In the middle of the reasons that had an impact on the final choice of the suzerain Verhovskom princes, the chief became their Russian origin (they were the descendants of Prince Vsevolod Misha Chernigov) and loyalty to Orthodoxy. A role played by the factor of proximity to the feral field. From the steppes often raided units of the Crimean Khanate, and the case between Moscow and the Crimea during the reign of Ivan III remained friendly. First exchange of letters between the powers occurred back in 1462, and in 1472 was awarded a contract of mutual friendship. In 1474, the Crimean khan between Mengli Giray and stately Prince Ivan III concluded an agreement on the union. In 1480, the allied countries of the Russian contract and the Crimean Khanate was imprisoned again, with all this in the agreement directly pointed enemies against which the parties were to act together — Ahmad Khan of the Great Horde and the majestic Duke of Lithuania. The joint struggle against the Great Horde, and Grand Duchy of Lithuania made two powers allies. Moscow could influence the Crimea, so he is not storming the land Verhovskom princes.
It is necessary to take into account the factor of increased power of Moscow. The Russian government has joined a number of policy areas, which survived in the struggle against Great Horde, got a big weight of foreign policy. Strong and powerful government lured to discover more frail land, people (including the know) have found stability and security.
Departures Verhovskom princes in the service of the capital and the majestic Prince of Vladimir began first 1470 s. One of the first entered the service of Ivan stateliness prince Simon Y. Odoyevski. He died in autumn 1474 during the 1st of border conflicts. His sons Ivan Dry Basil Shvih and Petr Semenovich Odoevskys who were the owners of half a generic town Odoeve already served the Metropolitan State, participating in constant border clashes with supporters of the Lithuanian Grand Duke. But other princes in no hurry to move on to Moscow. The transition to the side of the Capital of the country in the years 1481-1482. Fyodor Ivanovich Belsky, can hardly be regarded as ordinary prince's departure. He escaped from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, escaping after a bad komplota against Casimir IV the Jagiellonian. Theodore Belsky together with their relatives by Prince Ivan and Misha Olelkovich Golshansky planned rejected in favor of the Russian eastern part of the country with all the stateliness Duchy of Lithuania, right up to the Berezina River. Ivan and Misha Golshanskiy Olelkovich were executed. In Moscow, Belsky was adopted goodwill, and generously rewarded. But his ancestral possessions were confiscated.
The mass character transitions Verhovskom service to the Moscow princes have acquired only in 1487. Apparently, this was not accidental — July 9, 1487 was captured by Kazan. As a result, the Russian protectorate was established over the Kazan Khanate. Even earlier, in 1480 the issue was resolved with the Great Horde. As a result, Moscow freed up significant forces that were engaged in the east, and could increase pressure on Lithuania. One of the first who defected to the Capital of the country was Prince Ivan Vorotyinskiy (Przemysl). Before that, he sacked the city of Mtsensk. First, in October 1487 in Moscow, a Lithuanian Embassy to complain about the conduct of Prince Ivan Vorotynsky and helped him to the princes Odoyevsky. Role in the conflict princes Odoyevsky says that the majestic Prince metropolitan been interested in the aggravation of relations with Lithuania, received a free hand in the east.
The pressure on the country's Capital Lithuanian border land is constantly growing. In the spring of 1489 the city was besieged Vorotynsk metropolitan army under the command of the governor of eleven, headed by Prince Vasily Ivanovich skew Patrikeyev. The situation became hopeless Verhovskom princes, and many have followed Ivan Vorotynsky. At the end of 1489 the service of Ivan majestically with his "paternal" fled Ivan, Andrew and Vasily Nobel, Dmitri Vorotyinskiy and his nephew Ivan Vorotyinskiy. They also seized the parish, which belonged to the princes, faithful majestically Duchy of Lithuania. The protests, which said the Polish sovereign and dignified Duke of Lithuania Casimir IV, have been ignored by Moscow. Relations between with 2 powers continued to deteriorate, but the situation did not go beyond the border conflict and mutual recriminations about the violation of existing agreements.
The situation has changed dramatically just after the death of King Casimir June 7, 1492. The sons of Casimir IV shared power, greatly weakening its power. The eldest son of King of Poland and Lithuania — Vladislav II (Ulaslo II), during his lifetime, became king of Bohemia and Hungary. Ian Olbracht I took the throne of Poland. Alexander Jagiellon the throne majestically Duchy of Lithuania.
