Make a non-standard aircraft, which not only met the requirements of the time, and really need, with all this itself, which no one previously did not exist, it is possible only in the bureau, which has a benign experimental and production base. At the time, it was a puzzle to solve virtually impossible or at least very difficult.
By the beginning of the 1950s. all planned Russian experimental aircraft has been concentrated in a few large development units. Chief designers societies remaining in Mape (after closing in 1946-1949 experienced companies), "arm in arm", turned into an irresistible whole wall. Dividing the impact areas, CB tried all possible means to prevent the promotion of new rivals. Go out on a par with them could only units and it is almost always a short time (in 1951 it was re-established bureau Myasishcheva VM, which was engaged in strategic bombers, and was housed in the factory number 23). The exception was in the middle of the OKB-256, which is housed at the Metropolitan sea in Podberezye on the ground plant number 256 (before then worked EDO Chetverikova IV, and after 1947 — German aviation specialists led by Baade BV). It was headed by Pavel Tsibin (lived 1905-1992 gg.), The creator of many experimental, sports and landing gliders that were built before 1948. In order to form his own design bureau, he had much to try to reassure the government and the military top in the need to build the plane on his proposed pilot project. This preparation was almost time between those. Tsybina proposal.
March 4, 1954 Tsibin PV The Kremlin sent a secret letter with a proposal to build a new aircraft, which will be endowed with extraordinary qualities. Its maximum speed was supposed to be 3 thousand km / h, the height of the flight — 30 thousand meters and distance of 14 kilometers. To achieve the stated features offered many novelty items. And wing feathers were prescribed hexagonal profiles with very malehankih relative width (2.5 to 3.5%), still nowhere to be applied to aircraft. Elected to the fuselage contours of a similar style to the line generators of surfaces of revolution. A fundamental prerequisite for high flight performance and, accordingly, was installed power. Its going to get in-1's, thanks to the unparalleled ease of construction and the interior with dedication — 80%, and in-2, the use of new, more massive engines.
The question that this power plant still had to create, for some reason on the first steps does not bother anyone.
Preparatory work began in BNT TSAGI small group of professionals who have been seconded by the beginning Tsybina PV. It was Elisha OV Kostenko IK, AS Kondratyev, Shavrov VB and others. According to the preliminary design, with "PC" (jet) was unusual aerodynamic assembly. The device is quite elongated body shape (about 30 meters) with a tapered wing of small aspect ratio (the area of 65 m2, 10 m span, sweep on the front edge of 58 degrees) have the two ends of the wing motor, bow and tail horizontal stabilizer. The tail section was the highlight of the specific pilot project, providing a resounding "special cargo". At the command of the pilot (after the order of the Kremlin) is separated in flight, turning into a projectile. It was a winged bomb (for the base case was taken ed. "244N"), which, after the withdrawal of the bomb rack with lock, meant a detected target for 250 km, being dropped from it for 50 km. The rest of the plane at an altitude of producing a U-turn and without getting into the zone of enemy air defenses, vorachivalas … without a tail. After separation of the "special cargo", "jet" was transformed into a flying machine scheme "duck." To balance it with a brand new position of the center of mass (as the stern "cleaned" ton of weight) in the control cut in the nasal surface of the all-moving horizontal. Since the start of the division and to the "body" frontal horizontal stabilizer worked flyugiruyuschem, a little "zanevolennom" mode. Control surfaces winged bomb, initially included in the control system of the aircraft on the Rights of the stabilizer after separation switched to autonomous control, fulfilling its function before the meeting in order. The objectives could be Boston, London, New-york, etc..
Promised features so liked the Kremlin that have become a strong attraction for the military and government post-Stalinist Soviet Union, which led to a proposal be taken very seriously, despite the skeptical views on its validity.
Preliminary design gave trustees at the Ministry of Aviation Industry. His review and study for an overall evaluation was conducted at the Central Institute aerohydrodynamical. After an extended discussion on the commission, composed of representatives of the industry and the Air Force, those. proposal was considered a capable and competent. Specialists of the Institute aviation industry have expressed doubts about the 80-percent load ratio, and this led to the formation of a separate subcommittee led Tsebrikovo II (Head of weight brigade Sukhoi). The audit showed that the proposed design of the scheme and 80% of the unit are not real, and you can count only 60% (in practice, Russian aircraft have been able to do with the aircraft weight returns exceeding 50%. Polikarpov OKB in 1943, was created by woody bomber NB ( "T"), the weight returns which was 55%). Given the fact that such result was promising, the proposal Tsybina given a "greenish street." So Makar, with all the "pros" and "against" enthusiasts have gained full of success.
