Petrograd Committee of the RCP (B) introduced in the town of martial law, the working zateyschiki were arrested. March 1, sailors and Red Army military fortress of Kronstadt (garrison of 26 thousand people), under the slogan "Power to the Soviets, not the party!" Passed a resolution to support the workers of Petrograd. Thus began the famous Kronstadt uprising.
There are two main points of view on the matter: "Bolshevik" approach, where a military revolt called stupid, criminal, who raised a bunch of adventurers.
The liberal, anti-Soviet approach — When the name of the hero of the rebels to put an end to the policy of "war communism."
Reference: Kronstadt — Is at once a city on the peninsula Kotlin and naval fortress, covered the sea with a capital of Russian Empire — Petersburg. Began to build fortifications under Peter the first in the 1703-1704 years. Most of the 16 forts that make up the castle is placed on natural and artificial islands. North fairway covered small island forts "Obruchev", "Totleben" forts and license number 1 and number 7. South main fairway covered island forts number 1, № 2, "Milutin", "Kronshlot" and "Constantine", the latter was on a narrow promontory on the southern coast of the island of Kotlin. During the military programs from 1908-1915, respectively, on both banks of the Gulf of Finland were built forts advanced "Red Hill", "Eno" and "Grey Horse". In 1918, the fort "Ino", on the northern shore of the bay was blown up, so as not got Finland. At the beginning of February 1921 in the garrison consisted of: Headquarters, 187th Separate Infantry Brigade, 21st aeronautic squad fortress artillery mechanical and auxiliary parts. Total garrison was 16,468, of whom 1,078 officers. The most massive weapons possessed outer fort "Red Hill", four 280-mm mortars, 8-NIL 305-mm guns taken out not only to Kronstadt, and to the Finnish coast.
Kronstadt fortress of the beginning of World War II, after the elimination of errors identified Russian-Japanese war, was of strongest in the world of the coastal fortress, and cope with it if he could not neither German nor the British fleet, nor the whole of the Red Army.
Prerequisites and assumptions
Usually point to the plight of the population — farmers and workers, which ravaged the war, marching since 1914 — the first global, then plainclothes war. In what both sides, white and reddish, giving food to their armies and the town, at the expense of the rural population. According to the country to take a ride wave of peasant uprisings in the rear of white armies, and the Reds. The last of them were in the south of Ukraine, in the Volga region, Tambov. This was the premise of the Kronstadt rebellion.
— Moral decay crews battleships — battleships "Sevastopol" and "Petropavlovsk". In the years 1914-1916 the Baltic battleships did not make a 1st shot at the enemy. Two and a half years, the crews were waiting for access to the sea, but it would be a shame as it may sound-dreadnought battleships and have not made any of the 1st Combat shot of the war. It is easy to think of how it has affected the mental state of the teams.
Upon receiving the news of the February Revolution, sailors battleships of "Sevastopol" staged a feral flogging over his officers in Helsingfors, and later committed the massacre of inhabitants in the town of Kronstadt. It was the first revolution in the mass execution of the officers, during which officers were killed more than August 1914 in all fleets combined.
— The negative impact of the "founding fathers of the commanders'. Replaced in order to assign to the Kronstadt real combat commander who would have brought order to the "sailor's outlaws", where anarchists were strong position. The commander of the Baltic Fleet in June 120, he was appointed — Fyodor Raskolnikov, a protégé of Trotsky-Bronstein.
This commander "famous" few typical exploits, for example: December 26, 1918 Raskolnikov surrendered without a fight British destroyers Baltic destroyer "Spartacus." On the orders of Trotsky, the British immediately offered in exchange for 17 prisoners Raskolnikov British officers.
To the Baltic Fleet, he arrived with a team of assistants, who immediately put it on the fundamental positions — head of the political department of the Baltic Fleet, he proclaimed his own father in law and a prominent Trotskyist Reisner. Chief of Staff, made his own chief of staff for the Volga-Caspian Flotilla Vladimir Kukel. His team, instead of restoring order, immediately recognize the continued drunkenness, exacerbating so bad morale in the fortress.
On the "positive" side was noted and the young wife of Raskolnikov, who took a couple of posts in the headquarters of the fleet — Larissa Reysneyr (she called herself "komorsi" — Naval Commander). She took an apartment a former Secretary of the Navy Grigorovich, causing different expensive toilets, luxury odezhki, the apartment was filled with luxuries. Normal Philistine Gentilhomme.
— Promotion of Trotskyism. Raskolnikov did not actually engaged in official business, and the time devoted to not drinking, dedicated spread thoughts of Trotskyism. He strongly undermined the position of the Bolsheviks favorites, intense he helped Larissa Reisner and Misha.
Raskolnikov could draw Kronstadt party group of about 1.5 thousand Bolsheviks' discussion on the trade unions. " January 10, 1921 in Kronstadt accomplished discussion of party activists. Trotsky's platform supported Raskolnikov, and Lenin — Kuzmin, Commissar of the Baltic Fleet. After a three day or a general meeting of the Kronstadt Communists with the same agenda.
In the end, 27 January Raskolnikov was shifted from the post of commander of the fleet, and the acting was appointed Kukel.
March 1 was issued a resolution on the support of the workers of Petrograd, with the slogan "All power to the Soviets, not the Communists." Claimed the release from prison of all the representatives of the socialist parties of the elections to the Soviets, and their exclusion from the all Communists, freedom of speech, assembly and association for all parties, freedom of trade, handicrafts permission by their labor, permits farmers to freely use their own land, and dispose of products own economy, in other words the elimination of food dictatorship. To maintain order in Kronstadt and the defense of the fortress was created Provisional Revolutionary Committee (IMC) headed by a sailor Petrychenko, other than that the committee included his deputy Yakovenko, Arkhipov (machine foreman) Tukin (Master of Electromechanical Plant) and Oreshin (head of the third labor the school).
