Interesting






Survive in nature

Lend Lease — the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

The population of the earth has gone through one of the more languid eras in the history of its existence — the twentieth century. There were a lot of wars, but more languid challenge was the second global war. To this day remains an unlimited number of episodes, facts, events and names, of which no one knows. And there is a real danger that about them and no one will find out if the witnesses did not say that. Among these little-known facts — south american Lend-Lease Russian Union, during which the Soviet Union supplied military equipment, food, weapons, equipment, ammunition, and strategic raw materials. According to some political judgments, these deliveries were classified right up to 1992, and knew of them only specific members.

The total acquired Lend-Lease Russian Union was worth about 9.8 billion dollars. Help America at that time was really invaluable, and has become one of the key reasons that contributed to the defeat of Nazi forces.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union
A column of U.S. military trucks carrying freight on Lend-Lease in the Soviet Union, is on the road in East Iraq

At the same time, the Russian authorities not only artificially made a negative outlook on the U.S. aid, and kept it a closely guarded secret, and all individual participants often put outside the law. But the time has finally come to dot the "i" and find at least some of the truth about the so fruitful (probably the only one in history) co 2-superpowers.

As the South American and Russian pilots, navigators, who participated in the distillation of aircraft to transport cargo and maintenance, performed a real feat, skirting more than half of the world because our generation should not, just do not have the right to have forgotten their sacrifice and heroism.
Officially opened negotiations on Lend-Lease Act was initiated in the last days of September 1941. From the U.S. side in the talks perceived role A.Garriman, which specifically sent to Moscow South American president. October 1, 1941 years, they signed a protocol concerning the supply in the Russian Alliance, which amounted to one billion dollars. Term of delivery — nine months. But, despite this, only at the beginning of November 1941 the South American president signed a decree that the law the Lend-Lease Act (the full title of the document Eng. «An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States» («The law on the protection of the United States "), enacted by the U.S. Congress 03.11.1941 years) applies to the Russian alliance.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

South American bomber A-20 "Boston» (Douglas A-20 Havoc/DB-7 Boston), crashed at the airport in Nome (Nome) in Alaska during the distillation in the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease. Later plane has been renovated and successfully delivered to the Soviet-German front. Source: Library of Congress

First deliveries of weapons and equipment began in October and the end of the year in the Russian Alliance was delivered 256 airplanes valued at 545 thousand dollars. The sum of all air lend-lease during the war amounted to 3.6 billion dollars. But from the beginning there are certain difficulties in distillation. Unable to reach the exact organization of supply. In particular, the situation deteriorated in the winter time, when it became clear that South American planes are not adapted to cold: when severe frosts tire rubber becomes brittle, hydraulic ledenela. Therefore, it was decided to exchange technologies: Russian party shared frost rubber production technology, and South American — hydraulics, resistant to frost.

But still huge difficulties experienced people. The pilots in the distillation process through the Verkhoyansk Range had to climb to great heights (5-6 km), without oxygen devices. For many it was not able to do, and a lot of plane crashes, falling on the mountains. Similar cases have occurred in a stretch of 3 years until the distillation was carried out. In the Russian taiga still find fragments of the remains of the aircraft with the pilots, and how many were found. In addition, many aircraft with crew simply disappeared.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Gen. AM Queens, and Major General Donald Connelly (Donald H. Connolly), commander of customer service in the Persian Gulf are shaking hands on a background of the first train passed through the Persian Corridor in the supply of dollars in the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease. Source: Library of Congress.

In total, during the war of America in the Russian Alliance was forwarded more than 14 thousand aircraft: Bell P-39 "Cobra" Curtiss "Kitihouk" and "Tomahawks," Douglas A-20 "Boston", Consolidated PBY «Catalina" Ripablik P-47 "Thunderbolt", the North-American B-25 "Mitchell".

Most of these aircraft (about 8 thousand) was surpassed by Alaska-Siberia route. In Murmansk shipped from the UK fighter Supermarine "Spitfire" Hawker "Hurricane" is also the bombers Handley-Page "Hampden". Lend-Lease Act were also sold to one of the more obscure aircraft — "Armstrong Albermarl."

The planes that were made on the location U.S., were distilled South American and Canadian pilots in Alaska, and then distilled to their locality Russian Union of Russian pilots Ferry Division, which was created specifically for this purpose and consisted of five regiments.
Many of the older generation remember jeeps, planes, also "Studebakers" and South American stew, which were supplied under Lend-Lease.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Memory photo Russian and American pilots at the airport in Fairbanks at the fighter Bell P-63 Kingcobra. In Alaska, the South American aircraft built for the Lend-Lease to the USSR handed Russian side, and Russian pilots distilled them into the Russian alliance.