Different commission checks and inspections on personal matters inspection of the object "PC" artificially delayed almost a year. And when the fault was more to nothing, innovators presented their "child" on the expanded board Minaviaproma with the participation of officials from the Defense Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU. May 5, 1955 a lecture Tsybina PV at the top, and on May 23 signed a government decree on the development of OKB-256, and the construction of "PC". The document put their signatures to the first 13 members of the government of the USSR and the Politburo: GM Malenkov, Nikita Khrushchev, Bulganin, NA, LM Kaganovich, AI Mikoyan, Suslov, MA , GK Zhukov, PN Pospelov, Kliment Voroshilov and others. Then sign and estimates, the total amounted to 224 million 115 thousand rubles. By February 1, 1957 should have been ready first flying machine, a stand-in — by 1 April of the same year. All work was given 1.5-2 years. It is necessary to state that Paul V. with like-minded people made a real feat, creating new business and opening a business. Newcomer bureau allocated space and the production base of the plant number 256. Manage DB: Tsibin PV — Chief Designer, Goliaev AG — Deputy. General Affairs, Merkulov BA — Deputy. Science and Yakovlev IA — Deputy. Special equipment and systems. Recognizable aircraft Shavrov VB was appointed head of the design department (fuselage, t
ail, wings, control, chassis, etc.) and managed by separate teams specialized on the listed units. In addition to the composition of the new CB had a lot of other teams and departments to fill the state which was opened wide reception. The other major designers were instructed to allocate a certain number of people Tsybina. Also, the newly minted young specialists from colleges and universities in rassredotachivaniyu sent to OKB-256. From the perspective of the state selection Tsybina not lucky because not so long ago recreated (1951-1952 years), DB-23 head designer Myasishcheva VM absorbed unclaimed human resources by filling out his staff of spices that are left out in the cold after the reduction in the second half of the 1940s. aviation companies. In this regard, for the OKB-256 remained completely insignificant qualified contingent. Naturally the main designers of the best people of their own did not give (all tried to get rid of the low-skilled and unwanted). So Makar, the overall level of employees by Prof. OKB-256 was lower in comparison with other companies. But that's not all. Virtually all of the workers who came outside, saw their wages can not be lower than last place of employment. Apart from this, a huge development units, usually every month to pay the premium to 20% of salary, but in a new bureau to pay it as long as it was not for that. Because employees are eligible for an increase in discharge and a category to pull up their own earnings to the level of past wages. Significant disadvantages in personnel recruitment represents a remote plant from Moscow, which was the premise of costs in an already defined budget. Chief designer took the time to filling the state for the early development of work on the product, and in some cases was the overestimation of the categories and the categories designers and other engineers. For example, instead of the 2nd and 3rd category was given the 1st and 2nd, in almost all cases did not meet the actual qualifications. In addition a layer of top engineers and other "nechertyaschih" of managers and officials, clerks, and community members with bolshennymi salaries (heads of departments, groups, teams, along with their deputies and assistants, and various trade union, Komsomol and party secretaries poluosvobozhdennye and released) was enough significant.
Meanwhile, the complexity and novelty of the objectives sought the presence of professionals of the first rank, beginning and ending with the control by ordinary constructors. Now you can safely talk about the fact that initially the plan was too much for implementing the OKB-256. This has affected the very first steps work. Consolidated group had total labor reserve, that long joint preparatory work (when people get ground and used to each other), which gives the required knowledge in store.
With great difficulty did manage a final view "Jet Plane" and even his scheme. In the long period of time (approximately the first two years) was performed 5 types of layout drawings in 1:5 scale, prototype Tsybin signed, but only partly served as the basis for the detailed design study, as the following do not replace the past that were not at all it canceled . And not one of the big questions is not fully think out. In the design team was not full agreement. In particular, many configurations been made because of the equipment that is constantly changing in order to improve it, when one system does not work well, is replaced by another, usually more complicated and capacious. Apart from the fact it was a huge amount of unnecessary work that have arisen in the minds of 'activity' deputies and assistants. So, for example, a lot of time was spent on issues of air conditioning (even considered a proposal to plant chlorella). Was built, but was not completed, and the first works precisely thrown own thermal vacuum chamber. Were doing, but have not collected dynamically similar model aircraft in 1:10 scale. Crafted from the finest Energie in every detail, it was intended to explore the future of vibrations and deformations. In short, do a lot of unnecessary, attention dissipated, and the main issues remained unresolved. For a long time could not leave the state of various dead ends. Because we talk about the exact insights and achievements during the first 2-3 years is almost not necessary. In the steady stream of work has gone from almost curtain existence design bureau. But first things first.
Obviously, the work had numerous consultations with TsAGI and other sectoral institutions aviation industry under the supervision of the defense department of the Central Committee. Of all services bureau in decision-making from a painful twitching linkages with aggregate plants, minders and nemapovskimi departments and agencies. The matter was new in itself fullness and breadth, about which neither the customers nor the developers of "PC", nor the legislators did not even know existed. But almost all the time stabilized. Spends a lot of calculations and wind, built laboratory facilities and the similar. The original "aces" the idea of the detachable tail soon left to figure out because of the difficulties that had to do with the separation and avtoperetsentrovkoy, overlapping each other's problems of the supersonic and subsonic aerodynamics inherent in one aircraft and its isolated parts. In the end, the designers braked at the usual scheme of the aircraft with a tail, and semi-flush suspended under the fuselage "special cargo". With all of this has been revised scheme, the design and placement of retractable landing gear, which received support under the tail frontal position of the main legs and the modified lateral pillar.
