan headed for the pre-war level until 1955, though, with the exception of nuclear bombings, severe damage was not there. Limited rassredotachivanie goods on the cards were canceled in the USSR in 1947 and in the UK, in spite of U.S. aid, only in 1954. In the September issue of the journal "Neyshnl business» ("National Business") of 1953, in an article by Herbert Harris' Russian overtake us, "noted that the Soviet Union in terms of economic power ahead of any country, and that at the current time, the rate of growth in the USSR in 2 -3 times higher than in the U.S.. A year ago, U.S. presidential candidate Stevenson assessed the situation so makarom that if the rate of growth of production in the Stalinist Russian Federation continue, by 1970 the volume of Russian production will exceed 4.3 times the South American. Note that the growth rate of Russian economy in the aftermath of the war were much higher than before the war.
But since the mid-50s, the situation changes dramatically. Decrease the growth rate, and in some areas there are real failures. Ah well said about this in the 1991 Japanese billionaire Heros Teravama, referring to the Russian economists: "You are not the voice of an essentially about your primary role in the world. In 1939, you're Russian, were smart, and we in the land of the rising sun, the fool. In 1949, you became more intelligent, and we were still fool. And in 1955 we have become smarter, and you are reincarnated as a five-year kids. Our entire financial system is almost completely copied from yours, with the only difference that we have capitalism, private vendors, and we more than 15% growth never reached, and when you do the public supplies the means of production reached 30% or more. In all of our businesses are hanging your slogans Stalinist era. " From the above expression, we can draw a number of conclusions. In 1939, the Soviet Union developed a new way to increase the efficiency of the economy (MBE). MBE was used in most sectors of the economy. MBE was effective for both the socialist and the capitalist system for the economy, but for the socialist system efficiency MBE was higher by more than a factor of 2. In 1955, Japan borrowed the MBE, which ensured its rapid economic growth due to, first, Innovative Technologies ("Japanese miracle"), and the Soviet Union in the same year refused MBE that has defined the following degradation of the economy. So, in the Soviet Union from 1939 to 1955 used a magical way that ensured unprecedented rise of the economy. On this method, the current time is not fully understood nothing, although in those days it was used in the Soviet Union everywhere.
My working career began in 1958 when the MBE has been eliminated, but I do remember stories of colleagues who worked in those days, when acted MBE. MBE was lain perfectly obmyslennyh material and moral incentives to enhance the creative activity of the masses, aimed at lowering the costs and increasing property (improved features) are developed or manufactured products. The system of incentives varied depending on the industry and type of business. But in any version of these incentives were not extended to at least some chiefs rank. Maybe for executives had a separate system of incentives, but it is not clear to me about it.
The real incentive for organizations engaged in the development of modern technology, were to collective and individual premiums paid immediately after the acceptance of products developed by State Commission (almost on the same day), if in the act of commission showed improvement of product features in relation to the technical specifications. For each property, including product development time and cost of development, there was a definite bonus scale, popular developers before the start of the design. For example, for every kilogram of wei
ght saved articles at OKB-590, where I worked, paid 500 rubles (half the monthly salary of an engineer). This award received all the team members involved in the project, in a similar amount regardless of position. There were also individual awards, a prerequisite for the payment of which was the presence of rationalization proposals or applications for inventions, thanks to which the improvement was made possible features of the product. For every innovation of the creators paid an additional amount which is a multiple reward acquired by each member of the team that did not cancel and ordinary remuneration for economic benefit gained from the application of the invention or technological innovation. The Project Manager is not normally involved in administrative positions, also received an additional premium. Moral stimuli consisted in the fact that the person that provided the staff of the receipt of such awards, rapidly promoted and the main among them were appointed project managers. Immediately applied and ordinary quarterly and annual bonuses. It should be noted, and a good moral climate in scientific and technical teams. Persons who are capable of creative work, colleagues treated carefully, trying to free them from routine work without any indication of the authorities, because the success of the 1st spread at all. In other words, the man was a friend to man. Here the developers have taken into account a sad way to experience the Stakhanovite movement, when the success of the 1st hurt thrashed on pockets and status of others and in a team started disorder.
With a relatively small cost efficiency MBE was only high in all sectors of the economy. Even in the army during the war was a tough scale of foreign exchange payments and rewards for private vehicles or destruction of the enemy, as the application of other damage (for example, capture enemy officers who hold principled information). In the defense industry during the war immediately with a strained industrial activity was carried out continuous work to improve the process. So, for four years of war production cost of most types of weapons (aircraft, tanks, etc.) was reduced by 2-3 times. Even the Mosin rifle, developed in the XIX century, fell by 1.6 times. MBE allow the most of the creativity of ordinary performers and identify the brightest talents. MBE was used in agriculture at the level of state farms and MTS (machine and tractor stations). This is a fact recognized states that MS Gorbachev received the award at the age of seventeen for harvesting.
