The history of the Marine Corps
Marine Corps traces its history to 1775. During the War of Independence, the second Continental Congress approved the creation of 2-Marine battalions for service on ships of the Continental Navy. In 1798, the 5th Congress of the United States formally organized the United States Marine Corps. During its 235-year history, the Marines have distinguished themselves in front of the state in almost all the battles — from the Battle of Belleau Wood to Iwo Jima, from the Battle of Chosinskom reservoir to the siege of Khe Sanh and the storming of Fallujah. Because of the Marine Corps usually trained, organized and equipped specifically for action outside its territory, MP has long been considered the South American forces frisky response.
The command of the Marine Corps
Gen. James Conway — 34 in a row commander of the Marine Corps. Conway — the most experienced infantry officer before he headed the 1 and 2 Marine Division, participated in the operation "Desert Storm" and "Operation Iraqi Freedom", while in Iraq, has visited twice.
Commander — the highest official of the Marine Corps. Flush with the commander of the Navy, he goes by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The commander of the MP is responsible for the planning, implementation and supply of parts and units of the Corps and garrison commands.
Organization and Management of the Marine Corps
ATLANTIC POWER AND COMMAND USMC Marine Corps (MARFORCOM)
The headquarters of the Atlantic forces the U.S. Marine Corps (MARFORCOM) posted on the naval base in Norfolk. The head of Atlantic forces that aligned with the Pacific Reserve Corps forces and associations are naikrupneyshimi Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Richard Natonski (Lt. Gen. Richard F. Natonski). He also commanded the Atlantic Fleet Marines, and all located on the Atlantic Corps bases, which provide a role in NATO operations units of marines and other U.S. commands. MARFORCOM has approximately 45,000 personnel of the II Marine Expeditionary Force, headed by Lt. Gen. Dennis Hedzhlikom (Lt. Gen. Dennis J. Hejlik) with headquarters at Camp Lidge (Camp Lejeune, NC). Part of the forces 2nd Marine Division, headed by Maj. Gen. Richard Tryon (Maj. Gen. Richard T. Tryon) makes the tasks in Afghanistan.
PACIFIC POWER USMC (MARFORPAC)
Headquarters Pacific forces under the command of Lieutenant General Keith Stalder (Lt. Gen. Keith J. Stalder) located at Camp Smith in Hawaii (Camp Smith, Hawaii); union is part of the U.S. Central Command, and has approximately 84,000 Marines and sailors. The structure consists of MARFORPAC I Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), headed by Lieutenant General Joseph Dundorfom (Lt. Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr.). I MEF Headquarters located at Camp Pendleton, California (Camp Pendleton, Calif.). The 1st Marine Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Richard Mills (Maj. Gen. Richard P. Mills), operating in the Iraqi province of Al-Anbar and Afghanistan. III MEF, commanded by Lt. Gen. Terry Roebling (Lt. Gen. Terry G. Robling), is headquartered in Okinawa, Japan. Parts of the 3rd Marine Division, led by Brigadier General James Laster (Brig. Gen James B. Laster), operating in Afghanistan.
RESERVE Marine Corps (MARFORRES); POWER "NORTH"
Reserve Corps under the control of Lieutenant General John Kelly (Lt. Gen. John F. Kelly), with headquarters in New Orleans has about 39,600 Marines and sailors, including as part of the 4th Marine Division, led by Major General James Williams (Maj. Gen. James L. Williams), 4th Marine Air Wing and the fourth group of service. The reserve is designed to build and restore capabilities of existing connections Marines, including those in numerous overseas raids in combat and for other purposes. The reserve is also a major force in the possession of the U.S. Armed Forces Command United States.
MANAGEMENT OF FIGHTING (MCCDC)
Management at the Marine Corps Base at Quantico (Quantico, Va.) Led by Lieutenant General George Flynn (Lt. Gen. George J. Flynn). Management is the center-line analysis and the development of military capabilities and the introduction of theories Marines. The structure of the control comes Laboratory of fighting, led by Brigadier General Robert Headland (Brig. Gen. Robert F. Hedelund), who is also deputy chief of naval research. The role of the laboratory is to develop new thinking and technologies, as well as in "playing" fighting concepts of the future. The other branch is the control center of irregular troops (CIW), which develops doctrine and strategy for the Marine Corps contingency criteria for the implementation of humanitarian, peacekeeping tasks, security, and others. The center also examine the conditions of sea-based, concept and experience of other navies of operations that may be needed in the theory and practice of the Corps.