The reaction of Ivan III was very frisky. Already in August 1492 the metropolitan army under the command of Prince Fyodor TELEPNEV Obolensky invaded the area Lofty Duchy of Lithuania. Were seized by the town of Mtsensk and Lyubutsk. In September 1492 the majestic Duke of Lithuania Alexander wrote a letter to Moscow, "Foreign came to us to lead, INTO your men in the minds of Prince Fedor Obolensky come with many Lyudmila WARRIOR bezvestnoi Cities Our projects Mtsenesk and Lyubtesk zzheg and the governor of our lyubutskogo and Mtsensk Borys Semenovich zvel, and the boyars and the Mtsensk lyubutskih zhonami s, s detmi and many other people were taken into captivity, and bellies and pobral ings. " Taking of these 2-cities it's not over. In August 1492 the ratification of princes IM Vorotynsky and Odoyevsky quite simply captured the town and Mosalsk Serpeysk.
In August-September 1492 a detachment of the grand governor Vasily and Andrey Lapin languor entered into the possession of Vyazemskys princes and captured the town and Hlepen Rahačoŭ. As a result of these campaigns and the transition of some princes and boyars to the Moscow service stateliness principality Lithuania has lost a robust military cover-up their own eastern borders. The structure of the Capital of the country includes such a fortress as the Lithuanian border Odoev, Kozel'sk, Przemysl, Serensk. Naturally, the noble Duke of Lithuania Alexander and his government did
not intend to give in these areas without a fight. Alexander refused to recognize the transition to the side of the Russian princes of Moscow, this was reported in a letter to Ivan on February 20, 1493. To metropolitan troops captured towns were sent troops. From Smolensk the troops were under the command of the governor Yuri Glebovich, Prince Semyon Ivanovich Mozhaiskogo and princes Drutsk. Lithuanian troops were able to capture some time Serpeyskom and Mtsensk. But it was a personal success. January 21, 1493 in a campaign made large metropolitan Army, which came under the command of the grand army of Misha Ivanovic pegs (of the genus Patrikeyev) and Alexander V. Obolensky, the troops of the Union Metropolitan State Ryazan princes Ivan and Fyodor. Lithuanian troops retreated to Smolensk, leaving garrisons in captured towns. Moscow's troops without a fight was overcome Mezetskom and stormed Serpeysk, which desperately fought back. Obolensky's troops captured the city and Pegs opaque, its garrison resisted, because the town was burned (as Serpeysk). A similar fate has understood and taken with spears Gorodechno city.
Moscow's successes and misfortunes of Lithuanian army led to the fact that the service on the Moscow drove a few Verhovskom princes. It was Simon F. Vorotyinskiy, Michael R. Mezetsky, Vasily and Andrey Nobel, one of the princes Vyazemskys — Andrey Vyazemskij. This further weakened the defense of the eastern borders majestically Duchy of Lithuania. In winter 1492-1493, the five metropolitan regiments under the command of Daniel Vasilyevich Scheni and Vasily Krivoy Patrikeeva took Vyasma and led the people to the oath. Many notable people were taken to the Metropolitan Government.
The stately prince Lithuanian Alexander tried to organize resistance to the encroachments of capital forces, falling away from the power of the Lithuanian border princes, get help in Poland and even hire the troops there. But the real help from the outside is not received and was obliged to rely only on themselves.
Military action between the state and the Metropolitan majestically Duchy went almost the entire boundary of the strip, but a formal war has not been announced. Because this war is won the title — "Phoney War" (a term coined by historian AA Zimin). Officially, the two powers are in the world throughout the conflict in 1487-1494 years. Capital majestic Prince Ivan explained the action taking place a free choice of western Russian princes, who for a long time, "served on both sides" and had the right to choose the emperor. Moscow fought by painstakingly obmyslennomu plan: the seizure of the territory, usually carried out by local princes, which passed under the hand of Prince majestic capital. Moscow governor enters the fray only when the law sided with the Moscow princes infringed. For example, a military intervention came during a campaign Governor Daniel Scheni and Basil Krivoy Patrikeeva on Vyasma. On the side of Moscow Prince Andrew went Vyazemskij. The eldest of the princes Vyazemskij Mike D., faithful Lithuania, took away his patrimony. Capital army intervened for their own prince and returned fairness (in the interests of Moscow). Ivan III was very pleased with the operation and all the prisoners Vyazemskys princes gave their own fiefdom — Viaz'ma and ordered to serve the Metropolitan State. Only Misha Dmitrievich was sent to the Dvina, where he died.
