Supervolcanoes — the most destructive force on the planet. Power of their eruption is ten times more than ordinary volcanoes. While they were asleep for hundreds of thousands of years, the magma is trapped in huge tanks inside their mouths. But once she poured on the surface of the earth with apocalyptic force, capable of destroying entire continents. Such sleeping "monsters" in the world just a few.
The last eruption was in tremendous Tobe in Sumatra 75,000 years ago. This eruption changed life on Earth. Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, and the sun could not penetrate its thickness. There has been a decrease in global temperature by 21 degrees.
Within a radius of two and a half thousand miles from the volcano ash layer thickness of 35 inches covered the ground surface. A huge amount of water vapor and toxic gases condense in the giant volcano clouds spilled acid black rain. Earth's population has decreased by ten times. At the same time reduced the number of animals, many species have become extinct.
Three quarters of the flora of the northern hemisphere were killed. What these supervolcanoes? Normal volcanoes are known to have the form of a cone Supervolcanoes are huge hollow or decrease in the ground, called calderas. When an ordinary volcano erupts, the lava gradually climbs up on the mouth of the crater at the top of the mountain and flows down.
In supervolcanoes when magma is close to the Earth's surface, it does not reach her, and instead begins to fill the huge underground reservoirs. Magma melts the bedrock and becomes thicker and thicker so that the volcanic gases that cause the eruption of volcanoes in the ordinary, can not pass through it. Therefore, a huge amount of molten magma pushes from below the earth's surface. This goes on for hundreds of thousands of years as long as there is no eruption of a monstrous force that blows land. There is a new caldera.
The main difference supervolcanoes — their immense size and power of the eruption, is ten thousand times more than the normal force of the eruption of volcanoes. So far, the Sumatra visible caldera left over from the last supervolcano eruption. While not all volcanoes are found giants that exist on Earth. One of the largest is in Yellowstone Park in the USA. At first, scientists could not detect this caldera because of its huge size, it is only visible in photographs taken from space.
The entire park area of 3825 square kilometers and is the caldera. Under the park is a giant reservoir of magma. The scientists set out to calculate the date of the next supervolcano eruption. They found that the land in Yellowstone Park has risen by 74 centimeters compared to the level of 1923. This proves the existence of swellable array beneath the surface of the park. Currently, the underground reservoir is filled volcanic magma at an alarming rate.
Scientists have calculated that between supervolcano explosion is about 600 thousand years. The last eruption of this monster was 640,000 years ago. So, apparently, we are on the threshold of the next disaster. What will happen with the Earth, and especially this region during the supervolcano eruption? They start with the earthquake.
Land in the park is rapidly rising, while the earthquake did not crack the rock layer that holds the magma inside. Tremendous pressure builds up over 640,000 years, will break through and magma is ejected into the atmosphere at a height of fifty miles. Within a radius of a thousand kilometers virtually all life would perish under the falling ash and lava. Volcanic ash thick cover even such remote areas of the park Ielloustounskogo as Iowa and the Gulf of Mexico.
Thousands of cubic kilometers of lava will pour out of the volcano. This amount is sufficient to cover the entire surface of the layer in the U.S. fifteen centimeters. Eruption will be effective in 2500 times greater than the force of the last eruption of Mount Etna. Long-term effects caused by the eruption of supervolcano, will be even more significant for the entire planet.
Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash ejected into the atmosphere, will close the sunlight, causing a sharp decrease in global temperature. Comes something resembling a "nuclear winter." Just as after the explosion on Sumatra, a large number of animals and plants will die because of falling ash and lower the temperature. Almost all of the grain crop, grown on the Great Plains, will disappear in a few hours, as they will be covered with ash.
The strongest test will occur in North America, but every corner of the globe will suffer from lower temperature and acid rain. Everywhere in the world people will experience food shortages. If the temperature drops to 21 degrees, as in the last supervolcano eruption in both hemispheres of the ice cover large areas, which will become unsuitable for living. We can say that the effect of the supervolcano eruption will largely similar to the effects of a nuclear war.
Now, American scientists conducted intensive studies in Yellowstone Park. From Earth orbit satellites take pictures of the Earth in search of the surface are not found until the calderas. Humanity faces the question of how to escape the supervolcano eruption, or at least reduce the impact of its destructive activities.
Scientists believe that it is impossible to prevent the eruption of the supervolcano. In the leaked information about the report on the study in Yellowstone Park, which was presented to the U.S. Congress. Contents of the report were not disclosed, obviously, this is done in order not to cause panic among the population. Perhaps soon we will learn about the data describing the current state of Yellowstone supervolcano, as impending danger threatens all humanity and to resist it only at the international level.