Apart from a lot of help in the real plane, played a major role South American Lend-Lease and in terms of emotional support Russian troops. Being on the front, many Russian fighters felt more confident when beheld in the sky foreign aircraft to support them. Well, the civilian population, seeing that the Americans and the British help resources, you understand that it's in almost everything can assist to defeat Nazi Germany.

South American planes were always visible on the front. They have supported and protected from air sea convoys of cargo during the siege of Leningrad air defense fighter made it "Kitihouk" they bombed the German maritime transport in the Gulf of Finland, participated in the liberation of Ukraine, Kuban.

Apart from aircraft, Russian Alliance of Lend-Lease supplied as jeeps, though, according to the Russian side, they asked for the supply of motorcycle access. But on the advice of Secretary of State Edward Stettinius were delivered specifically military cars, as the Yankees had a large and very successful experience of using them. The total acquired jeeps during the war amounted to 44 thousand units.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Jubilant residents of Sofia welcomes Russian fighter joining the Bulgarian capital on the tanks, "Valentine» (Valentine), comes in the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease. Source: Estonian History Museum (EAM) / F4080.

In addition, under the lend-lease cars there were 50 models, the producers of which 26 were American, British and Canadian companies. Completing them performed significantly huge number of plants.

The largest number among all the cars were put South American Studebaker trucks US 6 and REO — it amounted to 152 thousand copies. The total volume of these vehicles amounted to about 478 thousand units, excluding parts (and there still would be enough to build a few thousand cars).

Although the documents were signed later, but first naval convoys of lend-lease goods have already been targeted in the Soviet Union in August 1941. They were designated PQ (the initials of an English officer naval Edwards). Cargo transported to Murmansk, Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk. At first ships arriving in Reykjavik, where they sformirovyvaetsya in caravans on 20 ships, and then accompanied by protection of military ships and transported to the area of the USSR. But very soon the German intelligence service had a clear position of the convoy routes. And then began the loss. One of the biggest losses is the episode that took place in July 1942, when 36 out of a total of 11 ships survived for more than 4 days are found hundreds of tanks, aircraft and two hundred three thousand cars. In total, during the war by German submarines and torpedo was sunk 80 ships, even in spite of the fact that for their protection involved warships and aircraft. British and South American naval forces in the North Atlantic have lost 19 warships.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union
Russian team for testing aircraft "Hurricane." Fighters of this model were delivered to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease.

Need to see that in Russian history left a lot of black spots in relation to the Lend-Lease. Worldview that Americans deliberately delaying delivery, waiting, when the Russian regime will fall, was at the time accepted. But at the same time, there are many questions: Why Americans with such haste perceived law the Lend-Lease Act and its expansion to the Soviet area? Can it be considered an accident that the war "kept within" a period of this law?

Moreover, some researchers have put forward the theory that the South American Lend-Lease — is the result of the Russian intelligence service. Walking even rumors that a huge role in the signing of the law the Lend-Lease Act specifically played by Stalin himself — Tipo it, in order to prevent the spread of Nazism, had intended the first to start a war against Nazi Germany and very pinned his hopes on help from the West in this war. But this is just a rumor, no documentary evidence supporting the theory does not yet exist.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Russian aircraft engine repairing fighter P-39 "Cobra" comes in the USSR from the U.S. Lend-Lease program there, in the field criteria. The unusual layout scheme of a fighter is to place the engine behind the pilot's cabin near the center of gravity.

In any case, you need to pay tribute to Stalin in this regard. It can be said, has shown himself a genius actually diplomacy, turning lend-lease supplies to the utility for USSR. When it became clear that the United States and Britain have expressed readiness to assist the Soviet Union, he first mentioned the word "sell", but pride, or some other reasons, did not give any American or British parties to seek payment. In addition, Russian troops very often that getting any technique that was initially designed to the British, namely, ATVs Bantam, which was not so much not enough.

Apart from anything else, Russian leader did not hesitate to chastise allies for being poorly packaged goods, also allude to the fact that if Russian troops will not be able to continue military action, the burden will fall on the British war.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

The assembly of aircraft Bell P-63 "Kingcobra" on the South American plant, the view from the top. 12 exhaust pipes on eac
h side of an obvious sign of "Kingcobra" (for the P-39 "Cobra" — 6 sockets). Applied on the fuselage-star insignia Russian Air Force — the aircraft is intended to be sent to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease.

Note that delivery actually did not stop the war, except for the 1st time in 1942, when Britain was preparing for operations in Africa, and the 1 st time in 1943, when the planned landing of the Allied forces in Italy.