During the development of conceptual design "PC", it became clear that the weight of the aircraft exceeds supply and the impact of the weight of 60% do not even have to think. By the end of 1955 it became clear that the greatest range does not exceed 7.5 thousand km. Had the idea of suspension "PC" under the Tu-95N. Range of joint flight was supposed to be 3000-4000 km, then followed the detachment and dispersal of "Jet Plane" using 2-coupled accelerators (with liquid rocket engine) in the climb. The upcoming solo flight (after reset Accelerators) was held at the 2-supersonic ramjet propulsion engines vozduhoreaktivnyh at 3000 km per hour. Resetting the bomb, as in the initial version, had to run for 50 km to the target with its radar detection at a distance of 200-250 km.
Preliminary design of the aircraft "PC" in this form was released 01/31/1956 and approved by the main designer of PV Tsybin. For a long time before, in fact from the very beginning of the development, the OKB-670 Bondaryuk MM sent an official order for the development of a supersonic ramjet rocket motor. Two such SPVRD which were designated RD-013, on the estimated height of 4400-4500 kg of thrust each. The engines were to provide at an altitude of 20 thousand meters speed of 3000 km / h RD-013 had a compression adjustable air intake outside the central cone. Overall motor length — 5,5 m, width of the combustion chamber — 650 mm.
Around the same time, other EDO (SA Lavochkin and Myasishcheva VM) develop other projects: Vol. "350" and ed. "40". It was remotely controlled unmanned winged machines, known as "The Tempest" and "Buran". The devices have also been designed for the speed of 3000 km / h and intercontinental (transpolar) range. They were equipped with ramjet engines RD-012U and GD-018A (respectively) of the structure Bondaryuk MM "The Tempest" and "Buran" different vertical start from the ground with the help of rocket boosters with liquid rocket engines.
The first launch of an intercontinental BR R-7 design queen of SP, which was held on 05.15.1957, 21.08.1957 and putting missiles such as the calculated distance contributed to the fact
that work on the winged carriers of nuclear weapons strategic focus in the near future were sharply reduced.
To combat aircraft and aircraft came dark days are. The creators of rocket technology could form the world top military and government that the aircraft technician loses its importance as the lead strategic weapons. Widely advertised a new concept of military equipment, which is dominated by the rocket. The era of radical overhaul of military-industrial complex of the USSR. It's hot and supported crudely constructed in the dogma of view (members and partisan supporters rocket) was swollen in the successes of Astronautics, which led to the categorical statement: "Rockets will change planes", which became the driving motto, moving indiscriminately decision on military aircraft, tactical mission. Some airframe design bureau and powerful factory aviation industry were permanently transferred to the Ministry of Medium Machine Building. They snap those. all equipment and aircraft accessories allowed under the pile driver. The rest of the aviation industry culture of design, engineering and manufacturing at different points (starting with the production of parts and ending with the general assembly of products) has played a significant role in the formation of a massive rocket engine, rocket and Astronautics. The Rocketeer was again almost robbed aircraft and to this day they rest on their laurels, confident in their own right. Suffice it to say that the factory number 1 and number 23 — the flagship Russian aircraft — "usurped" the creation of a series of missiles Queen SP and Chelomeya VN "It was a terrible time — said Litvinov VY plant manager number one, twice Hero of Socialist Labor. — We, as airplane people to the bone, had to obey the orders of the Kremlin, and without any desire to destroy everything from alien for the soul of business. freshest banners and new calls, hung on the walls of buildings than what looks like a reference to suicide, and nothing can change it … "
In those years, a great number of military aviation units, units and were deprived mat. parts and disbanded. Thousands of combat aircraft find their "final resting place" right on the parking areas under the gas torches. Generated by the mass liquidation of aircraft, on an unprecedented scale multiplied and grew airplane graveyard. Over the history of the world is not to whine beheld such rampant vandalism on the results of the labor of their own people in their own country. Military aviators and aircraft manufacturers are removed and were reclassified in missile and rocket scientists. Shoulder straps with "wings" and the blue flashes were incalculably changed from dark lining of the cross shafts. Only one example of perestroika plunges into a real nightmare. So, for example, the bureau Lavochkin former fyuzelyazhniki develop housing gallakticheskih satellites, and yesterday's designers have wings … Only one external similarities (and even then, only in the opinion of housewives or journalists) have switched to the design of solar panels …
Immediately with the works on the project "PC" in the bureau engaged in the design and construction of other devices. One of the more promising was the Strategic spy created for doing the operational work in the deepest possible enemy rear and above the likely theaters of operations. The expanded and conducted earlier work on the winged vehicle of a nuclear bomb were to help OKB-256, which is allowed to keep it afloat during a decisive missile dominance. While the creators of rocket and space technology have not thought about the intelligence gallakticheskih stations and orbiting spy satellites. Because at the end of the 1950s, "atmospheric" spy plane could be completely burning.