CONTROL ARMS CASE (MARCORSYSCOM)
Management headquarters is located in Quantico. Head of Brigadier General Michael Brogan (Brig. Gen. Michael M. Brogan) is responsible for the implementation and management of the programs distributed weapons. Due to growing our abilities Navy anticipate these programs from the acquisition and development of specific weapons systems designed for marine activities, including control systems, weapons and equipment of infantry units, armored personnel carriers and artillery. Control operation allows the Marines to better withstand various threats; for example, in conjunction with the Army and Navy, the management is involved in the development of minozaschischennogo all-terrain vehicle, the delivery of which will allow the troops to avoid losses from explosions.
Special OPERATIONS COMMAND (MARSOC)
Special Operations Command Headquarters, under the control of Major General Paul Lefebvre (Maj. Gen. Paul E. Lefebvre) posted on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (Camp Lejeune). The command consists of 2,600 Marines and sailors prepared to perform specific operations. The structure includes two battalion commanders stationed in Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendlenton, California. Each battalion am a member of 4 mouth built for reconnaissance and fire support. In addition, in the control group comes trainers engaged in training of foreign units. MARSOC does alliance commitments, normally present in the army units for special purposes the United States. The composition of the special operations command also includes the support team and the school, engaged in recruitment and training of candidates for special operations.
U.S. Marines (born United States Marine Corps, USMC, US Marines), which is the principal component of the armed forces of the country, is contained in the constant combat readiness and used South American military and political leaders as a strike force. It is located in the leadership of the Ministry of the Navy United States. According to the existing laws of the United States, of all the armed forces only Marines can be applied to the President at least some of the jobs without the approval of Congress.
Relevant example of such use may be considered action in 1992 in Los Angeles, where for the oppression of the riots in the city were promptly put the Marine
Marines is a highly mobile combat arm, created for amphibious operations and conducting combat operations in the coastal area with the assistance of the fleet, the Army and the Air Force as a general in the war, and in local wars with the use of the ordinary and nuclear weapons.
The Marines are doing police functions, and guards on ships and naval bases. In addition, the modern concepts of warfare foreseen uuchastie marine units in the "small war", holding them in separate raids criteria of the desert and the jungle, the liquidation of illegal armed groups, the evacuation of the civilian population of the war-shrouded regions, etc.
The U.S. Marine Corps is headed by the commander, subordinate to the Minister of the Navy specifically. The body consists of the headquarters of the forces, support, and reserve. The total strength of the Corps is 203 thousand in operating units and another 44 million in reserve.
The organizational structure of the Marine Corps was founded on the principle of the parallel existence of 2-organizations: the administrative functioning in time of peace, and operations used for the period of military operations and exercises and also incurring a daily service with the Navy advanced groups.
According to the administrative organization of the United States Marine Corps Marine Corps forces include the Atlantic and Pacific fleets (permanent ground forces and air force marines), reserve, naval units, the units of shore facilities, offices and agencies providing, training, educational and military combat units.
Forces Marine Corps fleet consists of three divisions, three of logistic services and units gain, and three wing.
Division — the largest tactical units of ground forces marines. It includes 19,000 people. The division is armed with:
70 tanks "Abrams» M1A1,
12 203.2 mm self-propelled howitzer M110,
16 155-mm self-propelled howitzer M109
80 M198 towed howitzers,
72 81-mm mortar M29A1,
81 60-mm mortar M-224,
144 ATGM "TOW"
216 ATGM "Dragon"
208 armored personnel carriers and floating about 3,000 cars.
The division includes:
battalion headquarters with a staff,
Three regiments of marines,
separate battalions: Tank, light mechanized infantry, reconnaissance, amphibious armored and engineering.
The headquarters battalion comprises 5 companies: STAFF, maintenance, trucking, communications and military police. It is designed to support the activities of division headquarters, the organization of communication with the divisional headquarters, the protection of command and service staff of the division.
