Such events are usually carefully hidden developed special departments whose staff were constantly checking and introduced into the confidence of the reverse side, working as currently adopted read, "under cover". The data on these transactions is long years kept hidden in the archives of various military organizations, and only with time, having lost its relevance, became the property of the media and the public.
One of those organized by U.S. intelligence activities, and England became "Operation Gold» («Gold») or "Stopwatch» («Stopwatch»), which is in Russian Union wore another name — "The Berlin tunnel. " This operation is considered one of the most ambitious in its own way. From the opening day or disk imaging it attracts to itself for increased attention of journalists, historians, and concerned individuals. But, despite the detailed study of the materials that were presented in the form of 18 research and the 1st movie in the role of head of the actor those distant events are still many open questions.
A similar operation under the title of "Silver" was successfully held in 1952, the Yankees when they successfully managed to listen to all the important negotiations on the Russian special services areas of Austria. Encouraged by the success, having received the necessary experience and are now interacting with staff from England, exploration United States decided to repeat the proven scheme, but now in Berlin.
Beginning of the operation was preceded by a long preparation. Yankee was clear that the end of the 1940s Russian intelligence services operating in the areas of Germany and Austria, have decided to abandon the use of radio channels, focusing on overhead and underground cables. With the help of servants East Berlin Post Office, a number of which have been implemented security agents, the CIA managed to get a detailed layout of cables and information on how to use them. Missing information given card containing a reference to the location of cables, mined in the German Ministry of Posts and Communications. Finding and recruiting new agents in Dresden and Magdeburg given the opportunity to find out about all aspects of the functioning of the Russian lines. Based on the acquired information, the Americans, since the spring of 1953, could already hear their interesting phone bands from 23 pm to 2 am. But that it was not enough, they are attracted by the prospect of producing continue to monitor incoming information on Russian channels.
To achieve this goal in August of 1953 for the approval of CIA director Allen Dulles was presented with a plan for the construction of an underground tunnel with a length of 600 meters. Half of the tunnel was to run under the Russian zone of occupation. Dulles approved the project in January 1954, and three weeks later began preliminary work on the construction project, the initial step of which was the construction of a special bunker, masking the entrance to the tunnel.
Allen Dulles was director of the CIA from 1953 to 1961st years. Specifically, he led the organization's work style and place in the American intelligence community. After a failed trial invasion of Cuba in 1961, the year of Dulles resigned. Retired, he released several autobiographical books. In the 1969th Allen Dulles died of pneumonia.
Management of the CIA did not hesitate to success started the company — all commissioned works were carried out in the criteria for excessive secrecy, for the realization of the plan allocated fairly huge amounts of money was acquired by the British super-modern technology. Neither side of the man was not allowed to conduct work, and all employees were arriving on a hidden area of construction trucks, so as not to cause unnecessary suspicion. Measures of secrecy observed in the preparation of construction plans, the circle of people who know about the operation was limited to a minimum. Since the Anglo-American meeting held in London in December 1953, was attended by only eight people. Open a discussion on the issues of the forthcoming meeting of the cooperation of the American and British intelligence, as current prepyadstviya construction of the tunnel. But despite all of the above measures, in the middle of the eight, having access to the concept of hidden disk imaging, was a man who worked with the Russian secret services. His name was George Blake, and later he was in the British capital has managed to transfer all the information about the object contained in the minutes of the meeting, a resident of the KGB Kondrashov. Then he took out a lot of relevant information about the construction and during the operation of a secret tunnel, which allowed the Russian special services to keep abreast of what is happening almost at first hand.
According to the plans of the tunnel was dug at a depth of 5 meters and a half, and the entrance is protected fireproof steel door. It ends on the Russian countryside in East Berlin a small room, and from which it is an isolated connection to the communication channels. This room was connected to the hall, where was located a special apparatus for the recording and processing of data. The facility was put in place in the middle of the year 1955. After all the build work was connected to the South American exploration interest lines.
