Swiss campaign of Russian troops under the command of Alexander Suvorov (10 (21) of September — September 27 (October 8), 1799) was an outstanding passing army across the Alps. This is an example of traditional warfare in mountainous criteria and the majestic crown of glory of the Russian leader.
Background to the campaign
Hike through the Alps was a continuation of the Italian campaign to the end of August 1799, as a result of the army's Alexander Suvorov in Italy, from the sea, our troops support squadron of Vice-Admiral Ushakov (Mediterranean campaign), almost the entire peninsula was liberated from the French forces. Remains of 35000th French Army General Jean Moreau (about 18 thousand), it broke in Novi, retreated to Genoa. The Genoa area of Italy was the last area under the control of the French. Because the operation to defeat the Genoese factions French Russian-Austrian army under the command of Alexander Suvorov (about 43 thousand), which would have resulted in complete control of Italy, is a natural follow step.
After that Suvorov was planning to carry out a campaign of Paris. And Napoleon, another military genius ever since, was at that time in Egypt, the Russian leader, who has never lost the 1st fight, had to suspend some.
But the brilliant victories of the Russian guns were alarming in Vienna and London — with our "allies" in the war. After the complete liberation of Italy and the taking of Paris Russian positions in Europe became very strong, besides our home could throw in the Apennine peninsula, its military forces on the same basis. London to strengthen the position of Russian empire in the Mediterranean region was like a punch in the chest with a knife.
That's why the "allies" have to press the Russian Federation to go to Switzerland to release it from the French forces. Although it is clear that an attack on Paris automatically solved this dilemma. It is now clear that Austria and the United Kingdom do not want to kill the French in Switzerland, and the Russian army "miracle heroes" Suvorov and our military genius. It is aware of itself and Suvorov, who said the subsequent: "I drove to Switzerland to destroy it." Unfortunately, the Russian government Knight romantic Paul I did not realize it at the time, only to realize later, breaking the case with "allies", concluding an alliance with Napoleon, and started preparing for the impact of the UK — a campaign in India.
Andre Massena titles: Baron de Rivoli, Prince Eslingensky (May 6, 1758, Nice — April 4, 1817) — commander of French republican wars, and then the empire of Napoleon I.
The Austrians were planning to withdraw all of its forces in Switzerland (58 thousand people) and throw them in to help plan the Anglo-Dutch Russian landing force (30 million). Change the Austrian army wanted an army of Suvorov (about 21 thousand) and is located in Switzerland Russian body of Alexander Rimsky-Korsakov (24 thousand). Paul gave consent, but claimed in Vienna, before the withdrawal of the Austrian forces, peel Switzerland from French troops. The Austrians made a promise to do so, but did not do it and began withdrawing troops. Russian corps was left alone against the French army under the command of Massena (84 thousand). However, it should be noted that the Archduke Charles, 18 (29) August 1799 began to divert the Austrian forces, knowing that after the departure of the Austrian army Russian troops get into a desperate situation, under his own responsibility, temporarily, before the arrival of the army of Suvorov, left front on the Swiss 22 thousand troops under the command of General Friedrich von Hotz.
The Russian army under the command of Suvorov made towards Switzerland at 7 am on August 31 (September 10) in 1799, after the capitulation of the French garrison in Tortona. September 10, actually began Swiss campaign, which resulted in a string of large and small battles, skirmishes, unchanging feat Russian fighter.
The main actions
From the outset, began prepyadstviya — the Austrians had to make beasts of burden, provisions and forage. But when the Russian army came to the mountains — there was nothing, izderzhat had a few days to collect the missing food, ammunition. Taking into account that the entire trip was 17 days, the loss has been very principled.
September 12, Russian forces stormed the French troops of the right wing, which was defended by St. Gotthard and the plain of the River Race, they commanded KJ Lecourbe. Specifically, the fight against the Russian troops led team Gudin (4.3 million people) and its supporting team Loison (such as population). Our forces have occupied the St. Gotthard. At this time, Andrew G. Rosenberg (he commanded the advanced column), starting at dawn on September 13 of Tavecha walking down the Reiske plain, ousting the French troops, and in the evening they drove to the village Urzern.