The initial draft scout, received the title of "2pc" also foresaw the introduction of 2-vozduhoreaktivnyh supersonic ramjet engines RD-013 Bondaryuk MM and start from the air carrier. The question of suspension under the Tu-95N in the light of the then understanding of media strategic weapons fell into oblivion. The theme was continued under the symbol "PCP" in other words "jet reconnaissance plane." Brand new re-orientation of the object with high-altitude airfield start to self-launching, got enforced. The development of suspension systems for vehicle, which began in 1956 on the stage of the assembly and production of drawings bomber type "PC", brought to an end was not for several reasons. Length of Scouting "2pc" in connection with the installation of the antenna tail has increased in comparison with the layout by 700 mm. It has become a prerequisite for further difficulties with his suspension under the fuselage of a bomber Tu-95N. Testing of suspension systems, in-flight separation of the object and start SPVRD conducted at OKB-156 Tupolev AN very slowly and reluctantly (at first it is linked to the fact that AN Tupolev was a leading opponent of Tsybina). It did not go faster even after the government's decision to continue the mass production of the Tu-95 in Kuibyshev factory number 18 in connection with the need for aircraft carrier "2pc." These works Tupolev soon in one-sided procedure was stopped.
Refusal from the creation of the media (and as a consequence of air-launched) has led to the substitution of the power plant and the revision of the scheme and design of the chassis, to vsepolnotsennuyu airfield operation of the aircraft (formerly chassis intended for planting).
August 31, 1956 issued a decree on the issue of aircraft "PCP" Curb pair of engines D-21 design Solovyov PA The aircraft was due to leave the assembly line by the first quarter of 1958. The Air Force identified him TTT January 15, 1957. The implementation of these requirements would be the first device vsesutochnym aircraft flying at supersonic speeds, created to conduct reconnaissance on the removal of 1.7 million km from the airport. The high speed "RSR" 2.7 thousand km / h was only required at cruising altitude of 25.5 km. Draft project "PCP", which was completed June 26, 1957 and made very high quality, confirmed the validity of the performance, as the customer's requirements and expectations of the Kremlin.
Height 20 thousand meters of jet reconnaissance plane was to be dialed for 15 minutes after separation from the runway. The speed of sound was to be achieved at a height of 8.5 thousand meters after 4 Minutka after takeoff. At a height of 10.7 thousand square meters at a speed of 1540 km / h dropped mounted tanks, and typing cruising altitude (25.5 sq m), "RSR" produced a long-established flying at supersonic speeds, the respective M = 2.65. The highest altitude at speeds of up to 2800 km / h was to be 26.7 thousand meters and the range at altitudes above 20 sq m at the lowest speed reaches 3760 km. It is estimated length of the runway is 1,300 meters with flaps to lift-off speed of 330 km / h, with take-off angle to 9 degrees and the draft in 9500 kgf. Depressing "RSR" landing was to begin for 500 km to the airport. The mean free path for the landing speed of 245 km / h was 1200 meters. Scout during the flight were to be observed modes of radio and radar silence. To reduce radar reflection spetsy agreed with the designers to ensure the respective forms for the bottom of the phone, as the ability to use radar absorbing coatings of porous skin. To evade enemy missiles, which were found onboard antennas, provided the implementation of anti-missile maneuvers with overloads of up to 2.5 (for example, an energetic climb to the dynamic ceiling of 42 thousand meters or climb to the left and right-hand slope of the forthcoming sharp configuration of height), also the creation of passive and active interference in the working of the frequency spectrum detection of enemy air defense assets. Jamming was likely in the presence of the emitting radar supplied from a central turbine
and equipped with 2 electronic generators.
The scheme of the aircraft "PCP" was a single midwing having a trapezoidal wing of small aspect ratio and similar to it all-moving tail. Profiles of Governors and the bearing surfaces were formed in symmetrical hexagons with straight lines. Hexagons on the back and front edges sharpened. Dialed from the cylinders and cones fuselage had a circular cross-section diameter of 1500 mm in the central part. Over the body paved expensive fairing trapezoidal, which extends from the cockpit to the front edge of the vertical stabilizer. This add-in did not immediately, but at the time of design elaborations. Its main purpose was the posting of communications along the fuselage from the cockpit of the government to the deflected surface of feathers, for communication between hydro-generating sets and fuel tanks. The front part of the fuselage — ogival nose cone with the cook. The tail section is also conical ended with a hemispherical antenna radome notification of irradiation in the back of the last point. The canopy was formed transparent flat surfaces. This form is used to eliminate the visibility index. The fuselage was broken into eight sections: nasal cook, equipment bay, sealed compartment cockpit, wheel bearing fuel tank, the middle part occupied by functional equipment, rear carrier tank consisting of 2-sections: the control compartment and aft fuel tank. The compartment had a cabin insulation and two shells. Also located in the fuselage of a supply tank of small capacity, turbine, and propane tank by freezing, which was used for cooling devices and certain equipment coupled with insulating materials. Kerosene tanks welded construction made of duralumin sheets D-20. The diameter of the tank mounted 650 mm, length — 11400 mm, and had a seating capacity 4.4 tons of fuel. For flights with a variable high-speed mode (subsonic-supersonic-subsonic speed) to avoid sharp longitudinal razbalansirovok, provides for the automatic transfer of the fuel tank in the rear of the fuselage mounted tanks, was also introduced certain order of production. With all of this provides the best position of the center of mass relative to mean aerodynamic chord of the wing.
