This battle is at its value in the same breath with such struggles as Kulikovskoe, Borodino, but it is clear it has the smallest range of people.
For a start — a song about the invasion of the Crimean Tatars in Russia in 1572 the reader is somewhat familiar for the film "Ivan Vasilyevich Changes Occupation" because it has not attracted psevdotsaryu and he forbade her to sing.
(Stored in the songs recorded for Richard James in the years 1619-1620)
And not Strongest cloud zatuchilasya,
Strongest and not thunder:
coude dog rides Crimean government?
And to the Metropolitan Strongest kingdom:
"And we're going to nynechi stone Moscow
and we reverse the oids, cutting vozmem. "
How will the Area at the Oka River,
and there will be gaps ONET rostavlivat tents.
"And you think a thought with the mind intact:
Who we sit in the stone Moscow
and to whom we in Volodimer,
and whom we sit in Suzdal
and who do we keep the stock removal Ancient,
and to whom we in Zvenigorod,
and whom we sit in Novegorode? "
Leaving dividend Mirza son Ulanovich:
"And hast our sir, the Crimean government!
A tabe, sir, we sit in a stone Moscow,
And in your offspring Volodimer,
and thy plemniku in Suzdal
and srodichyu in Zvenigorod,
a nobleman stud groom keep the stock removal Ancient,
and me, sir, perhaps the New Town:
I lezhat on the light-days-kind sir,
Dividend Mirza Ulanovich offspring. "
Proklichet voice from heaven:
"Thou Eno, a dog, the Crimean government!
Tobe or not svedomo kingdom?
And then there are 70 apostles on the Moscow
oprishenno 3 saints,
is still on the Moscow Orthodox ruler! "
Thou ran, the dog, the Crimean government,
Thou hast not a method, not the way,
not by the flag, not the black!
In 1571, the Crimean khan Devlet Giray, supported Turkey and one even at that time of the Polish-Lithuanian state, organizes devastating attack on Russian soil. Going round the shelves Russian governor, standing on the Oka River (popularly referred to as the "belt of the Virgin"), the army of Crimeans easily reached Moscow, the city almost completely burned out (not counting the Kremlin). Metropolitan Kirill, who was in the Kremlin, almost suffocated by the smoke. As a result of this raid was led away into captivity, according to some estimates, up to 150 thousand people.
Ivan the Terrible himself, like most of the Russian troops, was at this time in the north-western borders of the country. It was the Livonian War, and the governor was the head of the troops on the front lines. The news that the Crimeans burned Moscow, caught him in Novgorod.
Encouraged by the successful foray into Russia and confident that she is still not recover for a long time from that blow, Devlet Giray advanced unprecedented ultimatum: a raze fortifications on the Sunzha and Terek, he began to seek the return of Ivan the Terrible Kazan and Astrakhan khanate. To delay the new, even more terrible invasion, Russia was obliged to demolish building in the Caucasus, and the governor sent to the Crimea expensive gifts.
Later in the summer, 1572, Devlet Giray, supported by Turkey again (she even gave for going 40 thousand people, including — and 7-thousand picked infantry Janissaries) and Poland, moved his troops to Moscow. Before he was sure of victory that previously divided the Russian government between his MPD and the Crimean negociant granted permission for duty-free trade on the Volga. So Makarov, it was not about the tribute, and not even on territorial concessions. For the first time since the Battle of Kulikov was the question of the existence of Russia as an independent state.
And in Moscow, preparing for the Turkish-Tatar invasion. Was issued "Instructions" Misha Ivanovich Vorotynskaya governor, who at the time was the head of the Border Guard in Kolomna and Serpukhov. This "Instructions" foresaw two options battles: Crimeans trips to Moscow and their clash with the whole Russian army or the ordinary high-spirited for the Tatars raid, pillage, and such a playful retreat. In the first case, the drafters of punishment decided that Devlet Giray lead the troops of the "old way" in the upper Oka and enjoined the magistrates rush to the river Zhizdra (in today's Kaluga region). If the Crimeans just came to plunder, then ordered to ambush their ways of waste, in other words, in fact, to start a guerrilla war. All the same, Russia army, Alone on the Oka River, under the command of Prince Vorotynsky governors, employs about 20 thousand people.