Modern combat marines organized as aeronazemnye force (MAGTF), are different in scale formation, including ground and air elements, command and combat support units. Naikrupneyshimi of them are the three Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) — any numbers from 20,000 to 90,000 Marines with a full 60-day software. Firepower of each of them make up ground and air elements of the 3 active and one reserve Marine Division.
On combat duty combat units are summarized in Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEBs), numbering between 3,000 and 20,000 marines backed by 30 days of fighting. Minimal formation created for long term operations and raids is Expeditionary Unit (MEU). Typical composition comprises 1500-3000 Marines secured all necessary for 15 days and placed on board a landing craft Expeditionary Strike Group. Under the command of Colonel own MEU makes a wide range of problems in landing operations, including local military actions, peacekeeping, security and stability. Since, 2800, the Marines 13th Expeditionary Unit at the present time engaged in operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Marine Regiment includes headquarters, the headquarters company, three battalions of the MP and anti-tank platoon with 24 anti-tank systems "TOW".
Artillery regiment includes headquarters, the headquarters battery, a battery of instrumental exploration, and five artillery battalions. It is designed to provide fire support to Marine Corps forces.
Marine battalion in combat vehicles LAV consisted of a headquarters, company headquarters and service, 3-mouth assault and weapons companies. The battalion of about one thousand people. On arms battalion is 145 armored infantry fighting vehicles in options, self-propelled guns, mortars, antitank missile «Toy», self-propelled anti-aircraft installations, command and staff vehicles, etc.
The tank battalion consisted of a headquarters and headquarters company, four anti-tank companies and company. It is a striking force Marine Division. Just a battalion of about 1 million people. On arms battalion comprised 70 M60A1 tanks and 72 antitank missile «Toy».
Reconnaissance Battalion includes headquarters, the headquarters company and three reconnaissance companies. Overall strength of about 450 people. The battalion is to conduct tactical reconnaissance in the areas of landing troops and providing intelligence commander of a division. The battalion is able to provide up to 48 intelligence groups of four each.
The battalion consists of a floating armored personnel carriers from the headquarters, headquarters company and four floating mouth APC. A total of 208 floating armored battalion type LVT-7 for various purposes.
Engineer battalion includes a company and staff and service company of engineering and four sapper company. It produces software engineering and sapper fighting Marine Division. Just a battalion of more than 900 people.
Light mechanized infantry battalion comprises 110 armored LAV in different variants (56 APCs, 8 self-propelled mortars, 16 anti-tank systems, machine control 8, 16 engineering, maintenance 6). With the arrival of the Marines for service in the form of machines LAV self-propelled guns, the number of cars in the battalion will be increased to 150.
Reinforcement units standing forces Marine Atlantic and Pacific fleets contain:
3rd Battalion, communications,
Motor Transport Battalion,
Military Police Battalion,
maintenance battalion headquarters naval forces of the Marine Corps,
Company Intelligence, etc.
These units are used to enhance the expeditionary forces that are created in accordance with the operational organization.
Aviation Marine Corps is a component of the Marine Corps and is designed to support its ground forces during landing and landing during combat operations ashore.
In service with Marine Corps aviation aircraft and helicopters are to be used as a coastal airfields and from aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships, amphibious helicopter carriers, etc. As a part of the regular forces of Marine Corps Aviation has 1,100 combat aircraft and helicopters, organizational summarized in three wing aircraft, including groups and squadrons. 2nd air wing assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and is based on the Naval Air Station in North Carolina and South Carolina. 1st and 3rd air wings are deployed and the Pacific Fleet: 1st —
at Naval Air Station in the Land of the Rising Sun, the third — on air bases in the state of California.
The main tactical formation of Marine Corps Aviation is the air wing, designed for joint operations with the Marine Division.
Air wing includes headquarters, two or three aviation groups, one or two groups of troop-carrying helicopters, aircraft control group, service group, squadron — the headquarters, intelligence, electronic warfare and refueling aircraft. The number of personnel of the wing can reach 17 thousand people, and the number of combat aircraft and helicopters — up to 400 units.
Air Force squadron includes a staff and service, basic services, and four or five of assault and assault fighter squadrons.