The pilot, who was dressed in a suit, was in the pressurized cabin in which the land is maintained at an internal pressure of 780 mm Hg, and at working height — 460 mm Hg. The cabin temperature is kept around 30 degrees with an ambient temperature of 60 degrees and falling not less than — 5 degrees at a temperature in the cold to — 60 degrees. The pilot used a personal air-conditioning system that fueled his suit. Spacesuit in flight connected to the main air conditioning system with vents. In the event of cabin depressurization automatically fire alarm system pressurization suit, providing the internal pressure, which corresponds to the altitude of 11.5 thousand square meters, in other words, the applicable conditions of life in the past 15 minutes, during which the pilot could descend into the denser layers of the atmosphere to return on its own airfield.
During the flight the aircraft navigation accuracy on the route using radar targets every 500 km should be a + / — 10 km and at the rate and in the scheduling of the target area up to 3-5 km. These performances are achieved by the introduction of a number of automated systems: astroinertial system with gyrovertical, piloting and navigation equipment, a system of exchange rate stabilization, autopilot and radar viziers. On-board electronic system consisted of a pair of starter generators GTS-6000 is installed on each engine and generator 2-EH-6000, who worked on the turbine. Sam turbine mounted in the fuselage and working through the power take-off of the compressor turbine engines, was a stationary thermal reactor with the outlet nozzle, which was derived for the shell plating. From the turbine cited three 15-horsepower hydraulic pump, air compressor with a capacity of 40 tons per hour (working pressure of 2 atm) and fan cooling system capacity of 1,000 tons per hour (0.7-1 atmosphere pressure).
The composition of defensive weapons and intelligence equipment "RSR" included a radar sight fotopristavkoy and signals intelligence station, which were installed inside the front fairing. Their introduction was necessary for reconnaissance promtsentrov at a range of 250 km and a ground-based radar systems for detecting the enemy (at distances that correspond to the 125 — to 130 percent of their detection range). After that, the case was introduced during the photographic height above the target at an altitude of 23 thousand meters. As for the en-route included a telescopic sight, which serves to control the work of photographic equipment, also the station warning radar illumination by means of enemy air defenses. If need be you can use the equipment staging passive and active interference.
With all the options of aircraft regardless of destination retained the idea that you ought to try out the possibility of flying the aircraft itself and the design scheme with its unusual wing, and explore the features take-off, landing and behavior in air and other special features. Reduced scale models, and aspects of similarity associated with them, did not give depth and complete data on the study of aerodynamics. For this disk imaging needed construction and flight testing of several full-scale models are included from the beginning in the estimate. But the full-scale model of government becomes interested in the decisions and not reflected. But as the work necessary to develop them becoming clearer. In 1956 he started the development of full-scale model number 1 (NM-1), which was implemented in the design of the future "RSR": chassis, glider, equipment placement, management, operation of certain aircraft systems and the impact of systems on the outer forms of aircraft and the fulfillment of the main tasks.
NM-1 — light "RSR", the aircraft having similar shape, manned missions to study without stress and kitted only test devices. In short, the laboratory that was designed to fly without merit these aircraft performance characteristics with limited modes. Before receiving regular turbojet engines (D-21) on the machine set 2 AM-5 engine with a thrust of 2,000 kg each (the model was designed for subsonic speed), which imposes certain simplifications in the nature of the machine and flight tests. The bow of the HM-1 is made significantly shorter in comparison with the combat option: to center established there ogival pig weighing 700 kg. Materials and construction of HM-1 corresponded to the design and materials of the "PCP". The fuel system has been greatly facilitated by volume of the fuel and. equipment (fuel pump back and forth was not necessary, since the wave of the crisis and achieving the longitudinal imbalance associated with it has not planned). Management also had a fundamentally difference from the "PCP". It included intensifiers, hard thrust loading mechanisms and shafts. The chassis was completely different. It was made according to the type of planting devices conceptual design "PC", in other words with the location of the main pillar in front of the center of mass of the aircraft, but with a significant relief to match the lower weight of HM-1. Instead of a two-wheeled carts landing introduced a lightweight ski made of 10-mm dural plate length 2.1 m and a width of 0.1 m It was designed for several landings with the upcoming substitution at the latest. To the side nodes of skiing for take-off was fixed wheel axle having two pneumatics, who was called home cart. Depreciation of the chassis during taxiing and take-off run was carried out tires of the highest compression pressure and hydraulic cylinder rack. Flight had to be carried out in the following order: take-off, accompanied by the separation from the ski wheel axle; c
limb to 1.2-1.5 million m and a speed of 480 to 500 km / h, flying over the box, landing with a landing on a ski. The first flight should not exceed 15 minutes.
