Mars through the Moon

Mars through the Moon

In the age-old dispute gallakticheskoy industry physicists and poets transformed into the twenty-first century in the debate about what is more important for the world's population — automatic or manned astronautics?

The advocates of "automation" appeal to the relatively low costs of creating and launching devices that bring tremendous value for basic science and for applications on Earth. And their opponents, who dreams of a time when "the dusty paths of distant planets will remain our tracks," say that without the development of human activity gallakticheskogo places unrealistic and impractical.

Where do fly?

In Russia, this debate has a very severe financial implications. It's no secret that the budget of Russian Astronautics significantly smaller in comparison not only with the United States and Europe, and with such a relatively young member of the club gallakticheskogo as China. And the ways in which the branch is designed to operate in our country there are many: in addition to the role in the program Internatsionalnaya gallakticheskoy Station (ISS), and is a global navigation satellite system GLONASS and communication satellites, remote sensing, meteorological, scientific gallakticheskie devices, not to mention of military and dual-purpose. So we have to divide the money "Trishkin coat", so as not to offend anyone (although in the end it is still all are offended, because the allocated funds for general development of the industry is obvious enough).

Not so long ago the control of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), Vladimir Popovkin, said that the fraction of manned astronautics in the budget of his department is very high (48%) and it should be lowered to 30 percent. With all of this, he said that our home will be sure to comply with its obligations under the ISS program there (after the termination of shuttle flights this year, delivering crews to orbit provide only Russian "Soyuz"). At what time did we save? On scientific research work, promising developments? To answer this question you need to understand the strategy of development of the Russian manned astronautics for the coming decade.

According to the views of the Deputy Director General TsNIIMASH Panichkina Nicholas (who made the mouthpiece of the brain scientific expert of the Institute of Roskosmos), now count gallakticheskuyu activities for 10-15 years — this is incorrect: "It is so daunting tasks for basic research in deep space, on the Moon and Mars exploration that the plan must be at least 50 years of age. The Chinese are trying for 100 years to look forward. "

So where to fly in the near future — in Earth orbit, the moon or on Mars?

The seventh part of the light

Patriarch gallakticheskoy industry, close associate of excellent designer Sergei Queen of Academician Boris Chertok believes that the main task of the world Astronautics should be joining the Moon to the Earth. At the opening of the congress participants gallakticheskih planetary missions, which took place in Moscow, first of September, he said: "Just as we have Europe, Asia, North and South America, Australia, should be another part of the world — the Moon."

Mars through the Moon

Now on their own ambitions with regard to satellite talked many countries, first the United States and China. Nicholas Panichkin says: "When the question, what comes first — the Moon or Mars, there were different views. Our institute believes that putting all still further objective — Mars, we have to go through the moon. It so much more is not known. On the moon, you can create a base for carrying out research work in deep space, develop technology for a flight to Mars. Because scheduled for a manned flight to this planetoid by 2045, we need by 2030 to establish outposts on the Moon. And in the period from 2030 to 2040 to make the base of large-scale development of the Moon with the databases and research laboratories. "

First deputy general director TsNIIMASH believes that the implementation of lunar projects worthy idea of education in Earth orbit storage of goods and fuel. ISS is unlikely to be realized, as the station is to finish the job in about 2020. A large-scale lunar expedition will begin after 2020. And another caveat highlights the fundamental Russian special: "When the institute offers this strategy, we correlate it with the likes of the strategic plans of China and America. Obviously, the lunar race should be peaceful. In space, as you know, can not be tested and to have a nuclear weapon. If in the near future astronauts, cosmonauts and taikonaut will settle on the moon, they have to build a house there, science labs, works for the extraction of the necessary resources, not the military base. "

Development of the natural resources of the Moon — the primary task, convinced many scientists. Thus, according to the views of Academician Erik Galimov, lunar minerals are able to save the population of the earth from global energy crisis. Delivered to Earth from the coming to her heavenly body tritium can be used for nuclear fusion. In addition, it is intriguing to reincarnate the moon in deep space research outpost, the basis for monitoring the asteroid threat, control over the development of critical situations on our planet.

