After the majestic Prince Ivan III of Capital in 1478, added to his possessions giant land of Novgorod, the Metropolitan Government inherited from the fallen veche republic long border with Sweden. The boundaries between majestically Novgorod and Sweden were established Orekhovskiy world from August 12, 1323. The border ran from the Gulf of Finland on the river's sister, in the north to Lake Saimaa and then north-west to the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia.
During the wars between Moscow and Novgorod Swedes tried to consolidate his power in Karelia, constantly provoking the clashes at the border. Once the land of Novgorod moved majestically to hand the majestic capital of Prince Ivan stately could not immediately oholonit hot Swedish head. It was necessary to solve a serious problem — conflicts with the Great Horde, Kazan and Lithuania. In the three years from 1479 for 1482 years. on the Russian-Swedish border was an undeclared war that has calmed down somewhat after the consolidation of the positions of Moscow in the north and north-west.
Taking into their own hands Novgorod lands, Ivan Stately, as a caring owner, took in his charge and prepyadstviya this area. He planned to return to the Russian Karelian land graveyards Yasky (Yaskis) ogrebi (Eyrepya) and Sevilaksha (Savolaks), who were captured by Sweden first 14th century. In addition, the majestic sir wanted to capture Vyborg — a strong fortress built by the Swedes in 1293 on land the tribe Korella — ally majestically Novgorod (on the site of the fortress formerly housed the strengthening of Corel). In the middle of the 15th century governor of the Swedish King Karl Knutsson Bunde rebuilt the castle, much of its efforts on the perimeter of the island was built by the outer wall (the so-called. "Lower court").
The border between Sweden and Novgorod majestically on Orekhovskiy contract in 1323.
Ivan III perfectly prepared a military campaign against Sweden. Back in the 1493 Capital sir concluded an alliance with the Danish king Johann (Hans). Danish lord planned to become king of Sweden. Militarily, the artillery has been strengthened, in the north-western frontier in 1492 built a fortress, named in honor of Ivan Lofty — Ivangorod. The fortress was built in the shortest possible time on the bank of the Narva River — in just 7 weeks. Fortress willing to further strengthen, but not in time. The walls and towers of the Great Bojarshy town built after the Russian-Swedish war of 1495-1497 years.
In the spring of 1495 Moscow envoys presented the ruler of Sweden The wall Sture (Senior) demand for the return of West Karelia. Stockholm has torn the proposal. War became imminent. In June 1495 the Russian squad advanced to four hundredths of soldiers crossed the border and invaded the Swedish side to conduct reconnaissance. In August, a large metropolitan army, according to the Swedish data to 60 thousand soldiers marched to Vyborg. In the army entered Moscow regiments under the command of an experienced governor Daniel Scheni Vasilyevich (involved in clashes with the Khanate of Kazan, Lithuania), the Novgorod army under the supervision of James Zaharicha Koshkin, Pskov troops led by Prince Vasily Shumsky. The siege of Vyborg began on September 8 and lasted for three months. The Russian army brought to Vyborg several massive guns. Their fire had destroyed two towers and a very damaged third, was created by a big gap. The afternoon of 30 November, Russian troops stormed the fortress. But the commandant of Vyborg managed to make countermeasures for the highest break was poured land shaft. In addition, he gave the order to lay a half-ruined tower in the cellars and barrels of gunpowder supplies the resin. When the Russian army went up to the wall of the outer building, the Swedes set them on fire, there was a loud explosion. Most of the soldiers of the vanguard were killed, others moved away. December 4, 1495 the siege lifted. The army moved away to Novgorod.
The trouble this campaign forced the Russian command to change strategy. Russian troops abandoned the siege plan well fortified fortress and fled to the ruin of the enemy country. Russian troops penetrated further and further in the countryside Swedish kingdom. January 17, 1496 in a campaign acted as an army under the command of Vasily Diagon Patrikeeva and Andrei Fedorovich Chelyadnina. Russian Swedish army killed a small squad, covering the border came into the borders of South Finland, headed for the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia and ruined Tavastgustu ("Gametzky city"). Russian troops devastated the area and moved back Ulufsborga only approaching 40 thousand army Wall Sture. The edge was very broke, Russian troops took away a large full.
In August, 1496 troops under the command of Daniel and Jacob Scheni Koshkina again fled abroad and defeated the 7 th Swedish Squad. Has been committed and sea campaign to storm the Swedish land. Russian flotilla led by the princes, brothers Ivan and Peter tub. Marine army was made up of the most experienced in maritime affairs ustyuzhan, dvinyan, onezhan and Vaja. After going to court on a snow-white and Barents Seas, Russian Men rounded "Murmansk nose" on the Kola Peninsula and invaded the Swedish possessions. Russian fighters captured three Swedish ship, going through Lapland, northern Finland destroyed. According to the Chronicle, the Russian warriors captured a lot of good and is "full bezchislenno." The Russian army withdrew from the number of those lands only after the Finnish elders on behalf of the Finns, who lived on the river. Leaming, asked the emperor of the capital to take them to their citizenship. In October 1496 Men princes tub safely returned back.
The Swedes were unable to answer a huge campaign against the Russian land and organized a raid. 19 August 1496 70 Swedish vessels approached and landed Ivangorod 6 thousand detachment under the command of wall Sture. The Swedes besieged the fort and began pounding her. The Swedes used miscalculations builders: the castle was built by the standard procedure in the form of a square only a portion of the hill (the Maiden's Mountain), will facilitate the conduct of siege works. Also flanking the loopholes were built only on the lower tiers of the towers facing the river and out to the south-east — the floor side Ivangorod. Bud did not have time to finish the work before the start of the war. The garrison was small and was not ready to attack. Vicar Ivangorod Prince Yuri Babich "will run away from the city through the wall." August 26 fortress stormed, all the prisoners were killed.
The Swedes, having the ability to keep the castle behind him, offered it to the Livonian Order. So makarom Swedes want to embroil Moscow and Livonia, get an ally in the war on Russian state. But Livonians perfectly remembered the lesson that he taught Russian troops during the war years 1480-1481. (Details in the article, IN — Little-known Russian war the country: Russian-Livonian War 1480-1481 gg.
) And abandoned such a "gift."
Almost immediately followed by retaliatory acts of Russian troops. By Ivangorod was moved three thousand detachment under the command of Prince Ivan and the governor Gundorov Misha Klyapina and Pskov army led by Prince Alexander Vladimirovich Rostov. With the approach of the Russian troops Swedes destroyed the fortress and left without taking the battle, they are gone over the sea. After 12 weeks of strengthening Ivangorod were restored and enhanced with new buildings.
Soon turned to Ivan ally of Moscow Danish master Hans. He offered to stop the war. Hans was going to be the king of Sweden and had to take into account the requirements of the Swedish nobility. In turn, Swedish Bishop walls Sture the danger of invasion of Danish troops and riot followers Hans was obliged to hurry up with the conclusion of peace. Sture walls sends messengers to Novgorod with an offer of peace. Ivan was also interested in the recovery of the world — exacerbated the situation in the Kazan Khanate. In 1496, the pro-Moscow Khan Mohammed Amin overthrew alien Siberian Khan Mamuk, and Moscow was necessary to take the best regiments in the north, to restore order in the Kazan Khanate.
March 3, 1497 between the Russian state and Sweden armistice was concluded. An old boundaries have been saved. The truce was signed for a 6-year period. But the world has proved to be more durable in March 1510 in Novgorod signed an extension Orekhovskoye the world for another 60 years, and then the world was extended in 1524 and 1536, respectively. Subsequent Russian-Swedish war began only in 1554.