In the main building of HM-1 was completed by mid-1958, but it rolled out onto the tarmac occurred even earlier fully prepared to show the impact the pace of work and the implementation of the plan. Because some finishing work carried out under the open sky, that prolongs and complicates them, because the car had to be rolled up into a hangar during rain and at night. First trial conducted taxiing 01.10.1958. Then the fired first in air podlet lasting 17 seconds. But the resolution on the first flight and the continuation of trials failed to get due to the bad weather and by some small issues in the on-board systems. Then there were doubts about the strength of the landing skis, and then the winter came. "Welcome" on the fly given only in the spring of next year. March 18, 1959 have made repeated taxiing, and on 7 April at 10:53 Test Pilot Amet-Khan Sultan made the first flight on the NM-1. Separation machinery from the runway as if carried in 3 steps. First, the HM-1 at a speed of 285 km / h split from the band after 26 seconds after takeoff. Repeated separation occurred at a speed of 305 km / h at the 28th second. In the third time plane separated by 30 seconds after the start. At the end of the takeoff speed was 325 km / h, with all this effort on the handle was 15 kg (CSSC trimmer reduced from 26 kg). Rise complied with the lowest angle of attack and a certain overestimation of speed, and therefore starting a cart that was thrown at a speed of 400 km / h from a height of 40 meters, broke on the runway. From the measurements produced by escorting the aircraft Yak-25, speed HM-1 amounted to 500 km / h and 1.5 km altitude. In flight, the pilot felt feeble wiggle cars from the slope, offset ailerons. At a height of 200 meters the pilot closed the throttle, starting with the planning of a decrease in speed of up to 275 km / h Landing occurred with the smallest angle of attack and at greater speed than was prescribed test applets. After 4 seconds after touching betonki released brake parachute. During the run at a speed of 186 km / h on fire sole aluminum skis, but after stopping the flame is lost. Because of the greater path length of the landing speed was not 740 m (estimated) and 1100 m at landing impact loads ranged from 0.6 to 1.95 units. Duration of the first flight — 12 minutes.
Two more flight took place on 3 and 9 June 1959 year. Total Amet-Khan on NM-1 completed 6 flights, and in the upcoming 7 more flights performed Radium Zakharov. In total, during the period from 1959 to 1960. on the NM-1 flew 10 test pilots which produced 32 flight duration 11-40 minutes at altitudes of 1-4 km. Reach a speed of over 490 km / h does not go, because the aircraft with a wing of small aspect ratio, having cravings 2-turbojet engines of 4,000 kg, was flying with a huge angle of attack — 10-12 degrees.
Flights showed that the aircraft has a wing can fly! During the research identified some particular: stably maintained aircraft take-off direction, the effectiveness of government begins with the speed of 60 km / h At speeds of 110-120 km / h at the time of start and run there shaking. Rise bolshennymi hampered efforts to handle. During the flight, is swinging from the slope. HM-1 differs decent "volatile" in flight and on landing. NM-1 management on the rise, while the construction is based on landing, and its implementation is much simpler than the Su-7, Su-9 and MiG-19, MiG-21.
Employees of OKB-256 in flight testing and development of HM-1 produced working drawings "PCP" in full swing, hoping to receive from the Permian plant number 19 double-circuit engines D-21. But neither in 1958 nor in 1959 did not work out. The main prerequisite nepostavok engines for "PCP" was massive opposition AN Tupolev. D-20 engines (represented besforsazhny version of the engine D-21 or D-20F) in accordance with the work plan for the OKB-156 intended for passenger Tu-124, serial production of which in 1959 established the Kharkov aircraft factory number 135. According to Tupolev, the parallel creation of the D-20 and D-21 would lead to the disruption to the supply of its solid-fuel engines for the aircraft. The Kremlin authority Tupolev was very highest, especially after the creation of the Tu-104 and high-profile non-stop flights Nikita Khrushchev and FR Kozlov (First deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers) in the United States on the Tu-114 (passenger version Tu-95). AN Tupolev sought production of increment D-20 to the detriment of the D-21 (and, as the "PCP"), and these requirements are met. Tu-124 was released to the medium and the local band of Aeroflot, a "PCP" once again remained non-motorized, but now without a carrier, without the power plant set up for self-launching …
The question of getting in range 12000-13000 km, calculated for planes "2pc" and "AAMS" (with the introduction of the media), the leaders gave no rest, and job creation 20/03/1958 Tu-95N has been proven again by government decree. But Tupolev again gave reasoned refusal. The final decision postponed to the time of the meeting on experimental aircraft, which took place in the Kremlin 15/05/1958. Myasishcheva VM by AN Tupolev tips was entrusted to contact Tsybin PV and to provide for the aircraft carrier "PCP" and other products OKB-256. This was the first step in uniting 2-actors, unwanted and embarrassing Tupolev for a penalty kick to them …
For many, the intention was natural. Start of works Tsybina and Myasishcheva at least would mean inhibition of current affairs in the DB-23, DB-as a distraction from the end of the 256 works to the adopted version of the "PCP" and having the self-start.
In a desperate attempt to save the business Tsibin PV appealed to the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, the Air Force and TsAGI. He went to meet him, moving to the end of 1960 Deadline "PCP" with an appropriate increase in the estimate. To speed up the AI Mikoyan, chief designer of OKB-155, indicated assist with working power plant, and SK Tumansky — To put the P-11F engines.
