The first mention of the mercenary armies belong to the time of the existence of the Old Rome and Carthage. Prof. wage war came to replace the slave armies and police. Discipline in the mercenary army supported only payments of salaries and terror of punishment (physical methods of compulsion).
Real time can rightly be considered the high point of mercenary armies. This successful business is connected with subsequent circumstances:
— mercenary armies are private military companies (PMCs) and build your own business without regard to the settlement of the constant movement of troops on the territories of foreign countries;
— PMC has the right to enter into contracts with the state of the world at least how to perform a wide range of applications and services: from the security services to the role in the fighting;
— PMC has the right to hire employees appropriate training and setting their salaries are significantly lower than those of soldiers standing army;
— customer service (state, non-state and private forms of ownership), there is no need to provide social protection and benefits (pension, life), mercenaries — these duties makes the management of PMC;
— real wage and logistics units only against the PMC's own resources;
— PMC may partly delegated functions and features of the permanent forces of the State of the customer;
— international organizations to entice PMCs to perform unsafe tasks in the territories of a complex of military and economic situation.
Clearly the existence of about 3 thousand of personal military companies operating in 60 countries.
PMCs offer a fairly wide Range of services:
— examination of national security and defense;
— levy to carry out international missions and the management of these operations;
— protection of strategic facilities (airports, harbors, etc.);
— protection of oil infrastructure;
— protection of power facilities;
— protection of local government agencies and embassies and local favorites;
— cargo escort, convoy;
— training of military units of permanent troops;
— translation services, specializing in the military transfer;
— execution of prison (as an example of Iran, Afghanistan);
— performance demining of fields and facilities, as destruction of ammunition;
— fire protection;
— perform logistics troops;
— reconnaissance, including air reconnaissance;
— protection of ships from pirate attacks.
PMCs are able to produce not only the purchase of arms, made with the use of high technology, and the military to prepare highly qualified professionals.
Division of mercenaries can make up the shortage of troops in any country. For example, hired an Israeli company Levdan have allowed the president to remove Congo military block his aggressive government.
Private military companies closely intertwined with Western intelligence agencies, and first South American and English.
Hard to believe, but the basis of military-industrial complex of the United States of America is a particularly large number of private military companies, which are the responsibility of the army comes to all-round service, role in the development of new weapons and assistance to municipal security services.
But no matter how big or was PMCs perform all kinds of services for it would have been difficult. Because there is a separation of functions between the PMCs. For example, security of oil infrastructure expertly deal of XE Services, and Erinys Iraq Limited. Escort of convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan produces company Kroll. Professional services provides military interpreters CACI. Supply troops masterfully engaged KBR.
In the U.S., the very first company that provides services to Prof. mercenaries was Vinnell Corporatio, made in 1931. She worked in the interests of the American army during the second world war. Specifically, this Tipo offices of the construction company used to conceal CIA in Africa and the Middle East. Security services for the assistance the company received contract work at the facilities of the oil industry in Iran and Libya. In Vietnam, the employees of this organization not only engaged in the construction of objects of military purpose, and participated in combat operations and intelligence raids. The assets of the organization's National Guard fighter training of Saudi Arabia and its role in military operations against the rebels in Mecca.
Alignment of professionals on the effectiveness of the work and services transferred to municipal authorities personal companies were divided. Many believe that the delegation capabilities MIC mercenaries, prejudicial to the interests of the country, is also quite an expensive service.
But these experts do not consider that, generally, the mercenaries are in areas with too high risk. Also for the fulfillment of the objectives they lure highly skilled professionals not only military training, but the fact of at least some branches of science, manufacturing, security systems, etc.
To carry out joint operations of PMCs voedinyzhdy joined the association: for example, the International Peace Operations Association (IPOA).
In Iraq, according to the agreements with the United States, employing about 100 thousand people from the Association of private security agencies in Iraq. Since the conclusion of a treaty regulating the personal presence of military units in Iraq were not taken into account the laws of this country, it is often around the PMC there is a huge number of scandals mercenaries with the local authorities and the population. Namely, armed clashes between Iraqis and mercenaries lead to significant casualties on both sides.
U.S. military believes that in the future, when conflict situations, the main fighting force will be hired army, create personal companies — in other words, embarked on the so-referred to as the "privatization of modern warfare." As can be expected outflow of military professionals of the standing army in the PMC network.
But the implementation of the services of mercenaries to work under the government has significant defects:
— in first place at the PMC is not performance military duty, and making a profit;
— PMC, as a separate business entity, is not subject to the command;
— as in contracts with PMCs impossible to predict all developments in the situation, it reduces the possibility of adopting flexible solutions — which greatly reduces the combat effectiveness of the mercenary army;
— Managing staff of PMCs has a comprehensive military training, and therefore will not be able, if necessary, to join the ranks of combat units.
Not once taken samples to control the operation of mercenary armies — from entering the licensing and supervision of the organization self-contained before the creation of a code of conduct, but so far the current control of the personal combat-ready military units there. The fact that salaried men are able to solve complex combat tasks in different regions of the planet, confirms the seriousness of the situation uncontrollable personal military companies.
For example, the company MPRI is naikrupneyshey middle of PMCs. It has a tight fit due to the Pentagon and the CIA. Specifically, the men of this organization not only took part in the training of the Croatian army, and then took part in the operation "Storm", which in the end were defeated Serb units. This is the most company protect U.S. interests on the African co
ntinent. MPRI makes arming and training of the Georgian army, also developed plans for military operations against Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
It should be noted that MPRI is not the only PMC that provides paid services to the Georgian government. The American company General Staff CAI provides services to Georgia to reform the Georgian army. PMC Kellog Brown and Root also not left out of the lucrative contract with Georgia — she started the reconstruction of military facilities on its territory.
The US-British company Halo Trust in the 90s taught Chechen rebels demolition business, conducted exploration in the areas of Chechnya. Its soldiers took part in the fighting in Chechnya against the Confederate troops.
At a closed meeting of the Department of Defense noted that recently hired armed groups will be the primary inventory to support and promote the Washington policy beyond the borders of America.