The main feature of MBE was the fact that when it is used not only increased the creative activity of the huge number of people and talents are identified, but also changes the psychology of all members of the team, the relationships in the team. At least some member of the team understood its importance to the overall process and are willing to do all the work, even in this case, if the work is not consistent with its status. Mutual goodwill, the desire to help each other were quite common traits. In fact, each member of the collective thought of ourselves as individuals, and not a cog in a complex mechanism. Changed and the relationship with the subordinate chiefs. Instead of the orders and instructions of the chief tried to explain to every subordinate role in a common effort plays that work which he was assigned. As the formation of societies and the formation of the modern psychology of real incentives themselves on the back burner and is not the main driving force. I believe that the developers were calculated specifically for MBE such effect.
All of the above I do not know the stories of witnesses, and on personal experiences. Although I came to the OKB-590 in 1958, 3 years after the abolition of MBE, but psychology — something inert, and it persisted for a long time even in the absence of external stimuli. The first three years I worked in the laboratory of digital systems, which began operations with a lower level — the tuner units onboard digital computer. This specialty is the number of workers and tuners (two people) worked on a piecework payment, receiving significantly more engineers, while I was working on a fixed salary appliances. My appearance will inevitably lead to financial losses 2-other tuners, as the number of nodes was limited to opytneyshemi standards, after which production wizards engaged to the repair at a much lower payment. Still, I was very warm and within a month acquainted with the intricacies of the process options. Attitude towards me has changed and after a couple of months when I was set up in a couple of times more nodes than my colleagues, and then when finished mass customization sites. In other words, for ordinary working men, the common cause of the laboratory (prototyping digital computer) was more important than their personal financial interests.
Working as a piano tuner did not last long. After a few months I began to lure engineering work, while not only as an assistant. The corresponding feature of the laboratory was the complete absence of subordination. All together accessed by name, including the Chief of the laboratory. It helped a little, and the difference in age of employees laboratory, the oldest of which was the least 35 years. Head of the laboratory manager or group is not simply gave out the task, and sought to bring to every member of the collective goals of the task and its role in the solution of the general tasks. The working day lasted from 9 am to 10.11 pm, while on a purely voluntary basis and without any extra charge. But no one controlled the arrival and departure of employees, companies that regime was quite unusual.
In May 1961, I was transferred to the laboratory analog and appointed to manage critical to the organization (well, for the country) of the project. This laboratory has worked since its inception in 1945. Because the staff here were older in age. But the atmosphere was the same. Only to the head of the laboratory all accessed by name and patronymic, but not because of his position, but because of his age and experience. He spent the entire war on the front, and the right of his army seconded to the just formed bureau. From the whole team but I knew what and how to do, because he was the only spice in the field of digital technology. And senior engineers with 10 to 15 years of experience without any internal resistance or did the role of part-time workers as well as understand what is needed for the case. Again, I remind you that at this time no incentives were gone. The third division of our design office to which I had to keep closely cooperation, worked in the same style.
Another detail. For always working in the OKB-590 (in January 1963 it was liquidated and all employees, along with the theme translated in the OKB-680, then the NGO "Electroautomatika"), I had never heard the word "party". The room was a local committee and the party was not. Exceptionally in 1963 in the modern organization, I learned that the lab was a lot of party members, and once tried to persuade me to join, but I declined. In another I was not able to in 1964 to leave the company. By the way, the chief of OKB-590, VI Lanerdin was non-partisan. Were that the post of chief of bureau Lanerdina declared Stalin personally, and earlier in time the war, he worked in the U.S., responsible for the delivery of aircraft to the USSR under the Lend-Lease. By the time he was less than the destination 35.
Older people remember the movie M. Romm "9 days of the 1st of the year", which was perfectly illustrates the creative atmosphere at the nuclear physicists. I can definitely say that we have in the OKB-590 was the same atmosphere. However, in the modern organization that atmosphere at one time was lost, although the people have remained the same. Immediately introduced tough regime. During the five-minute lag deprived Prize, and in order to absent himself during the working day or, it was necessary to obtain a permit b
y the Deputy Chief of the regime. In the end, after 6 pm no one in the organization remained. Moreover, it was forbidden to be run at the end of the working day or. However, most of the time in 1963-1964, and I spent most of the team on missions, first in Moscow at the pilot plant (where I had to build from afar Sergei Khrushchev), and then in Smolensk at the production plant.