The main and last kind of "PCP" was armed with 2 P-11F engines, equipped with input devices like the MiG-21F. The design and shape of a scout for the work on this model changed again (not counting refreshed turbojet engine nacelle). Installed new, more advanced systems, units of air navigation equipment, improved the assembly of photographic equipment. Instead, split-mount cameras installed on their overall unified platform, which was placed in a pressurized compartment before the flight. After the job platform with cameras were sent to the laboratory for processing. To ensure the normal functioning of the photographic medium of the fuselage (5.3 meters) in polushestigrannik transformed with the lower horizontal platform, which in the containment area was partly glazed. Inside of the sealed compartment (3.5 meters) established AFA-33, -34 and -40. Two cameras with focal length of 1000 mm and two — 200mm, would be changed composition consisting of the 1st unit with 1800 mm focal length and a pair of cameras with 200-mm. Both options configuration photographic equipment "PCP" — interchangeable blocks, which are mounted on a universal platform with glazed pressurized compartment. Also, a special intelligence equipment included signals intelligence and radar station sight with fotopristavkoy installed in the nose coca (the main purpose was reconnaissance promtsentrov with a distance of 250 km and radar detection at distances that are 125-130 percent of their range of actions), and telescope to monitor the functioning of photographic equipment, the station warning radar illumination of the aircraft, equipment for the production of passive and active jamming enemy radar.
The main ph
otographic equipment of the aircraft intended for routine, planned-promising and promising aerial photography. The cameras were mounted serially, and prior to their inclusion in the work over to the drop-glazing with blinds controlled. Compartment was sealed around the perimeter sealing means 7500 mm inflatable hose mounted in the lumen of the fuselage. This event is entered on the last modification "PCP" to avoid deterioration of lens transparency icing general glazing and condensation of water. The presence of this very complex elements of the internal fuselage, the increment of its length to 28 meters, though not without tapered tail for the growth of aggregate shoulders tail to maintain the maneuverability and stability of the aircraft in Putney and longitudinal channels.
Due to the great length of the plane, its bicycle rack is redesigned with simultaneous substitution of two-wheeled carts on a 4-wheel with reduced pneumatics. Saving the specific load on the wing with the fuselage of the larger mass was achieved widespread relief structure. So, for example, pyatilonzheronnuyu power circuit, the development of which izderzhali three years, changed the 16-wall openwork pattern with the introduction of the roller welding of the cladding panels. For the introduction of such concrete structures since the beginning of works is head of the brigade wing Belko JI, which is, after all, headed for his own. All elements of the internal structure of the aircraft and airframe has been paid special attention to reducing weight. The design of virtually all of the details, nodes and links become thin wall with the smallest implementation of bolted joints. Revised and replaced many so-called "steam engine" parts and assemblies. Even riveted joints in almost all cases gave way to weld. The basic premise is so complete relief (perhaps to the detriment of life) was the specificity of the use of "PC" and "PCP". The aircraft was calculated by only 3 with a total time of flight "raid" 200-250 hours before the emergence of strains of 0.2 percent. Vesoviki subjected to audit even standard products of foreign origin. Communication elements and wiring accessory manufacturers have been ordered in a lightweight and reduced performance. For example, the plugs were made twice the smallest size and weight. This provided the piping, wiring and cables without unnecessary complications from the standpoint of labor for installation and unnecessary reinforcement of structures in the area of the mounting holes and gaps.
As a result, airframe and aircraft in general got such a light that the culture of weight (brand new feature for long) are sometimes superior to global standards.
A more effective means of reducing the weight of the aircraft, "PCP" was the denial of the use of supersonic mounted tanks. This idea minds of the creators visited not once, but "after." If you do not drag the languid and bolshennye capacity up to speed 1540 km per hour (in which they want to dump), and hang the tanks have the least capacity and get rid of them at a speed of 850 km / h in order to overcome a number M = 1 only "neat" aircraft . Considered, then came to the conclusion that an old wall tanks (each with a capacity 2200 kg) did not create and do not hang up, and new tanks (each with a capacity 1300 kg) to apply! So Makarov did. Weight of fuel decreased without decreasing the distance and take-off weight at all it fell by more than 1 ton.
Innovations in this area for the Conservatives an old guard of Russian aircraft seemed quite inapplicable because of their own misoneism. Innovations that have been offered employees OKB-256 and embodied in the articles "RSR" within the ministry categorically rejected. And the then existing standards, uniform for bombers and fighters, operate to this day. Official strength standards — for themselves by themselves, and the actual strength of parts of the structure that is provided with a large reinsurance, and now contributes to "improve" LTH and "saves" fuel …
The main material of the aircraft was made of anodized aluminum. Trying to use beryllium was early due to an unproven technology, insufficient purity beryllium alloys and significant toxicity studies (open contact for application of anti-corrosion coating is a prerequisite for skin diseases employed). Aprons and gloves promptly broke down. The introduction of iron parts was limited: only in particularly critical areas with concentrated loads (chassis units, sealing spars, wing mechanization, all-moving nodes sample of controls, fixed mounted tanks, bombs, etc.). Fuselage frames, priemuschestvenno in its middle part, produced by web (accurate punching the upcoming machining), open at the bottom to set the platform with the lower glazing and cameras. Particularly challenging was the development of the wing structure, which was due to its narrow profile. The size structure of the heights in the main points of the response to the termination nodes fuselage was 230 mm (I-section with shelves 25-250 mm). It was hard to install winglets on engines, where operational height is 86 mm.