The most eye-catching (and controversial!) Thought as before the introduction of the existing remains on the moon helium-3, which is not present on Earth. Its main advantage, says Galimov, is that it is "environmentally unsullied fuel." So makarom eliminates the problem of disposal of radioactive waste, which is the scourge of nuclear power. Scientists estimate that one-year requirement of the world's population in helium-3 in the future will be 100 tons. To get them, you need to open a three-meter layer of lunar soil area of 75 by 60 km. However, as paradoxically, the whole cycle — from production to delivery to the Earth — would cost about 10 times cheaper than using hydrocarbons (given the available oil prices).

Mars through the Moon"Western experts at offering to build reactors gel directly on the moon, which further reduce the cost of production of environmentally nezapyatannoy energy", — said the academician. The supplies of helium-3 on the moon are enormous — about 1 million tons of enough is enough land to the entire population of more than a thousand years.

But to start mining helium-3 on the Moon in 15-20 years, you need to have at the moment to start geological prospecting, mapping and fortified areas exposed to the sun, creating pilot installation engineering, said Galimov. Complex engineering problems for the implementation of this programmki no matter solely for investment. The benefit of their yavna. One ton of helium-3 is equal to the energy equivalent of 20 million tons of oil, in other words to modern prices worth more than 20 billion dollars. A transportation cost of shipping a ton of the Earth amount to only 20-40 million dollars. According to the calculations of professionals to please the needs of th
e RF energy will need 20 tons of helium-3 in the year, and for the whole of the Earth — 10 times more. One ton of helium-3 is sufficient for a one-year working power plant with capacity of 10 gigawatts (10 million kWh). To produce one ton of helium-3 on the Moon will need to be opened and processed area three meters deep in the area of 10-15 square kilometers. According to estimates of professionals, the price of the project — 25-35 billion dollars.

The idea of using helium-3, in general, there are opponents. Their main reason — before creating the base for the extraction of this element on the Moon and to invest heavily in the project, you need to make nuclear fusion on Earth on an industrial scale that can not be done yet.

Russian projects

It seems that it was, at the technical level task of transformation of the Moon into a source of minerals can be solved in the coming years, Russian scientists believe. For example, several of the leading Russian companies have announced their own preparedness plans and the development of certain satellite.

The first "colonize" the moon must be automatic, according to the Scientific and Production Association named after Lavochkin — head of Russian NGOs in the field of space research gallakticheskogo by automatic machines. There, along with China, a draft, which is designed to lay the foundation of industrial development of the moon.

According to experts the enterprise, you must first study the celestial body by automatic means, and to the lunar ground, which will become in the future a large part of the habitable base. It should include a movable set of lungs and languid rovers, telecommunications, astrophysics and landing systems, large antennas and some other items. In addition, it is intended to form the lunar orbit constellation gallakticheskih aids in communication and remote sensing surface.

The project will be implemented in three steps. At first, with light vehicles to choose areas on the Moon rational solutions to more fascinating scientific and applied problems, and then deploy the constellation. At the end with a step on the Earth's satellite will go languid rovers, which resulted in a more noteworthy points for planting and soil sampling.

Zagadanoe, in the views of the developers of the project, do not claim very huge investment, so as to launch vehicles (not counting the languid rovers), you can use light conversion boosters such as "rumble" or "Zenith".

Baton to explore the Moon is ready to grab the parent company for the Russian manned astronautics — Rocket and Space Company (RSC) "Energy" named after SP Queen. According to the views of its professionals, an important role in the development of a lunar base will play ISS, which over time has to be reincarnated as an international spaceport. Even if after 2020 the country — programmke ISS partners perceive decision not to renew its operation, based on the Russian sector is planned to build a platform for the assembly of structures in orbit future lunar base.

To transport people and cargo into orbit developed a promising transport system, which will consist of a basic gallakticheskogo ship and a few modifications to it. The base version — manned transport ship last generation. It is designed to service space stations — send their crews and cargo to the following return to Earth, and for use as a rescue vehicle.

