History atomic killers such as «Los Angeles» started in 1906, when the hall Immigration Ellis Island (New Jersey) joined the family of immigrants from Russian Empire — Abraham, Rachel, and their six offspring Haim. The youngster was not missed — when I grew up, went to the Naval Academy and became a four-star admiral of the U.S. Navy. Hyman Rickover just served in the Navy in ’63 and would have served, do not get caught on a bribe of 67 thousand dollars (Rickover himself unlocked until the end, stating that this «nonsense» does not affect its decision).
In 1979, after the great tragedy of the nuclear power plant «Three Mile Island» Hyman Rickover, as an expert, was summoned to Congress to testify. The question was worldly, «In the depths of the oceans move 100 nuclear submarines of the U.S. Navy — and no tragedy the reactor core for 20 years. And here collapsed standing on the brand new plant. Maybe Admiral Rickover knows a magic word? «
Answer elderly admiral was simple: no secrets, just only need to work with people. Personally talk to everyone spetsom fools immediately dismissed from the work with the reactor and to expel from the Navy. All the highest ranks, who for some reason prevents train personnel in accordance with these principles and sabotaging the implementation of my instructions, to declare war and too inhumane to expel them from the fleet. Fiercely «nibble» contractors and engineers. Safety and reliability — these are the main areas of work, otherwise even the most massive and modern submarines will drown in batches in peacetime.
Admiral Rickover principles (safety and reliability is more important in total) formed the basis of the «Los Angeles» — the most in series history countless nuclear submarine fleet, consisting of 62 multipurpose nuclear submarines. Purpose «Los Angeles» (or «Moose» — the nickname for the Russian navy boats) — the fight against surface ships, submarines and enemy cover carrier battle groups and areas of deployment of strategic missile submarines. Covert mining, intelligence, special operations.
If we take only the base table features «speed», «depth», «the number of torpedo tubes,» against the background of Russian «Typhoon», «Ante» and «Pikes,» «Los Angeles» looks like bestalantnoe trough. Monohull metal coffin, divided into three compartments — no matter what hole would be fatal for him. For comparison, sturdy body Russian multipurpose nuclear submarines of Project 971 «Pike-B» is divided into six watertight compartments. And the huge submarine Project 941 «Akula» They are generally 19!
Only four torpedo tubes angled to the center line of the housing. As a result, «Moose» can not shoot at full speed — on another torpedo just break the oncoming flow of water. For comparison, «Pike-B» has 8 nasal TA and is able to use his weapon in the whole range of working depths and speeds.
Operating depth «Los Angeles» just 250 meters away. Quarter of a kilometer — neuzh is not much? For comparison, the working depth «Pike-B» — 500 meters, the maximum — 600!
Canonical izoobrazhenie submarine type «Los Angeles»
Speed boats. Surprisingly, but here at the Yankees is not so bad — submerged «Moose» can accelerate to 35 knots. The result of more than worthy, only 6 knots less than indescribable Russian «Lyra» (Project 705). And this is without the use of titanium housings and terrible iron reactors coolants!
On the other hand, the highest maximum speed has never been the most important parameter of the submarine — already at 25 knots boat acoustics longer hear anything because of the noise the oncoming water and the submarine becomes «deaf» and at 30 knots boat rumbles so that it is heard the other end of the ocean. High speed — useful but not fundamental quality.
The main instrument of at least some of the submarine — stealth. In this parameter, enclose the entire raison d’être of the submarine fleet. Subtlety is determined primarily by the noise floor of the submarine. Noise level submarine type «Los Angeles» is not just adequate global standards. Submarine type «Los Angeles» she asked the world’s standards.
Exceptional circumstances, low noise «Moose» had a few:
— single-hull design. Reduced wetted surface area, and as a consequence, the noise from the friction of the water when the boat.
— production quality screws. By the way, the quality of production of screws Russian submarines third generation also increased (and their noise is decreased) after a detective story with the purchase of high-precision machine tools company Toshiba. Learning about the secret deal between the USSR and Japan, America rolled such a scandal that poor Toshiba almost lost access to the South American market. Late! The world’s oceans are already out, «Pike-B» with new screws.
— some special moments, such as the rational arrangement of the equipment inside the boat, amortization turbines and power equipment. Contours of the reactor have a huge degree of natural circulation of coolant — is it possible to abandon pumps great performance, and as follows, lower noise, «Los Angeles.»