Marine Corps pilots are flying attack aircraft F/A-18C/D Hornet, attack aircraft AV-8B Harrier II truncated / vertical take-off and landing, MV-22s, transport helicopters CH-53E, versatile UH-1 helicopters and combat helicopters AH-1 . Air Force MAGTF also receive support from those used with the Navy electronic warfare aircraft EA-6B and EA-18G.
At the armed assault squadron has 20 aircraft on the A-6E "Intruder", the A-4M "Skyhawk" or AV-8A/AV-8B «Harrier" fighter in the assault — 15 aircraft F-4J, F-4S «Phantom "2, F/A-18« Hornet "and transports refueling KC-130.
Together with the Navy, the Air Force and the forces of friendly countries in the Marines involved in the program of creation of F-35 aircraft, which is expected to go into some kind of Squadron Marine Corps to replace the legacy Hornet, a modification of the vertical take-off and landing will replace Harrier.
Group transport and assault helicopters designed to transport from ship to economize the personnel, weapons and items MTO, and to provide specific fire support ground forces landing. The group usually consists of squadrons and staff and service, basic services, three or four squadrons of troop-carrying helicopters (CH-53E "Super Stelner», CH-53D «C Stelner», CH-46F «Sea Knight», UH- 1N «Iroquois" — up to 100 units.), a squadron of attack helicopters (24AH-1J, T "Sea Cobra") and an adjustment reconnaissance squadron (18 aircraft OV-10 "Bronco" and 12 helicopters UH-IE »Iroquois") .
As part of the aviation wing has two squadrons of aircraft reconnaissance RF-4B «Phantom-2" electronic warfare aircraft and EA-6B "Prowler", which are visual and photographic reconnaissance, identify and suppress the work of electronic means of enemy air defenses.
Air Refueling Squadron (12 KC-130F «Hercules") manufactures air refueling, also transports personnel and military equipment.
The reserve includes the Marine Corps 4th Division, a unit gain, 4th Aircraft Wing and the 4th group obsluzhivaniya.Zapasnye logistics and units are deployed in 45 U.S. states. The headquarters of the division, air wing and logistics services group based in the city of New Orleans.
Combat use of the Marine Corps provided in the operational units: expeditionary divisions expeditionary brigades, battalions of the expedition.
Expeditionary Division, a total of more than 50 thousand people are operatively connected to the Marine Corps, and includes:
logistics services group and unit gain.
Expeditionary Brigade total of over 16 thousand people is operational and tactical formation and consists of a regimental landing group (from 2-to 5 Marine battalions with units gain), and a mixed group of aviation brigade of logistics services. On arms ebrmp pyatibatalonnogo composition can be up to 53 M60A1 tanks, 60 field artillery pieces, over 200 launchers of anti-tank «Toy» and "Dragon", more than 200 aircraft, flying to 100 armored personnel carriers, etc.
Expeditionary battalion of up to 2,500 people is a tactical unit and includes a battalion landing team (Marine battalion with units gain), the mixed air squadron and battalion group logistics services. The main armament ebrmp can include: 5 M60A1 tanks, 6 field artillery pieces, 40 anti-tank missile launchers «Toy» and "Dragon", and 10 helicopters (or up to 6 aircraft "Harrier") up to 14 floating armored personnel carriers, etc.
The command of the Marine Corps pays great attention to military training and combat formations and spare parts. That is, once a year to 10 battalions of marines involved in the divisional exercises in the Marine Corps Training Center in California, where the questions actually practiced combat operations in theater. Each year about 10 thousand marines are training in the criteria of the Arctic, the mountains and up to 2-battalions — the criteria the jungle.
In order to study theater practice of sharing a six-month stay on the marine units o.Okinava in the 3rd Expeditionary Division.
In the criteria of peacetime expeditionary battalions of marines are an integral part of advanced groupings of the U.S. Navy 6th and 7th fleets in the Mediterranean Sea and the western Pacific. At times expeditionary battalion of Marines is on the landing ships in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.
The transfer of the Marine Corps Expeditionary formation in different parts of the globe is landing ships, which are summarized in separate compounds within the operational fleets. As part of the regular U.S. Navy has about 70 amphibious ships (amphibious assault ships, helicopter carriers, ships, docks, tank landing, etc.) that can perform simultaneous delivery and landing on unequipped coast about half expeditionary Marine Division.