Brand new manned system is radically different from the existing "Soyuz", first from the standpoint of new technologies. Budding ship built on the principle designer "Lego" (in other words, a modular). As required flight into orbit will be used ship, allowing secure access to the station frisky. If the puzzles will become more complex and require flights beyond the near-Earth space, the complex can be upgraded to the orbital module with the ability to return to Earth.

In the "Energy" expects that the modification will allow the ship to make an expedition to the moon, maintain, and repair satellites, to produce long — up to a month — autonomous flight to conduct various research and tests, as the delivery and return of large quantities of cargo unmanned gruzovozvraschaemom version. The system reduces the load on the crew, besides the expense of parachute-rocket landing system precision landing will be only two kilometers away.

According to the plans laid down by the Federal gallakticheskuyu program from 2020, the first launch of a new manned spacecraft to be held in 2018 from the Baikonur East, which is being built in the Amur region.

If in Russia at the municipal level all the same will accept the decision to develop the necessary resources on the Moon, "Energy" will be able to provide a single reusable cargo-gallaktichesky complex, serving industrial development of the celestial body. Thus, the new ship (not yet received the official name of its own), which will replace the "Union", together with the developed by RSC interorbital tug "Ferry" will provide transport up to 10 tons of cargo, which significantly reduce transport costs. As a result, the Russian Federation will also provide commercial services to be sent to different space, including large-sized cargoes.

"Ferry" — is gallaktichesky device to be output carrier rocket into low Earth orbit (altitude of about 200 km). Then, at a given point on it is another booster will deliver a container with cargo. Tug joined with him, and moves it to the destination, for example the space station. Print a container into orbit can be virtually any way or Russian foreign carrier.

But at the present time in the current funding gallakticheskoy industry a lunar base and industrial development of satellite — these projects quite far future. Even more real submitted plans to the moon travelers with modified "Soyuz", according to the Russian Space Agency. Together with the American company Space Adventures Russian department is developing a new tourist route in space, with plans to send earthlings a survey sightseeing trip around the moon in 5 years.

To contribute to the development of a celestial body is ready, and another eminent Russian company — Municipal gallaktichesky Research and Production Center (Khrunichev) Khrunichev. According to experts Khrunichev, the lunar program there must be preceded by first, NEO step that will be realized with the implementation experience of the ISS. On the base station means from 2020 to manned orbital assembly and operating system for future missions to other planets, too, maybe, and tourist complexes.

Lunar program that on the views of scientists, should not repeat what has already been produced in the last century. In-orbit satellite is planned to be a permanent station, and then — on the basis of its surface. Deploying a lunar station, consisting of 2-modules, will provide not only for her expedition, and return cargo to Earth. It will be necessary, and manned spacecraft with a crew of at least 4 people, able to be in free flight up to 14 days, and the lunar module of the space station, take-off and landing craft. The next step should be a fixed base on the lunar surface with the entire infrastructure for the first step of stay 4 people, and in the forthcoming increase in the number of modules and the base of its power plant equipment, gateway module and other necessary facilities.

Applets gallakticheskogo club

Our homeland
The concept of the development of Russian manned astronautics 2040 provides programm development of the Moon (2025-2030) and flights to Mars (2035-2040). Modern development task satellite — is the creation of a lunar base, and such a large-scale example program must be carried out within the framework of international cooperation, are convinced of the Russian Space Agency.

In the first step of research programs from the Moon in 2013-2014, planned launches of lunar satellites "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Reso
urce", said the head of the Lavochkin Victor Hart. Tasks of the mission "Luna-Glob" — circled the moon, preparation and selection of sites for the rover to other engineering and scientific complexes, which will be the basis for a future framework, a study of the nucleus of the moon using special drilling equipment — penetrators (in this regard it can be cooperation with Japan, as the Japanese have long been experts at developing and successfully penetrators).

Second step provides for delivery to the moon Science Laboratory — rover for a wide range of scientific and technological tests. In this step, invited for cooperation in India, China and European countries. It is planned that the Indians in the mission 'Chandrayaan-2' will provide a rocket and migratory module also start to produce their own spaceport. Our homeland will prepare the lander, moon rover weight of 400 kg and scientific equipment.