Such a war researcher referred Volkov — "sly war." She brought the majestic Prince metropolitan huge benefit, plus it was not officially enter into a huge war with Lithuania and finds her in a personal union Poland. Although at some point all the same great war began. The conflict was inevitable. Thus, the Lithuanian diplomats were concerned that Ivan III was named in diplomatic correspondence "Tsar of All Russia." They are completely reasonable to imagine that in the coming stately Prince Vladimir, the capital and will seek subordination to Moscow all the countries that were part of the Russian country until the time of its collapse.
Bad deeds Lithuanian troops on the border and the loss of border forts stately Duke of Lithuania forced Alexander to begin negotiations on a "perpetual peace" with the Metropolitan State. In addition, virtually every year the area Lofty Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian hordes ravaged ally of Moscow — Mengli Giray Khan. One of these trips was in 1492. Poland took the time to help to Lithuania, she was busy with her neuvvyazkami and sought to renew the contract of the union.
The peace deal in 1494
To sign the new contract in Moscow January 17, 1494 came the "great embassy." It included the governor and Trotsky Marshal Peter Zemsky Janowicz, the leader Stanislav zhmudsky Janowicz Kezgaylo, Voitko Janowicz pieces, and a clerk Fedko G.. The negotiations were launched on 23 January and passed on February 1. On the part of the Capital of the country talks led first Duke Vasily Diagon Patrickeyev and later Prince Ivan Yu Patrickeyev.
Lithuanian negotiators claimed a return to the borders of the agreement in 1449, which takes into account the situation created by Vitovt and Sigismund, instead of Lithuania shall be removed from claiming the majestic Novgorod, Pskov and Tver land and on Vol. "Rzhevskoe tribute." Under provisions of the stately princes of Lithuania to the Emperor majestically Novgorod, they were entitled to receive tribute from the border townships: Empty Rzhev, dignified bow, Kholmovskaya graveyard and a few parishes to the east. Muscovite-Lithuanian contract in 1449 recognized this right. Ivan Lofty after the accession to the Metropolitan of Novgorod State refused to give "Rzhevskoe tribute."
In response, representatives of Moscow claimed the return to the situation that prevailed at the majestic Princes Semyon Ivanovich, Ivan Ivanovich and Algirdas (ie, to the Metropolitan State withdrew Bryansk and Smolensk). In the course of the ensuing negotiations metropolitan side have gained some concessions to the border townships, which were announced Bohr, Medynsko and Mozhayskie. Lithuania lost "patrimony" Novosilskogo (including ownership Odoevskogo Fedor, who left to serve Lithuania) and Vyazemskys princes, and the town of Przemysl Serensk with their parishes. In addition, the Lithuanian side rejected claims by Kozel'sk and Hlepen. Mezetskie princes had to serve the emperor, who served during the negotiations (two captive princes were given the right of choice), and their shared patrimony of the appropriate images. Other areas (town Mosalsk, Serpeysk, Mtsensk, Lyubutsk, Gorodechna and others with their parishes) were to be returned to the stateliness Duchy of Lithuania. The border with Lithuania, Novgorod was to be held at the turn of the old one. The Lithuanian side refuses and claims on "Rzhevskoe tribute." Moscow has pledged not to lay claim to Smolensk, and his land, and to Bryansk. The document reflects the new status was Ivan stateliness — "Tsar of All Russia."
As a result, Capital sir able to expand their knowledge on the 2-main areas — Verhovskom principalities and Vyaz'ma. Russian-Lithuanian border moved west to the upper reaches of the river Ugra. Moscow received a good springboard for the upcoming movement to the west. Both sides believed the contract of February 5, 1494 are not final. The government is stately Duchy did not recognize the situation forces the latest boundary between with 2 Powers and craved the return of the lost positions (and in the success and expansion of areas). Metropolitan government, seeing the weakness of Lithuania, continued the old policy of border conflicts and gradual conquest and led to the preparation of the latest war. This created a tense situation, there were constant disputes and conflicts. As a result, there was a brand new war — 1500-1503 years.
While it is generally on the western borders ca
me time peaceful pause, which could be used to resolve disputes on the northern border with Sweden.