14 (25) September, after connecting to the column Urzerne Rosenberg, Alexander Suvorov sent to the left Preserving the River Reuss (Royce) Regiment under the command of General Kamensky, his goal was to go to the rear of the enemy at the Devil's Bridge. Commander led his forces on the right bank of the north, but met a natural barrier — the so-referred to as Urzernskuyu hole and Devil's Bridge. Urzernskaya hole is a rather narrow and low gallery, which broke into the mountains flanking the flight, length and width of 64 meters, which made it possible to pass only one person with bagged. Then the road descends steeply to a bridge — a narrow stone arch with no handrail 20-meter length, thrown across the river at a height of 22-23 Flight meters. But the "miracle heroes" Suvorov commanded by Colonel Trubnikova guarded by the French were able to bypass tunnel through the mountains and the river gorge and unexpected blow smashed the French squad. Then the French, who were on the opposite bank, began to destroy the bridge, but it is not time to break down, because there were soldiers in the rear Kamensky. Russian soldiers are near the shed was dismantled and closed the failure logs. The first who came to this crossing was an officer Meschersky-third of its fire struck the French, but to suspend the Russian fighter Frenchmen could not, they are under enemy fire forced the barrier and threw back the enemy. Then the Devil's Bridge was repaired in a few hours more seriously, and it will have to cross the main forces of Suvorov.
Suvorov Crossing the Devil's Bridge. Painter A. Kotzebue.
The problem of the upcoming motion
September 15th limp, cold and hungry Russian troops, according to the plan came to a place of Altdorf. There they were expecting a new nasty "surprise." It turned out that from here on the road simply do not! It did not kill the French and did not destroy the elements — the road has never been simply Austrian allies "forgot" Suvorov informed. Schwyz, where there was an army, could be achieved only by Lake Lucerne, but the French captured it all crossing equipment. Of Altdorf there were only two roads — from Shahenskoy plains to the upper reaches of the river and lint from Maderanskoy plains to the upper reaches of the Rhine. But neither the one nor the other roads do not lead to Schwyz and the connection with the body of Rimsky-Korsakov.
The situation was critical. Suvorov learns about the presence of 2-mountain trails, on which at the current ti
me, you can walk with climbing equipment. They were led through the passes of the Alps Rose-Kulm (2,172 meters) and Kinzig-Kulm (2,073 meters) through the snow ridge Roshtok Muten to the village, and from there went on the road to the west of Schwyz. It was a tough choice: supplies of provisions have been exhausted, worn out shoes, the troops are tired of the weekly marches and battles in the mountains. What was needed was an iron will and confidence in their own abilities and the people all of Alexander Suvorov was. Warlord takes to walk along the shortest path — 18 km, the pass-Kinzig Kulm.
With the dawn of 16 (27) September the Russian army made. With the avant-garde was Bagration, followed by parts of the generals and Derfelden Aufenberga later packs. Rosenberg left rear cover. And for good reason, of Rosenberg in the transition of the main forces repelled two attacks Suvorov French corps Lecourbe. Part Rosenberg with 2 columns and left 17 on September 18, and only during the day Lecourbe 18th realized where Suvorov's army left, and sent messages Massena and other French generals. It was an unprecedented shift, the real feat of the Russian spirit. That's why local Swiss then put the Russian army monuments. After 12 hours, the avant-garde came to the village without a fight Muten and captured the French post (150 people). By the evening of the 17th Army and the tail came up.
The last part of the rear guard Rosenberg came to the plain Mutenskuyu September 18. On the same day, Alexander Suvorov received a written report of the defeat of General Linken body Rimsky-Korsakov (14-15 September) and the Austrian squad Hotz (September 14).
Suvorov Crossing the Alps. From 1903-1904, the picture A.Popov
Output from the environment
It was that, having made a unprecedented feat army was on the verge of death or shameful to surrender. The case of Rimsky-Korsakov was a desperate two-day battle with the superior forces of the enemy defeated. Suvorov later wrote to Archduke Charles: "For the blood shed near Zurich, you will answer to God."
Go to Schwyz, occupied the main French forces, was stupid. The Russian army was surrounded in Mutenskoy plain, one-on-one with the superior forces of the enemy, with a limited amount of ammunition and food, exhausted difficult passage through the mountains. Suvorov in the refectory of the Franciscan monastery ladies of St. Joseph held a council of war. There were uttered words, almost all of Prince Svyatoslav monotonous speech before the decisive battle (see Appendix), and decided to break out of the encirclement to the little town of Glarus.
18th army moved: The Austrian team Aufenberga ascended the Bragelberg, was hit by a French guard units and descended to the plain Klentalskuyu, moved her part Bagration Shveykovskogo division and the main force. Rosenberg with 4 tyschami stood Muteena and covered rear.