In this form, was finally launched at the factory number 256 most experienced construction standard "PCP". But absolutely put it together in the enterprise failed, as production facilities and premises were handed over to the deputy bureau. Head designer AI Mikoyan by an unmanned rocket theme Bereznyak AY
01.10.1959 entire composition of OKB-256 was transferred to the DB-23 head designer Myasishcheva V., who was assigned to look into documentation about the "PCP" and report back to 28.05. 1960, the State Committee of aircraft (formerly MAP). All of the design documentation, as production and processing of paper on the new site were tested. Drawings assemblies and parts have been inspected, re-issued with the sight of the heads of such departments DB-23. The documentation is virtually no configurations have not been made, and work started again. Preoccupied with its own theme — strategic bomber M-4 -6, Myasischev VM did not interfere in the work of employees Tsybina VP, who continued enhancements and "RSR", preparing it for flight tests. 29.09.1960 first prototype of a "PCP" brought to trial in Zhukovsky airfield. Immediately in Ulan-Ude on the former remzavod number 99 created the most experienced installation party "PCP", which took place under the designation P-020. Myasishcheva VM in October 1960, was removed from the post of head designer of OKB-23, turning the head TsAGI. State producers and designers who have worked with him, absolutely was reassigned Chelomei VN, chief designer of OKB-52. DB-23 has become virtually a branch of OKB-52, a manufacturing and laboratory facilities that are in the Reutovo. The plant number 23 changed its mass launch vehicle "Proton" is also another rocket and space technology. Of the team Tsybina PV by this time stopped forcible order. Decreased subsidies for the payment of salaries, another newcomer gave opportunity to command the undivided services of the plant. The entire structure of the OKB-256 by summer 1961 together with management defected to the Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Tsibin was developing in the coming gallakticheskih ships "Alliance".
On the territory of the factory number 99 built three aircraft P-020, P-filled engines 11F, in preparation for the assembly was still 10 sets of machines, parts, and assemblies. Previously worked through the ability to build "PCP" in the factory number 23 thrown into oblivion, and finished aircraft and touched sent to scrap according to a one-year plan for 1961.
Flight tests of the aircraft NM-1 was suspended, and the most experienced "RSR" very active. Both devices are able to polurazobrannom brought to Moscow
and handed over to the department of aircraft in the MAI as a teaching tool. Some of the fragments "PCP" is there to this day …
Before the final was held reorientation of plant number 23 on the missiles from aircraft from TsAGI in DB-23 to name Tsybina PV it is a business letter. The envelope had the recommendation of the Professional Institute of supersonic aerodynamics. Chief Designer "RSR" got kind of this unit is redesigned in a more acceptable form for flying at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds. Were correctly designated areas of the wing, which has a huge sweep on the front edge, which would enable to overcome the sound barrier with minimal changes to the longitudinal balance. Perhaps it Myasischev VM found a stale document (perhaps purposely not posted in 1958), and sent it for a good memory of the former Filevskaya an old friend. Of course, by the end, more precisely, to stop work on the "RSR" This dispatch was useless, and resembled a "herring served for tea."
As already mentioned, in the carrying out of works on "PC", "2PC", HM-1 and "PCP" fairly often interfered rivals with a single goal — to prevent, perhaps out of envy. An important role in the inhibition of the OKB-256 and has played a powerful Oldest Acquisition of aviamagnatov three times Hero of Socialist Labor, academician, chief designer AN Tupolev Patriarch of the Russian aircraft did everything in order to progress made KB Tsybina were multiplied by the zero. According disk imaging, acquired from the Tsybina, Golyaeva, Sharov and others working in the design office, Tupolev was walking through the shops, halls and classrooms and yelled, "You do not fucking work! You do not do this!". After that he took and gave up an aircraft carrier for "2pc." But Tsybina and professional work! And even without the Tu-95N and D-21! NM-1 well fly off, and Ulan-Ude was started mass creation of a "PCP" (P-020).
Closure of promising topics for "PCP", the eradication of EDO Tsybina more dramatic because the data "activities" had a hand in another influential man of Aviation Industry — Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan. According to the 1st of the assistants Mikoyan, then first deputy minister of aviation industry Minayeva AV, this was three prerequisites. In 1-x, the plane "PCP" has not received the promised engines, as the "P-11F were needed for the MiG-21." In-2, the plant number 256 he had taken for his unmanned threads planted there his deputy Bereznyak AY and downloading the parallel creation of enterprise units for MiG. B-3, AI Mikoyan Government has promised to make trehmahovy spy, named "Ed. 155." To the topic at collective Experimental Design Bureau "MiG" had all the initial premise: TRD R-15B and photographic equipment, which was designed to "RSR", mounted and worked on it.
AI Mikoyan led his bureau at a pretty hard way. Airspeed, which correspond to M = 3, to reach not work. In the second half of 1960. came out just what Tsibin proposed in 1956, in other words, the speed corresponding to the number M = 2.85. We Mikoyan aircraft flying range, plan for "PCP" did not work, and the MiG-25R turned into a tactical espionage.
Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification — NM-1;
Wingspan — 10.80 m;
Length — 26.60 m;
Wing area — 64.00 m2;
Normal take-off weight — 7850 kg;
The biggest take-off weight — 9200 kg;
Motor Type — 2 of turbojet engine AL-5;
Thrust — 2h2000 kgs;
The highest speed — 500 km / h;
Service ceiling — 4000 m;
Crew — 1 person.