From now on, and began the most fascinating when the founders of "Operation Gold" sparingly absorbed every word that fixed the equipment. Russian side, respecting privacy and wanting to remain incognito Blake, not to disclose about their own awareness and tossed the enemy little significant information. In order to avoid any leakage of information Russian citizen of Germany, working on the ground people did not have information about the secret tunnel. Allen Dulles times reported on the success of the operation, which was very fruitful. Once a day with a 3-listening cables, consisting of thousands of communications
channels, half of which at any time of the day were active, the data were taken from 121 telephone and telegraph lines 28. Later, the Americans reported about 443 tyschah recorded talks, which resulted in the analytical department of the reports was compiled in 1750.
By studying the extracted information, the South American intelligence reported on the principal particulars about nuclear programs from the USSR, the home bases of vessels and other objects of the Baltic Fleet, about the data wraps off of more than three hundred officers working for the GRU, the Soviet Union, and other facts of the activities of Russian intelligence. In accordance with constant reports of an operation the Americans were aware of all the political goals of the Russian side, as in Berlin, as well as on other sites. That of the acquired information was false, and that the truth is now quite difficult to establish. But the Yankees was not held for fools, and the Russian counter-intelligence at times "merge" them with reliable information.
Tirelessly worked the center staff handling phone calls, consisting of 317 people. Its main purpose was to review the information that came flow. Employees rewrote the paper every phone conversation recorded on the magnetic reel 20 tyschah for up two hours of negotiations. In addition to listening to the Russian side for special attention and services fell discussion Germans, who also recorded, but have not been so diligent analysis. Of the seventy-five thousand recorded discussions Germans was transferred to the paper only the fourth part of the records. Apart from the above listed information processing personnel coming through telegraph lines, worked another 350 employees. They had to once a day to remove the data from the ticker-tape extending more than 1 kilometer. Employees of the center were transferred to paper data 18-thousand six-hour reels of Russian and eleven thousand reels of German telegrams, some of which were encrypted. By the way, work on deciphering lasted right up to the end of September, 1958, after two years from the day or detecting the tunnel.
It is easy to imagine what the real costs were necessary to ensure the continuous operation of the process is so labor intensive for eleven months and eleven days that lasted the tunnel. According to information provided by the South American intelligence agencies in general surgery at the "Gold" has been spent over 60 million dollars today, while it was about 6.7 million dollars. Most likely, these numbers are underestimated.
In the spring of 1956, the Office of the USSR takes a decision on publicizing the existence of a secret tunnel. It is touted as an outrageous act of violation of international law, and, obviously, immediately poses the question of the veracity of the Yankees treated them all the disk imaging. On this occasion, presentation professionals CIA divided. Some thought that since the Russian party knew of the existence of "wiretapping", the channels transmitted in advance incorrect information. Others were of the view that the acquired data was accurate, but did not have a special significance for the Soviet Union, kept secret because they did not pay tribute to attention.
Problems, of course, in the U.S. intelligence had a huge amount, but among them the most important question arose as to how the Soviet Union learned of the planned operation. Only in the 1961st on the testimony of a Golenevskogo, which as a member of the Polish intelligence, the CIA transferred control information about the agent in the Russian part of MI6, was clear about the involvement of George Blake to the failure of the operation. Blake, who was at that time in Beirut, was ordered to return to London, allegedly for a new purpose. But upon arrival at the headquarters of the SIS, he was arrested and interrogated, and undeniable evidence coerced to confess agent in cooperation with the Russian side. The main focus Blake did on that information transmitted only on the basis of their ideological judgments, and not under pressure from the KGB. Even the urgent entreaties of the investigators admit working to simplify the proceedings, not forced him to change the decision. In May 1961, the Tribunal held, which became a true sensation and received wide publicity, both in foreign and in the Russian press. By its decision, Blake was sentenced to forty-two years in prison. And he could sit out the rest of his life behind bars, if after 4 years, 22 October 1966, a group of friends did not help him arrange an escape from Wormwood Scrubs bullpen, and then ferried him to Moscow.
