Experimental fighters E series (Part-3) E-50 and E-50A

In the summer of 1956 came an event that is very very troubled Russian control, because revealed quite severe dent in the country's air defense system. July 2, 1956 for the first time in the air space of the people's democracy was seen South American high-altitude spy plane Lockheed U-2, and only 4 July 1956 the aircraft was seen in the skies over the Soviet Union. In the coming such flights were continued and South American planes flew with impunity in the Russian sky at an altitude of 20-21 km., Photographing strategic targets from the air, including Moscow. Oppose anything that plane until 1960 Russian air defense system could not. The only way to combat the U-2 at that time could become fighters, equipped by liquid rocket boosters, which would have allowed them to reach the altitude of 20-22 km.

Fighter-Interceptor E-50

It should be noted that by this time already had a pretty good basis for the development of similar aircraft. Back in September 1953, the Government raised the issue of the construction of the fighter-interceptor rocket booster, which could climb to an altitude of 20 km. As the lead developer was selected by OKB-155 head designer Mikoyan. In the OKB-155 decided not to design a new aircraft from scratch and converted for this purpose already existing experimental fighter E-2. Brand new car has received index E-50, and its main difference from the E-2 was the power plant, which consisted of a rocket engine C-155 and TRD RD-9E.

Outside Unlike E-50 to E-2 is to lengthen fighter fuselage due to the presence of 3 tanks rocket motor as set combustion chamber located above the tail of the machine. As the oxidizing agent for liquid rocket motors used nitric acid acted as kerosene fuel. To drive the rocket engine turbopump assembly used hydrogen peroxide. At the root of the raised fin located fighter Turbine flow component in the fuel cell expander, and control units. The rest of the wing, stabilizer, the nose of the fuselage and landing gear configurations do not stick out because they were already pretty well mastered the fighter E-2. With all of this interceptor E-50 came out unique. Earlier in the USSR was not a fighter with the power plant, which was located inside a fuselage.

Unlike its predecessor design E-50 is widely used and special acid resistant coating material. At the bottom of the fuselage of the first car was the possibility of installing 2 x 30-mm automatic cannon, HP-30. Powerplant fighter included turbojet engine RD-9E with a thrust of 3,800 kg and above it S-155 rocket engine with a thrust of 1300 kgf. With all of this nozzle sections 2-engines were placed in the same plane. In a healthy bottom of the keel were control units, tanks oxidizer turbopumps component of fuel supply to the combustion chamber rocket engine. For the accidental discharge of a component of rocket fuel under the skin of the fuselage were on the 2nd tube.

Radio equipment of machines included IFF equipment "Barium-M" radio RSIU-3M radio marker MRP-48P, and automatic radio ARK-5. To ensure the life of the pilot when flying at high altitude applied to make the OKB-918 suit SI-3, filled transparent mask, which is more reminiscent of a spherical tank, which was mounted in a thin window.

In the 1956-1957 year were produced by three experienced fighter E-50. The first of them was built fairly quickly and was prepared for flight on November 1, 1955. Own first flight plane executed January 9, 1956, it raised into the air by test pilot LII MAP VG Mukhin. First flight took place with the introduction of LRE in the summer on June 8. Flight duration when working with LRE mode, use the most traction was less than 3.1 min. With all this time and level flight at an altitude of 20 km. no more than 4 minutes to the time after switching off the rocket engine braking. In the first prototype of the fighter after a number of flights has been redesigned cockpit canopy. Due to excessive aerodynamic heating lamp glass, which was made of the available materials at the time, could not cope with the current load. The new cockpit canopy was an iron casing, in which, except for the windshield, the edges were provided with circular portholes.

Total fighter made 18 test flights in 3 of them and cut one LRE. July 14, 1957 fighter, piloted Mukhin, suffered a tragedy. Short of the runway is only 700 meters, the plane touched down. As a result of this fighter received severe damage and the pilot luckily otvertelsya slight shock and continued its testing activities. Second fighter — E-50-2 had a different test pilot LII MAP VP Vasin. Second machine was different from the E-50-1 installation "knife" on the trailing edge of the rudder, which increased the size and shape of the vertical stabilizer rear fuselage.