On the economic impact of the creative atmosphere of the subsequent shows. My first draft of the computing device to control rocket launchers for missile defense system A-35 was carried out for 2 years, counting from the receipt of the terms of reference to the overarching prototype testing in actual criteria. Similar to the difficulties of the project EU-2704 supercomputer at two times greater in number, and the same team leader was made for 6 years (1982-1988). And another example. In the development of Russian strategic bombers Tu-4 as a reference was taken South American B-29 bomber. Work Research delivered to Moscow B-29 began in July 1945. Less than year, In March 1946, techno documentation has been delivered at the production plant. In May 1947, took the first flight. Since the beginning of 1949, a bomber was adopted. In the post-Stalin period from the beginning of the development of the aircraft to its normal production took place 8-12 years. Well, at the moment even more.
Why MBE well was used in the USSR and the land of the rising sun, and no one else did not adopt it? As noted earlier, the main factor was the MBE participation in the common cause, good for the country and society as a whole. When private property is not a factor, since the main utility is the owner. Japan is a very specific country. Until the end of the twentieth century for many Japanese company identified with the family and therefore the usefulness of the company is the same as for the family. With the spread of Western values in the Land of the Rising Sun this mindset was being lost, and the effectiveness of MBE began to fall. And at the moment for the economy of the Country of the Rising Sun characterized by stagnation, although hardly anyone canceled MBE. For the same reasons MBE impossible to revive in the modern Russian Federation, where the municipal enterprises operate on a personal owner (in this case, a pack of bureaucrats).
In the middle 50's MBE was quietly and inconspicuously canceled. Award at the end of the projects are preserved and even increased, but lost all catalytic role. Now the premium depended on the salary and the personal views of management and are not dependent on the properties of the product and its economic performance. From the technical requirements for the job lost production cost and price developments. Premium amount was fixed at 2% of the price of development. As a result, it became profitable to not reduce, but rather increase the price development and the projected cost of the product. In the factories of the targets previously lost an indispensable requirement to lower the cost of production, which immediately led to the cessation of all work on the improvement of technological processes. At this time installed the upper limits for the value of piece rates, the size of the rewards for innovations and inventions. Changed and morale. Now wages exactly determined salary and did not depend on the properties of both collective and personal. The role of personal reasons for job increases, leading to jealousy and bickering. In other words, the man is become a stranger, and from time to time and the opponent.
Cancel MBE hardest tapped the teachers of technical colleges. The salary of the teacher consisted of 2-parts — the salary of the teacher and the payment of scientific work. Teaching university paid for from its own budget funds and the payment of scientific activity was due to contractual research. Salaries of teachers remained constant from before the war right up to 1991 (with ten times the denomination of funds in 1961). For the paper after the abolition of MBE teacher got half the rate of junior or senior researcher, less than half of the basic salary. During the same acts MBE scientific component of wages could at times exceed the basic salary subject to effective implementation of research. It is understood that the wages of some professors reached 20 thousand rubles at a basic salary of four thousand. No wonder popular rumor professors relegated to the richest people in the Soviet Union. And the lecturers were slightly poorer, since scientific component of wages does not depend on the basic salary. Although the humanities universities are likely to teachers receive only the basic salary.
So easy inconspicuous exposure led to a halt cerebral motor Russian economy. For a while, the movement lasted through inertia, then the degradation, and at the end of the 80s economy collapsed completely. Taking into account the global nature implementation of MBE, it could only cancel the control of the USSR, which in 1953 was NS Khrushchev. At the current time it is clear that all of the acts of Khrushchev in the economy had very bad consequences. But it is assumed that Khrushchev acted out of good intentions ("like the best, but came out as always"), but suffered a disaster due to weak little education and impulsive nature. But the elimination of MBE was carried out with a jeweler's precision, good and, most importantly, unnoticed to others, including, most likely, other control of the country. There can not be a well-meaning behold, even under a microscope. There is reason to believe that other acts of Khrushchev was as deep obmysleny and had one goal, including a report by the eminent twentieth congress of the party. It is appropriate to reduce the expression of Khrushchev, Molotov, made by him in the 80s: "Khrushchev, who is also a shoemaker in matters of theory, he is the enemy of Marxism-Leninism, is the enemy of the communist revolution, and hidden Stealther, very veiled."