Submarine is not a lot to be frisky and secretive — for the successful implementation of the tasks need to have a concrete idea about the environment, learn how to navigate in the water column to find and identify surface and underwater targets. For a long time, the only means of external detection were periscope and sonar position with the analyzer in the form of an engine-ear speakers. Well still gyrocompass, showing where is the North under the damn water.
The «Los Angeles» is much more fun. South American engineers have played for broke — of the bow of the boat was dismantled all the equipment, including the torpedo tubes. As a result, the entire nasal part of the body takes a spherical antenna sonar AN/BQS-13 diameter of 4.6 meters. Also, in the submarine sonar system comes conformal antenna side-scan consisting of 102 hydrophones frequency active sonar to detect natural obstacles (underwater rocks, ice fields on the surface of the water, mines, etc.), also with 2 towed passive antennas length 790 and 930 meters (cable length based).
Other means of collecting disk imaging contain: instrument measuring the speed of sound at different depths (just the right tool for the precise determination of the distance to the target), and radar system AN/BPS-15 ELINT AN/WLR-9 (for surface), periscope general review (type and attack periscope (type 15).
In general, no steep sensors and sonar submarine did not help «San Francisco» — January 8, 2005 boat going 30 knots (? 55 km / h), crashed into an undersea mountain. One sailor died, another 23 were injured and luxurious dish in the bow was broken into fragments.
USS San Francisco (SSN-711) after a collision with an underwater obstacle
Weakness torpedo «Los Angeles» to some extent offset by a wide range of ammunition — all aboard a boat 26 remote-controlled torpedoes Mk.48 (caliber 533 mm, weight? 1600 kg), anti-ship missiles SUB-Harpoon anti raketotorped SUBROC, cruise missiles «Tomahawk» and «smart» mines «Keptor.»
To increase combat effectiveness, the bow of each «Los Angeles», starting from 32th on the account boats, began to install 12 more vertical silos to store and launch «Hatchet». In addition, the submarines are equipped container Dry Deck Shelter for storage equipment frogmen.
Upgrades were done not «for show», and based on the actual combat experience — «Los Angeles» are often attracted to attack coastal targets. «Moose» in blood on the horns of the best — in the lists of goals destroyed Iraq, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Libya …
USS Greeneville (SSN-772) with attached to its body Dry Deck Shelter
Last 23 boats were built on a modified project «Improvement of Los Angeles.» Submarines of this type have been specially adapted for operations in high latitudes of the Arctic under the ice dome. We dismantled the boat chopping handlebars, replacing them with retractable wheels in the bow. The screw was placed in a profiled annular nozzle, which further reduced the level of noise. Partial modernization undergone radio-electronic «filling» of the boat.
The last boat series «Los Angeles», which received the title of «Cheyenne» was built in 1996. At the time when the last boat to finish the series, the first 17 units who have served a term already put off for scrap. «Moose» hitherto constituting an underwater U.S. Navy in 2013 in the ranks are still 42 submarines of this type.
Vorachivayas to our original conversation — that still all the same happened at Yankee worthless tin «tub» with reduced features or high-performance submarine combat system?
Purely on the basis of beliefs reliability, «Los Angeles» set so far no one has broken record — over 37 years of active service on 62 boats of this type has not been a single harsh tragedy reactor core damage. Hyman Rickover tradition alive to this day.
As for fighting the devil, the creators of «Moose» can be a little praise. The Yankees managed to build a successful ship in general, with emphasis on the important properties (stealth and detection). Boat, of course, was the best in the world in 1976, but by the mid-1980s, with the emergence of the USSR Navy first multipurpose nuclear submarine of project 971 «Pike-B», the South American submarine fleet was back in the «catching up». Realizing some inferiority «Moose» before «Pike-B» in the United States began to develop the project «Seawolf» — severe submarine at a cost of $ 3 billion. bucks apiece (just mastered the construction of 3 «Seawolf»).
In general, talking about boats such as «Los Angeles» is not so much talk about technique, talk about how the crews of these submarines. Man — a measure of everything. Specifically, thanks to painstaking preparation and maintenance of machinery, South American Mariners managed for 37 years not to lose any boat of this type.
Post scriptum. In April 1984, retired Admiral Hyman Rickover received its 84th anniversary awesome gift — betrothed in his honor 7000-ton combat submarine type «Los Angeles.»
source of Military Review