Third version of the fighter — E-50-3 was built in 1957 and was combative. The aircraft was equipped with with 2 guns, HP-30 and sight TSA-5H. Besides fighter differed from its predecessors extended forward fuselage and excessive capacity fuel tanks. Lengthening the bow was made in order to accommodate the supplies of fuel and additional radio equipment. With all of this modernization exposed and the tail of a rocket engine mounting area have also been sharpened edge vozduhopoglotitelya shell. Was significantly reworked instrumentation and electrical equipment, modified fuel system. To facilitate the work of the pilot on the heights of the huge aircraft equipped with altitude compensating suit WCC-3M, a set of oxygen equipment RUC-2M mask and GS-4 having the defroster. Besides fighter equipped with a set of high-altitude equipment for working at heights up to 25,000 meters. During the test, the machine died Institute of Air Force pilot NA Korovin. In-flight explosion, the pilot ejected safely, but the mechanism of uncoupling chair and pilot did not load. Work on the project was stopped.

The performance properties of the E-50:

Dimensions: Wingspan — 8.11 m, length — 14.85 m
Wing area — 21 square meters. m
Maximum take-off weight of the aircraft — 8500 kg.
Motor type — 1 THD AM-9E 1 and S-155 rocket engine, thrust 3800 kg and 1300 kg respectively.
The highest speed — 2460 km / h
Service ceiling — 23,000 m
Armament: 2×30 mm gun HP-30
Crew — 1 person.

Fighter-Interceptor E-50A

For the subsequent tests, work began on the creation of the newest modifications car — the E-50A. The new fighter had to get TRD P-11E-300, and the fuel tank rocket engine on it moved under the fuselage. Its design took into account operating experience E-50, and the design of radically modify. Experience was taken into account, in which the rocket engine maintenance units located inside fighter, accompanied by a huge number of problems and seemed very unsafe. Significantly improve the operational reliability of the fighter could only other assembly parts.

From the engine 155, its system, a tank for hydrogen peroxide, as a fighter E-50 were placed inside the bottom of the keel, but the control system and the power transferred to a specific LRE removable container mounted underneath the fuselage. In addition, a set of control units and power supply has been reduced due to the reduction in the number of fuel tanks under the components, while maintaining the total. In the engine compartment mounted ejector for his purge in the rear fuselage frame added. The fuel supply system turbojet engine P-11E-300 was abandoned itself as an experienced fighter and E-2A, except the abolition of the 2-kerosene tanks (6th and 7th). Horizontal tail, wing, and landing gear lights were one hundred percent so similar in E-2A.

A set of standard equipment interceptor had to include in its own composition: radio RSIU-3 automatic radio ARK-5, prompting the station "Horizon" radio marker MRP-48, an optical sight ASP-5H, which was associated with tellurometer "cone" the defendant "Chrome" and active defendant "Globus-2." By plane also provides for setting heat direction finder search "Jupiter-2."

Armament E-50A fighter is still included the 2nd 30-mm cannon, HP-30 (60 ammunition rounds per gun). In addition to this planned installation 2 vosmistvolnyh blocks ORO-57K to start the 57-mm unguided rockets APC or APC-57-57M. Along with that was worked Trim aircraft guided missile weapons. Since version of an E-50P offered to equip the radar CD-30, which was associated with a system of guided missile weapons K-5M sight TSA-51, hardware guidance system "Azure" and defendant SOD-57M. But these plans are not destiny was realized.

Flight profile E-50A fighter aircraft included a climb of 12 km. when working TRD P-11E-300 afterburning mode, after the turn of the C-155 rocket engine. Estimated ceiling of the new fighter was 27,000 meters. To achieve this height machine was 5.62 per min. The highest speed of 2480 km / h the plane was expected to reach at an altitude of 15,000 meters.

For a long time specifically interceptors with mixed propulsion system were considered as the only real means of combating high altitude South American scout plane U-2. But while the small rocket engine at a great height and omissions methods targeting not guaranteed defeat spy plane. Expend funds for the development of fighter-interceptor, the implementation of which by his own original purpose was rather unclear considered unreasonable. In 1958, all work on the project E-50A aircraft were stopped. At that time, the Soviet Union came to the views on the reduction of funding of military aviation, to promote rocketry. This concept, in general, has borne fruit in the future, when the May 1, 1960 the spy plane U-2 was shot down near Sverdlovsk by the S-75.

The performance properties of the E-50A:

Dimensions: Wingspan — 8.11 m, length — 13.25 m
Wing area — 21 square meters. m
Maximum take-off weight of the aircraft — 9300 kg.
Motor type — 1 P-11 turbojet-300 and 1 S-155 rocket engine, thrust 5100 kg and 1300 kg respectively.
The highest speed — 2480 km / h
Service ceiling — 27,000 m
Armament: 2×30 mm gun HP-30 (60 rounds per gun)
Crew — 1 person.

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