The French were inspired by the successes of their own, and in the French army reigned triumphant mood, but soon they will have to wash the blood and forget about the victory over the majestic Suvorov and his "miracle heroes." Massena was planning to lock tightly Russian army in the plain. And then force her to surrender. Part of the French forces was targeted to the exit from Klentalskoy plain. Myself warlord with 18 thousand. body headed Schwyz to strike at Muten at the rear of the army of Suvorov.
19 (30) September Aufenberga Austrian team clashed with the French brigade of General Gabriel Molitor and was on the verge of defeat. But it helped Bagration: French defeated, they fled, more than 200 people drowned in the lake ruthenium. September 20 there was a meeting engagement of approximately equal strength (6.5 million people), the French were defeated, suffered huge losses, the way was open for Glarus. But soon, the situation has changed: in the shattered Molitor came Gazan division. Now the French have an advantage capable of fighting broke out with the latest in strength, the village Näfels 5-6 times from hand to hand, but eventually left for Bagration.
Suvorov, to avoid huge losses, gave the order to retreat to Netsstalyu Bagration, in the evening of the 20th the main forces of the Russian army were concentrated in Glarus.
Fight in plain Mutenskoy
At this time the battle was going in the rear between the troops and the forces of A. Rosenberg Andre Massena. 19 September 10 th. power of the masses stormed the 4 th Rosenberg. The first line under the command of the Russian Maxim Rebinder (Suvorov him into a symbol of great respect, calling on the name) has suspended the enemy, and when approached the second line — led by Misha Miloradovich Russian troops went to the counter. French upset and drove 5 miles to Schwyz, there on the orders of Miloradovicha braked.
At night in Muten the pass and let down the last stretch came three regiments. Rosenberg's forces grew to 7 thousand bayonets. 20th Massena decided to apply a new and decisive blow thrown in about 15 thousand people, they went with 3 columns, with a thick chain in front of the shooters. Russian vanguard, commanded Miloradovicha led firefight with the enemy and retreated. Suddenly, the Russian squad broke apart, and before the French were the main forces, they were built in two trehsherengovye strip at a distance of 300 meters from each other. The reserve was two regiments. Here again stunned the French stormed the Russian. They quickly eliminated the gap and began a close fight. Stormed so angry and desperate that some battalions of the 2nd lane ahead of the first line. The French could not stand the pressure, they are enveloped panic, soon turned into a fight the destruction of the French troops. Massena very nearly captured: non-commissioned officer Ivan Mahotin pulled it from the horse and grabbed his collar. Togo got the best of what is on Makhotina attacked a French officer, and while it Mahotin stabbing, Massena fled, leaving in the hands of the hero Suvorov only own gold epaulettes.
It was a complete rout of the French soldiers, pursued by Cossacks surrendered masses, only 6.3 million were killed, more than a thousand prisoners, our overall loss — about 700 people. Shocked Massena dared to organize the latest attack.
Rosenberg also introduced Massena misleading: commander gave an order Schwyz population of about stocking food supplies for two days for the entry 12000th Russian forces. Massena know about mastering Glarus, but decided that this secondary attack, and the main impact will be through Schwyz to Zurich. Because he passed under the command of Soult Schwyz and Zurich went under, so to organize the defense of the impact of reduced body Rimsky-Korsakov. In the end, Massena, who had a significant numerical advantages, refused to take action. Rosenberg manages the third day, with no opposition from the enemy, go for a connection to Suvorov.
Andrew G. Rosenberg (01.21.1739, Riga — 25.8.181, Dark Podolia) — Russian infantry general.
The upcoming movement of the Russian army
Arriving in Glarus, Alexander Suvorov saw that lost the last hope of the help and assistance of the Austrian forces. Austrian general Linken his party for no preconditions left the plains of lint and stepped in Grisons. September 21 (October 2) was separated from the forces of Suvorov and retreated behind Linkenom Aufenberga team. Then, in order to save their own troops Suvorov decided to turn south and go to the city Ilanz (via Schwanden, Elm, Ringenkopf, the plain of the river Rhine). Quite the decision was made at the council on September 23.
The army went on the night of 23 to 24 September, the construction was changed: the progressive forces led Misha Miloradovich him were part of Andrew Rosenberg and Wilhelm
Derfelden and rear covered Petr Bagration, who distinguished himself as the commander of the rear guard handsome, discarded repeatedly attacked from the rear of the enemy.