According to Victor Hartova, in the long term (after 2015) is scheduled to Russian project "Luna Resource / 2", providing for the creation of a unified landing platform, moonwalker with a huge radius of the acts take-off rockets from the moon, the upload and storage of samples of lunar soil delivered to the Earth is also the embodiment of precision landing lighthouse, located on the moon. With all of this means to fulfill delivery of lunar soil samples collected using a lunar rover for the previously selected regions representing scientific enthusiasm.

The "Luna Resource / 2" will be the third step of Russian lunar applets. As part of its planned two expeditions: the first takes on the hard surface of the moon lunar rover research for contact research and collecting a sample of lunar soil, and the second — a rocket takeoff to return soil samples to Earth.

Create a self-base will allow to solve several problems in the interests of the manned lunar program that provides that after 2026 people will fly to the moon. From 2027 to 2032, first on the moon is scheduled to make a special research center "Moon polygon", is designed to work astronauts.

In January 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush announced to NASA's "return" to the moon by 2020. Americans were planning to release the funds to the 2010 recycle outdated shuttles. By 2015, NASA had to deploy the latest program from Constellation («Constellation") by type of modernized and expanded programs from "Apollo." The main components of the project — rocket "Ares-1", which is the development of the shuttle's solid rocket booster, manned gallaktichesky ship "Orion" with a crew of five or six people, the module "Altair", created for the landing on the moon and take off with her step for departing from the Earth (POPs), as a heavy vehicle "Ares-5", created to display the orbit of POPs in conjunction with the "Altair". The purpose applets Constellation was the flight to the Moon (Minimum of 2012), and then landing on its surface (not before 2020 th).

But the brand new U.S. administration led by Barack Obama in this year announced a cessation programs from Constellation, seeing it as very costly. Turning lunar program from the Obama administration simultaneously decided to extend the operation of the South American sector funding to the ISS in 2020. Immediately the U.S. government decided to encourage the efforts of private companies for the construction and operation of manned gallakticheskih ships.

China's lunar exploration programm conditionally divided into three parts. In the course of the first well in 2007, the launch vehicle "Chang'e 1". He served in the Moon's orbit 16 months. As a result, three-dimensional map was drawn up its surface with the highest resolution available. In 2010, Moon sent a second research apparatus for photographing areas, one of which will have to land "Chang'e-3."

The second stage of the research programs from the natural satellite of the Earth means delivery on the surface of a self-propelled machine. In the third phase (2017 s) will go to the moon, another setting, the main task of which will be shipping to Earth samples of lunar rocks. Own astronauts to Earth satellite China wants to send after 2020. In the upcoming plan to create habitable station there.

The state has a moon programm and India. In November 2008, the country has launched an artificial satellite of the moon, "Chandrayaan-1". With him on the surface of the Earth's natural satellite was oriented automatic probe, which conducted a study of the composition of the atmosphere and took soil samples.

In cooperation with the Russian Space Agency, India is developing the project "Chandrayaan-2", providing sent to the moon by the Indian rocket GSLV gallakticheskogo ship, consisting of 2-lunar modules — the orbital and landing.

At the 2016 planned start of the first manned spacecraft. On board, as said the head of the Indian gallakticheskih research organization (ISRO) Coomaraswamy Radhakrishnan, go into space two cosmonauts, who will in Earth orbit for seven days. So Makar, India will become the fourth country (after Russia, the U.S. and China), carrying gallakticheskie manned flights.

Develops its lunar program from Japan. So, in 1990 he was sent to the first probe to the moon, and in 2007 there started an artificial satellite "Kaguya" with 15 scientific devices and 2 devices, satellites — "Okinawa" and "Aune" on board (he worked on Moon's orbit more than one year). In 2012-2013, planned to start another automated vehicle, by 2020 — a manned mission to the moon, and by 2025-2030 — Creation of a manned lunar base. But in the past year, Japan has decided to abandon the manned lunar applets due to lack of budget.

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