July 27 Crimean Turkish army came to the Oka and cross through it was a 2-places — the village Drakino (Serpukhov above the river), and at the confluence of the Oka River Lopasnya have SENKIN ford. Then the defense held the detachment of the 200 "knights". Their avant-garde collapsed Crimean Turkish troops under the command of Teberda-nobleman, a hundred times (!) Superior defenders crossing. Notwithstanding such a terrible advantages, none of them did not flinch, though in a terrible battle killed virtually all. After which the squad Teberda Moors Pakhra headed for the river (near modern Podolsk) and stood there waiting for the main force, cutting all the roads leading to Moscow. On the more it is much weathered in the Battle of SENKIN ford, was no longer capable.
The basic position of Russian troops, walking-fortified city, is located at the Serpukhov. Walk-city was a mundane shopping carts, reinforced plank boards with slits for shooting and drawn circle. Against this position, Devlet Giray set to distract the two thousandth unit. Crimeans main forces crossed the village Drakino and came in a difficult battle with the regiment governor Nikita Odoevskogo. After defeating the Russian squad, the main forces of the Crimeans moved to Moscow. Then Governor Vorotyinskiy removed troops from coastal positions and started in pursuit.
Crimean army considerably stretched. If the advanced part of it stood on the river Pakhra, the rear guard came to the village only young (15 kilometers from Pakhra), where he was overtaken by the vanguard of the Russian troops under the control of the young and brave governor Dmitry Khvorostinin. Angry fight broke out, resulting in the Crimean rearguard which was utterly crushed. It came out on July 29.
After learning about the defeat of their own rearguard, Devlet Giray turned all his army to 180 degrees; Khvorostinin squad was face to face with the whole Crimean army. But, properly assessing the situation, the young prince kept his head and contrived to lure the enemy to retreat walking-city, had already deployed on the banks of the river Rozaje (now — Giving birth), in which there was a large regiment under the command of Vorotynsky. Began a protracted battle to which the Tatars were not ready. In one of the unsuccessful attack on the city walking-killed-Teberda Mirza.
After a series of small skirmishes July 31 Devlet Giray launched a decisive attack walking-city. But he was recaptured.
The Tatars suffered huge losses, was killed adviser Crimean Khan Divey-Mirza. Tatars retreated. The next day, August 1, the attack is over, but the position of the besieged was critical — a lot of the wounded, almost ran out of water. August 2, Devlet Giray again drove his troops to storm, and again attack was repulsed — Crimean cavalry could not take the fortified position. Then the Crimean Khan took a sudden decision — he ordered the cavalry to dismount and assault walking-city on foot with the janissaries. Waiting until the main forces of the Crimeans (including the Janissaries) drawn into a bloody battle for walking-city, Governor Vorotyinskiy inconspicuously brought a large regiment of him, took him trough and struck the rear of Crimeans. Right from the walls of the walking-city made a sortie and warriors Khvorostinin. Unable to withstand the double blow, Crimeans and the Turks fled. The losses were enormous, killing all seven thousand Janissaries, most of Mongolian MPD, also son, grandson and son-in-itself, Devlet Giray. A huge number of senior officials of the Crimean were taken prisoner.
Russian chased the remnants of Crimeans before crossing the Oka River, where he was absolutely destroyed 5000th their rear guard, guarding her.
To the Crimea got less than 10 thousand soldiers …
In this infamous campaign of Crimea has lost virtually all the suitable male population. Turkey lost its elite army — Janissaries, hitherto considered invincible. Our homeland has once again shown the world that is the majestic power and is able to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
In general, the battle near the village of Molodi was a turning point in relations between Russia and the Crimean Khanate. It was the last big battle of Russia with the Steppe. She put bold cross on aggressive expansionist policy of the Crimea and Turkey in relations between Russia and Turkey ruined plans for the return of the Middle and Lower Volga region in the sphere of its geopolitical interests.
In this majestic and at the same time neznamenitoy battle Crimean Khanate of strongest blow was struck, after which it will never be recovered directly to its accession to the Russian Empire in 1783.