March 3 Petrograd Petrograd province were declared a state of siege. Kronstadt sought open and transparent negotiations with the authorities, but the position of the latter with the start of events was given: no negotiation or compromise, the rebels must lay down their weapon without any criterion. Envoys, who were sent the rebels were arrested.
March 4th Committee of Defense of Petrograd to Kronstadt was given an ultimatum. The rebels had either to accept it or defend. On the same day in the fortress of a meeting of the delegates' meeti
ng, which was attended by 202 people. It was decided to defend himself. At the suggestion of Petrychenko composition RMC has been increased from 5 to 15 people.
March 5 by the authorities ordered the operational measures to eliminate the rebellion. Was restored 7th Army, under the command of Misha Tukhachevsky, who were instructed to prepare an operational plan for the assault and "as soon as possible to suppress the uprising in Kronstadt." 7th Army armored trains and increase the squadrons. On the shores of the Gulf of Finland was concentrated above 45 thousand bayonets.
March 7, 1921 began shelling of Kronstadt.
March 8, 1921 part of the Red Army stormed the Kronstadt, the assault was repulsed. Began regrouping of forces massed additional parts.
On the night of March 16, after a long artillery bombardment of the fortress began a new assault. The rebels saw attacking Russian part very late. So, the soldiers of the 32nd Brigade without a single shot could go up to a distance of one mile and a half to the town. Attackers were able to break into the Kronstadt, in the morning resistance was kinked.
In the process of fighting for the Kronstadt Reddish Army lost 527 men killed and 3,285 people injured. The rebels have lost about a thousand people were killed, 4.5 thousand (half of them — wounded) were captured, some fled to Finland (8 thousand), was shot by sentence of revolutionary tribunals — 2103 people. Thus ended the Baltic wrestler.
Features of the uprising
— Almost a rebellion raised only a portion of the sailors, later joined the rebels forts and garrisons of several individual commoners of the town. Unity of sentiment was not, if the garrison supported the rebels, to crush the rebellion in the strongest place would be a lot harder and more blood would be spilled. Sailors of the Revolutionary Committee did not trust the garrison of the fort, so the fort "Reef" was directed — over 900 people to "Totleben" and "Obruchev" 400. The commandant of the fort "Totleben" Jora Langemak, the future chief engineer RNII and one of the "fathers" of "Katyusha", refused to obey the Revolutionary Committee, for which he was arrested and sentenced to death.
— Demands of the rebels were pure stupidity and would not have been made in the criteria of just war ended in civilian clothes and Interventions. Let's say the slogan "Soviets without Communists": The Communists were virtually the entire state apparatus, the backbone of the Red Army (400 thousand out of 5.5 million), commanders of the Red Army on 66% of graduate courses kraskomov of workers and farmers, appropriately treated communist propaganda. Without this housing managers, our homeland again boomed into the abyss of war and the latest plainclothes would begin intervention fragments of snow-white movement (only in Turkey stationed 60000th Russian army Baron Wrangel, made up of the most experienced fighters who had nothing to lose). Limits were placed on the young country, Poland, Finland, Estonia, who were not averse to chop off a piece of land still blond. They would be supported by the "allies" of the Russian Federation in the Entente.
Who will take power, who and how to run the state, where to get food, etc. — To find answers to the gullible and irresponsible resolutions and unrealistic demands of the rebels.
— The rebel commanders were bestalantnymi, militarily, and did not use all abilities to defend (for sure, and thank God — and that blood was spilled a lot more). For example, Major-General Kozlovsky Kronstadt artillery commander and several other military experts immediately offered to storm the Revolutionary Committee of the Red Army on both sides of the bay, namely, to seize the fort "Red Hill" and the district Sestroretsk. But neither the members of the Revolutionary Committee, nor the rank and file insurgents were not going to leave Kronstadt, where they felt themselves safe behind armored battleships and concrete forts. Their passive position and led to the defeat of Hassle.
During the fighting powerful battleships and artillery forts controlled by the rebels, was not used to their full capacity and has not put special losses Bolsheviks.
Military Administration of the Red Army, Tukhachevsky, there were not too satisfactory. If the rebels ruled experienced commanders, storming the Bastille would have been a failure, and the attackers have washed the blood.
— The two sides did not hesitate to lie. The rebels released the first issue of "Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee", where the main "news," states that "the general uprising in Petrograd." In fact, the excitement in Petrograd factories began to wane, some ships stationed in Petrograd, and the garrison varied and took a neutral position. The vast majority of fighter and sailors supported by the government.
Zinoviev also lied that in Kronstadt leaked White Guard and British agents who tossed gold left and right, and the revolt raised the general Kozlovsky.
— "Heroes" management Kronstadt Revolutionary Committee headed by Petrychenko, realizing that the jokes were over, even at 5 am on March 17 on a car left on the ice of the Gulf of Finland. Right behind them rushed normal weight sailors and fighter.
The result was the weakening of Trotsky-Bronstein: top of recent economic policy is automatically pushed Trotsky's position on the second plan and absolutely discredited his plans for the militarization of the economy. March 1921 was a turning point in our history. The restoration of the statehood and economy, an attempt to plunge Russia into the latest Smoot was foiled.
Kronstadt in 1921. Documents. / Our homeland XX century. M., 1997
Semanov SN Kronstadt rebellion. Moscow, 2003.