To combat support 3 Marine Expeditionary Brigade is premature storing military equipment and logistics in 3 squadrons of ships, warehouses, which are deployed in the eastern Atlantic, the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. It is understood that in the event of conflict, the personnel of these teams will be tossing the VTA U.S. Air Force aircraft on the terrain of the Union of the United States, which will make the transition and the court-warehouses.
With a view to the creation of the compounds and marine units, holding the highest fire and striking power, tactical mobility, able to conduct successful military actions in the criteria for the introduction of the ordinary, chemical and nuclear weapons, the United States is being upgraded all the components of the Marine Corps.
Small arms applicable U.S. Marines
Submachine guns and rifles
— Mk 16/17 Mod 0 (FN SCAR)
— M27 IAR Infantry Automatic Rifle
— Colt M1911
— M9/A1 Beretta 92
— Mk 24
— M24 (XM2010)
— M82 and M107
Appeal to ordinary marines «Soldier» — mean to offend him. Accepted only «Marine». Lower-ranking appeal to older, except officers, calling quite rank and last name.
To the officers of subordinate ranks treated as follows: to the men — sir (sir), the ladies — ma'am (ma'am). But in the period of initial training recruits are turning to all the other soldiers "sir" (or "ma'am").
The initial training of the Marines are held in training centers, where for 11 weeks worked through the course of the young fighter, including the study of personal weapons, communications, history and tradit
ions of the Marine Corps and the legal issues of military service, as the physical, drill and firearms training and exercises in the field criteria. In the training center at Parris Island recruits come from the Eastern region (east of the Mississippi River), in San Diego — from the West. In the Eastern Region includes the 1st, 4th and 6th districts of the Marine Corps, in the West — the 8th, 9th and 12th districts. In each area taken from 6 to 10 pt recruitment recruits.
The standard contract of marine foreseen that it will serve four years in the permanent parts and another four years — in reserve. Marines can choose between service in the ordinary reserve, during which they often receive military training and receive a salary, and self-service in a reserve status. But in the near future, all less often choose the "active" reserve. The case lacks professionals in the field of communications and intelligence, and engineers and military police.
Uniforms serve to distinguish Marines from employees of other branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. Housing faithful to tradition and therefore has a more recognizable uniforms: blue (Dress Blues) associated with the beginning of the XIX century, as a service (Service Uniform) — the beginning of XX-th. Their uniform is simple, they do not wear stripes units and U.S. flags or tape name (for by certain exceptions). There are three main types of uniforms:
The only uniforms in the U.S. military, which has all three colors of the South American flag, designed to be worn in a formal setting and during the ceremonies (the same uniform that is worn by recruiters and recruits are often found on the campaign posters). Used three kinds of uniforms: Blue (blue, more common), Blue-White (blue with white, summer) and Evening (for formal occasions). With this form of the officers (or non-commissioned officers) can be worn dagger (Mameluke Sword, a non-commissioned officer to NCO Sword).
Green is designed to be worn while serving in the position (in the current time, extensively replaced in this role by Utility Uniform) and formal, but not ceremonial occasions. With this form of the Marines can be worn as a hat, and his cap.
Created to be worn in the field, and while on duty at the location. MCCUU (Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform) MARPAT (Marine Pattern) consists of camouflage pants (trousers) and coats (blouse) one of the approved colors (for woodland (woodland — green / brown / black) or desert (desert — tan / brown / grey) areas, brown suede shoe MCCB (Marine Corps Combat Boots), belt (belt) and an olive shirt. At the location in the summer uniform sleeves are rolled tightly to the biceps bright side out (employees other branches of the U.S. Armed Forces roll their sleeves so Makarov, that Camouflage was on top), forming a cautious cuffs. As headgear used octagonal cap ("konfederatka"), differ from those in the Army and will cover the method of carrying, in the field allowed the wearing hats (boonie hat) with an embroidered symbol in front of the Corps (previously used steel emblem). wearing this uniform, unlike Dress and Service, outside the base, except for certain cases, prohibited.
U.S. Marine takes an active role in all U.S. military operations.