At this time, Michael began to cooperate with the KGB, working on the ground in Switzerland and West Germany. In 1958, the year of Golenevskogo CIA received a letter offering to become a double agent. Despite the long list of Russian spies issued by Michal South American secret services, the management of the CIA never trusted him, counting on former employee of the KGB, "merge" secondary agents to remove attention from the really fundamental spies. In the summer of 1963 Golenevsky was able to reach the South American citizenship and left Poland. For betraying the homeland he was sentenced in absentia to death penalty.
Many motives of his actions so far remain unclear. That only is a public statement in 1960, that he is the "Crown Prince Alexei Romanov." In the 1964th South American intelligence sent Golenevskogo down, as there were numerous evidence of his mental imbalance. Died "crown prince" in New York in July 1993. Throughout recent years, he never ceased to pour gryazyuku our country and, in particular, the Orthodox Church has never recognized him as a descendant of the Romanov family.
Now is not very many people understand the true biography of George Blake — an unusual man whom the press once dubbed "the champion of intelligence." Born George Behar changed his name when the 1942nd he urgently needed to move to the UK where he was going to continue his fight against the Nazis. But after going through the entire area occupied France, George was arrested while crossing the Spanish border. Having released, he still got to the UK, where in 1943 it went as a volunteer to serve in the Navy. Later, he entered the Naval Academy, and after it has been defined in the submarine.
Life of George Blake changed dramatically after August 1944, he was transferred to British intelligence, the Dutch section. At the end of the war, after the surrender of the Germans, Blake moved to Holland to build links with abandoned there before the war by British agents. After the war, the main object of interest to British intelligence, was the Soviet Union, and already has experience spy sent to Hamburg, where George initially without the help of others, and then with the assistance of management studied Russian language.
Blake became a resident of the SIS in October 1948 in Seoul, where he was entrusted to collect information on the Russian eastern territories of the Union. But the outbreak of the Korean War broke plans and George, along with other representatives of the belligerent with Kim Il Sung's hand interned and deported to the camp. In the spring of 1951, Blake managed to pass through the 1st of the Korean officers a note to the Embassy of the USSR, which requested a meeting with the representative of the Russian external intelligence. Specifically, this meeting was made the offer of cooperation coming from Blake, who immed
iately said, a lot of valuable disk imaging of the British MI6 and promised to give details of all intelligence operations directed against the Russian Union. How could control Russian intelligence abandon so deceived by a proposal?
At the end of the Korean War in 1953, it was George returned to London to continue his work in the hidden intelligence service of England. Soon he was appointed deputy head of the department for the development of technical operations, the functions of which consisted in the organization of a secret listening abroad. In that position, Blake passed our country valuable reviews on the exploration of Great Britain, of which, apart from other things, Russian intelligence services could not figure out how familiar political opponents of the military secrets of the Russian Union. When at the end of 1953, at a joint meeting of the secret CIA and SIS, which took place in London, it was decided to start operations on the tunnel lining, Blake immediately informed the Moscow, which decided not solve anything and use this channel to the back of the misinformation.
In 1956, the year of the existence of a secret tunnel was to threaten security of the USSR. Khrushchev decided to disclose this disk imaging for the masses to discredit the enemies of the political arena. For this we used the adverse weather conditions that contributed to the discovery of a case Tipo mysterious cable at the fault lines in the area of East Berlin.
Almost as big a failure of operation that spent millions, very bad impact on the upcoming career not only of the Allen Dulles, and the members of his family, who also held the highest municipal offices. On the basis of the events in George Blake, Colonel outdoor exploration, wrote two books: "Transparent Walls" and "no other choice." In April 2012, the Russian Federation on the TV channels broadcast a new artistic and documentary film, symbolically dubbed the "Select Agent Blake", in which assumed the role of the main character, has broken the operation "Gold" and caused at the time of the world wide public resonance.
November 11, 2012, the year a day of its own 90th anniversary, holder of many notable awards and titles, honored spy George Blake got plenty of congratulations, among which there was also the welcome from Vladimir Putin. President of the Russian Federation thanked the colonel for the successful execution of its tasks in a difficult time for the whole world.