After midnight, September 25 (October 6), Russian forces are no longer pursued by the enemy, moved on through the pass Ringenkopf (up to 2.4 cu m). It was a very difficult transition: the trail could go entirely alone was a thick fog came in strong winds and snowfall, snow cover reached half a meter. In the transition killed up to 200 Russian fighter, even the highest losses were in the French prisoners — up to 1,400 people. I had to throw all the guns. Had to spend the night on the mountain pass, the 26th was going downhill, day or evening of the Russian troops have gained Ilanz on 27 September — the town of Chur. There, people were able to rest and eat normally, at Kure army was day or two. At this Swiss campaign ended.
— Alexander Suvorov once again justified its own military genius, which has remained unalloyed and Russian soldiers fighting their wonderful properties.
— Our homeland has received a lesson about trust "allies."
— The objectives of the operation — complete defeat of the French army and cleansing from French Switzerland — due to stupidity or treason Austrians were not achieved. While the armies of Alexander Suvorov alone defeated the first right-wing French under the command of Jean Lecourbe who defended on virtually impregnable positions, and then the center of the enemy, under the command of Andre Massena.
— Naikrupneyshy Swiss explorer hike DA Milutin total loss of the Army Alexander Suvorov in Swiss campaign is estimated at 5.1 million people, 1.6 million of their victims, including the victims are not in combat, and frozen, crashed during transitions passes, and about 1 thousand the wounded. This is from the 21 th. army marching to battle. So Makar, from the environment Suvorov brought over three quarters of troops. Common loss, suffered by the French forces, exactly unknown, but it is clear that they were much higher than Russian losses. Thus, their only loss in the Battle of the Plains Mutenskoy was comparable to the total loss of the entire army of Suvorov. Russian commander himself believed that the French suffered the loss in 4 times more than his army. In captivity got 2.8 million French people — half of them died when passing through the pass Ringenkopf. And this despite the fact that, going down in Mutenskuyu plain Suvorov tried not to kill the French army, and the army led out of the encirclement.
— Swiss campaign Suvorov's army was one of the largest for its time an example of warfare Mountain Theater.
— This hike was a real crowning glory of the Russian military leader, the highest point victories of the Russian guns in the 18th century. Paul praised the performance of Suvorov — "Winning is everywhere and in all your life opponents of the Fatherland, for you lacked the 1st — and overcome nature itself, but on her, and you have won the upper hand now." Commander received the highest military rank of the Russian Empire — Generalissimo. The troops had to give Suvorov honors equal to the imperial, even in the presence of the king.
— Paul I was outraged by meanness "allies", withdrew its ambassador from Vienna, dissolved the alliance with Austria. In the same year, has withdrawn its ambassador from the United Kingdom, the Russian housing in the Netherlands, which was under the command of the English, almost "disappeared" because of hunger and disease. Paul abruptly changed his own foreign policy orientations, and began a rapprochement with France and challenged the British Empire.
Unfortunately, Alexander Suvorov could not enjoy a well-deserved honor and merit, bring new victories of the Russian Federation, 6 (18), he went to heaven squad … Endless Memory greatest Russian military leader and his miracle-hero! We must keep in mind that our forefathers had shed rivers of blood and sweat, correcting the mistakes of others and betrayal "allies."
The application. It Suvorov, written with the words Bagration at the council at St. Joseph.
"We are surrounded by mountains … surrounded by a strong adversary, which are puffed up in victory … Since the case with rods, when Emperor Peter the stateliness, Russian troops have never been in such a position of imminent death … No, it's not treason, and the apparent betrayal … a reasonable, calculated betrayal us, so much blood was shed for the salvation of his own Austria. Now do not expect help from anyone, one hope in God, the other — on the greatest courage and high self-sacrifice of troops, you predvodimyh … We will have the works of the greatest, unparalleled in the world! We are on the brink of the abyss! But we — Russian! God is with us! Save, save the honor and wealth of the Russian Federation and its autocrat! .. Save the offspring of him … "Senior General Suvorov after Derfelden on behalf of the whole army of Suvorov assured that each performs its own debt," Everything will move and do not disgrace the Russian guns, and if we fall , then we shall die with glory! Show us where you think, do you know, we're your father, we are Russian "-" Thank you, — said Suvorov — I hope! I'm glad! God have mercy, we are Russian! Thank you, thank you, we divide the enemy! And the victory over him, and the victory over the cunning will win! "