American physicists Sean Carroll, a professor of physics at the University of Chicago and his graduate student Jennifer Chen put forward the hypothesis that the Big Bang is not a unique event in the evolution of the infinite universe. The universe itself, according to the findings of Carroll and Chen, arises from the random fluctuations of energy.
In their study, Carroll and Chen looked at two ambitious questions: why time always flows in one direction, and can be a consequence of the Big Bang energy fluctuation in empty space (which is consistent with the known laws of physics)?
For a whole century, the question of temporary vector worried scientists because, according to Carroll, "most of the fundamental laws of physics do not differ in the past and the future. They are symmetric with respect to time."
This question is closely related to the concept of entropy measures randomness of the universe. How about a hundred years ago showed physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, entropy naturally grows over time. "You can turn an egg into an omelet, but an omelet into an egg to pay in any case will not work," — says Carroll.
It is unclear, however, why entropy was so low in the early universe. Most scholars tend to leave the solution of this issue, "the future." Carroll and Chen did not do this and found the answer right now.
Previously, researchers have, in dealing with the Big Bang, based on the premise that the entropy of the universe is a finite quantity. Carroll and Chen argue that the entropy of the universe is infinite and, therefore, can grow indefinitely.
To give a clear explanation of why the universe looks today exactly as it looks, it is necessary to take account of the enlargement process. The theory of the expansion is in addition to the Big Bang theory, according to which a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe went through a major expansion.
But there is one problem: this whole universe would have been to a microscopic particle of matter that has very improbable structure — perhaps it could be called "a randomly chosen initial state." According to Carroll and Chen actually reset should be reminded cold empty space. It is believed by some scholars in the universe with a finite entropy random fluctuation could trigger the extension. However, this implies that the molecules must go from high to low entropy. But this explanation seems far-fetched.
"Conditions for the start of the expansion can not be that simple. We believe that the random fluctuation is more likely to give birth to the universe, rather than initiate a process of expansion." The scenario proposed by Carroll and Chen, to some extent inspired by the discovery of "dark matter" and the conclusions of the scientists that under its influence the universe will expand forever (formerly dominant theory of the cyclical expansion and contraction of the Universe).
Under the condition of perpetual expansion of the universe its natural state is almost complete void. "Entropy increases, the universe is expanding and becoming more emptier," — says Carroll.
Battery News, 28.10.2004 13:16