After the war, part of the technique, according to previous agreements, the Russian side has handed back the Allies. But at the same time there was also a decent debt of the USSR to the United States under the Lend-Lease, the balance of which amounting to 674 million dollars Russian government refuses to pay, citing discrimination against the Soviet Union by the Yankees in a trade. But already in 1972, an agreement was signed under which the Soviet Union agreed to pay 722 million U.S. dollars. The last payment under the agreement was held in 2001.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Transfer of Russian sailors from the Navy frigate United States. 1945. South American patrol frigates of the "Tacoma" (1509/2238-2415t displacement, speed 20 knots, armament: 3 76-mm guns, two 40-mm twin "Bofors", Sept. 20-mm "Oerlikon", 1 jet Sticky bomb launcher "Hedzhehog" , 2 and 8 of the release gear on board mortars (ammunition — 100 depth charges) were built in 1943-1945. In 1945, 28 ships of this type have been under the Lend-Lease Act passed in the Soviet Union, where they were reclassified as patrol ships and was given the designation "EC-1 "-" EC-30. "the first group of 10 vessels (" EC-1 "-" EC-10 ") was adopted by the Russian crew July 12, 1945 in Cold Bay (Alaska) and 15 July ubyla in the USSR. In August 1945, the ships took part in the Russo-Japanese War. Another 18 ships ("EC-11" — "EC-22" and "EC-25" — "EC-30") were adopted Russian crew in August and September 1945 and its role in the hostilities did not perceive. February 17, 1950 all 28 ships have been excluded from the Navy in connection with the return of the U.S. Navy in Maizuru (Japan).

So Makar, belittling the value of military equipment, ammunition and food, which were carried out by South American and British allies, were carried out on the basis of ideological principles ever since. This was done Tipo in order to confirm the postulate that the Russian military economy is not just huge, but just a tremendous an advantage over the economy of the capitalist countries, thus not only Germany, and the United States of America and England.

In contrast to the Russian point of view, in American historiography, as it actually happens constantly in the West, the role of the lend-lease supplies always seemed a decisive factor in the possibility of the Soviet Union to continue to fight against Nazi Germany.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union
Russian fighter American-built P-39 "Cobra» (Airacobra), is supplied to the USSR under the Lend-Lease program there, in flight.

But however it was not judgment, it is impossible to deny the fact that the Lend-Lease has provided significant support to Russian country in difficult times.

In addition it must be said that on the territory of the former Russian Union of virtually nothing left that would have served as a reminder of the heroism of our people, who surpassed South American planes were taken and accompanied transports, except maybe 3 malehankih museums and the remains of aircraft. At the same time, Alaska and Canada has seen quite the opposite picture — plaques and huge museums, well-kept cemetery. Each year in the towns through which the trail are held celebrations in honor of the veterans.

Maybe it is time to reflect and at least try to change something? After all, this is also part of the war, have forgotten that we are not just right.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Italian soldiers in the downed Russian medium tank M3 "General Lee". Tanks M3 «General Lee" in the Soviet Union of South American supplied under Lend-Lease. Summer 1942 Location: south-eastern Ukraine (Donbass) or the Rostov region, the Stalingrad sector.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

A rare photo of the Russian tankers and tanks M3A1 "Stuart" in the U.S. headsets, with the Thompson submachine gun M1928A1 and M1919A4 machine gun. South American technique leaves the Lend-Lease absolutely equipped — with equipment and even a small tool for the crew.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union
Russian pilots are taking the South American average bomber A-20 (Douglas A-20 Boston), passed the Lend-Lease. Aerodrome Nome (Nome), Alaska. Source: Library of Congress.
Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

="font-size:8pt;">English ladies are preparing tank "Matilda" to be sent to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease. In England, then all Russian was very fashionable and popular, so that workers with sincere pleasure output on the armor of the tank Russian word. 1st 20 "Matilda" arrived in Arkhangelsk with a caravan of PQ-January 11 October, and just before the end of 1941, the Soviet Union came to 187 such tanks. In total, the Soviet Union sent 1084 "Matilda" from their 918 Fri reached the destination, while others have been lost in transit by drowning transports convoys.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Russian armored reconnaissance M3A1 Scout Car, supplied under Lend-Lease, in a battle in the streets of Vienna, Austria. The car of the 1st Guards Mechanized Corps 3rd Ukrainian Front.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Sending a tank "Valentine» (Valentine) in the USSR Lend-Lease program there. The tank with the inscription «Stalin» transported by truck from the factory in port.Foto made September 22, 1941, when a tank factory Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. festive meeting on which was invited Russian salting Ivan Maisky. In the photo, "valentine" versions Mk.II.

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Company of American tanks M3s "General Lee", comes in the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease Act, extends to a front line of defense Russian 6th Guards Army. July 1943

Lend Lease - the history of U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union

Fighter P-63 "Kingcobra" previously supplied to the USSR under the Lend-Lease Act, returned to the U.S. and South American technicians inspected. AFB Great Falls, USA.

Applied Materials:
http://www.pravda.ru/world/nationals/nasledie/08-05-2003/32832-lendliz-0/
http://blog.i.ua/community/662/703824/
http://www.utro.ru/articles/2005/04/27/433264.shtml