On Earth, ending gas

On Earth, ending gasOn Earth, there are about 920 trillion cubic meters of natural gas, according to NTV, citing an interview leading expert on gas International Energy Agency An-Sophie Corbeau for BBC News. Provided that the current gas consumption worldwide will remain unchanged, these reserves should last for 300 years. However, this calculation takes into account the gas reserves that are extracted from the clay and carbonaceous shale, and successful mining technology such gas until there is only the United States. International Energy Agency calls on Europe and Asia to connect to the development of technology for the extraction of gas from shale, as reserves of natural gas, which is extracted from porous rocks, can dry out after 120 years. It is reported that currently the technology of shale gas are actively exploring Australia, China, India and Indonesia.
Estimates of the amount of fossil fuels sometimes differ by orders of magnitude. Their value depends on what account: probable reserves of raw materials, proven, proven, geological or recoverable. Do the calculation of the amount of the deposit in the second and third stage, that is, those that will be beneficial to develop in the future (such as a deep-lying tar sands of Canada). It is also important to how deep deposits are considered cost-effective. About 50 years ago hydrocarbon reserves on the continental shelf is considered as such — to a depth of several meters, now — several kilometers. Experts, however, warn that even the value of open and proved reserves may change as data storage by 20%, and projections for even more accurate.
Oil and gas production is one of the most polluting industries. Environmental damage is applied at every stage, from exploration. It would seem, in this respect, the sea was more fortunate than land. For large-scale development of the shelf companies started not so long ago, already having the proven technologies, and with the active intervention of the "green" organizations. The problem, however, is that the contaminants are distributed in the water much faster because of this, the life of marine life can be affected the least by outside intervention. Soil samples, exploratory drilling, construction platforms, pipelines — all this affects the bottom and a negative impact on benthic ecosystems. Very harmful drilling fluids and other chemicals used when drilling wells, including plain water. Therefore, in the industry since the late 80's of the XX century, introduced the standard of "zero discharge", which prohibits any discharge into the sea used for drilling fluid.
The greatest harm marine life causing oil spills from accidents platforms, pipelines or tankers. Despite the fact that they occur at sea are generally less likely than on land, and their impact on the environment is much stronger. An example of this — the recent BP oil rig accident in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Oil spill occurred in April 2010 in a fire at an oil rig Deepwater Horizon. With a burning platform were rescued 115 people, 11 were missing. Immediately after the accident in the Gulf of Mexico took the form of the order of 62 thousand barrels of oil per day. Altogether during the accident in the Gulf of Mexico spilled water, according to the latest estimates, from 4.1 to 4.9 million barrels of oil. However, according to U.S. government experts, about 74% of oil vylivsheysya removed from the system by collecting it from the surface of the water and on the beach, as well as due to natural factors.

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