In the modern era of satellite orbital groupings linked not only elements of civilian infrastructure more advanced countries, and a significant part of the military infrastructure. Moreover, while many possible conflicts satellites can be used in military interest because often have a dual purpose. Communication satellites, global positioning satellites Meteorological Service are dual purpose. It is no coincidence over time in some countries have decided to focus attention on the development of anti-satellite weapons systems. Because disabling orbital groupings possible enemy can inflict great harm military potential of the current.
ASAT weapon — a set of arms, which is designed to engage and disabling of cosmic apparatuses used for reconnaissance and navigation purposes. Constructive method organize such an instrument is divided into two main types: 1) satellite interceptors; 2) ballistic missiles launched from aircraft, ships or ground launchers.
Currently, no state border in space, the whole area, which is located at a certain level from the earth’s surface, is used by all countries together. Those of them who were able to achieve a certain technical level. Interaction between global powers of cosmic progress made on the basis of international agreements. It is supported only by organizational methods. With all this themselves of cosmic objects do not have the ability or passive and active protection because quite vulnerable in terms of defense.
For this reason, the available orbital grouping quite vulnerable to external influences and factors for the enemy object represented potential application of force. With all this disabling satellite constellations can significantly weaken the military capacity of the state-owner. Application of weapons in outer space was stipulated only in a particular international agreement. Countries that have signed the contract, pledged not to display in place of cosmic satellites mines and armed ships interceptors. But, like many international treaties, agreements to ban weapons in space finding holds good only on the will of States Signatories. With all this at any moment the contract may be denounced by one of the parties.
Specifically, such a situation could still follow nedavneshnem past, when the U.S. in December 2001 decided to withdraw from the contract the ABM. Procedure out of this contract was very ordinary, U.S. President George W. Bush just informed Russia that since June 12, 2002 contract ABM will finish its existence. With all that, the decision states in the UN General Assembly supported only by Israel, Paraguay and Micronesia. If you look at the problem from this angle, then withdraw from the agreement not to use of cosmic space for military purposes would be the cause of all possible pairs of hours.
Both the U.S. and the USSR despite the existence of a contract did not stop work on the creation of anti-gun and nobody is 100% it is not clear how many orbital mines and torpedoes, and interceptor missiles remain in the arsenals of these countries. Moreover, if in the past it was believed that the interception and destruction of the satellite only need one booster with the impact object, now fully resilient projects look missiles owning multiple warheads. At one time, the Soviet Union in response to the program from the South American «Star Wars», which concluded in the predictive space orbiting platforms that could destroy intercontinental ballistic missiles during flight of cosmic plot their line of movement, threatened to withdraw in the near-Earth space virtually unlimited number of passive parts affecting . Simply put studs that whiz through the orbits would have turned into a sieve though what most high-tech equipment. Another thing is that to use such an instrument in practice is very problematic. Because in the case of more or less mass use of this kind of damaging parts may come chain reaction when the fragments already affected satellites will still affect other functioning satellites.
In such a situation are more secure satellites which are placed on large geostationary orbits, deleted a few thousand kilometers from the Earth’s surface. To achieve such heights of cosmic «nails» would have to give so much power and speed that they would actually gold. Also, in some states were working to create systems «air launch» when launching interceptors planned to produce the aircraft carrier (in the Soviet Union for these purposes were planning to use the MiG-31). The launch on the significant height can achieve energy savings required interceptor missiles.
Currently, experts believe that in the event of a large-scale conflict between the present states of cosmic constellations mutual settlement will only be a matter of time. With all this, the satellites will be destroyed even faster what does not matter which side will display the new satellites into space. Return the same constellation of satellites destroyed succeed only after the war, when the country still remain necessary for this monetary and economic power and infrastructure. If we take into account the fact that the interceptor missiles and «buckets of nails» are not particularly hard to understand why you need one or the other satellite, the available satellite television and long-distance and international communication after such conflict will not be for a long time. ;
Pretty fundamental detail is the fact that the price of interceptors cheaper than starting specialized satellites. It is believed that for the purposes of interception can be applied even medium-range missiles act. According to experts, have done so specifically in China, creating a missile interceptor. Provided clear guidance as to the purpose of such a missile missile can carry a payload of at least that kind of cheapens such weapons. Information on South American ASAT missile SM-3Block2B capable of destroying satellites at an altitude of 250 km, and the South American taxpayer cost 20-24 million dollars apiece. At the same time more massive interceptor missiles GBI, which is scheduled to deploy to the area of Poland, are more expensive — about 70 million bucks.
MiG-31 as part of an anti-gun
Since 1978 in the USSR «Vympel», work began on the creation of anti-satellite missile, curb OBCH and having the opportunity to be used with fighter-interceptor MiG-31. Rocket deduced by a predetermined height with aircraft then descended and undermining its launch warhead specifically about the satellite. In 1986, the OKB «MiG» started to work on finalizing the 2-interceptor MiG-31 with new weapons. The upgraded aircraft was designated MiG-31D. He had to carry a huge one specialized missile and weapon control system has been completely redesigned for its implementation. Both aircraft were single and did not carry radar (instead of their established 200-kg weight layouts).
MiG-31D had nodules as the MiG-31M, also equipped with bolshennymi triangular planes located at the ends of an airplane wing, called «flippers» and were similar to those that existed at the layout of the MiG-25P. These «flippers» have been created to give additional resistance fighter in flight on a hanger on the outer ventral pylon large anti-satellite missile. Fighters got hull numbers 071 and 072. Works on these two machines were completed in 1987, and that same year the aircraft tail number 072 began flight tests in the bureau in Zhukovsky. The program tests fighters lasted for several years and was suspended only in the early 1990s because of the unclear situation with the emergence of the desired rocket.
In the first photo of the new fighter-interceptor ASAT missile under the fuselage were placed in August 1992 in the journal «Aviation Week and Space Technology». But tests of the system have not been finished. Work on the creation of an anti-missile led OKB «Vympel», specializing in the development of SD. It was assumed that the MiG-31D will produce anti-satellite missile launch at an altitude of 17,000 meters and speed 3000 km / h
At the current time at the U.S. Army missile defense system is a shipborne entitled Aegis. The composition of this complex comes missile RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SIM-3), which is capable of destruction of satellites that has been demonstrated in practice, February 21, 2008, when the rocket was able to successfully kill a South American military satellite USA-193, which went into an unplanned low orbit.
Shipborne missile entitled Aegis
January 11, 2007 its own anti-satellite weapon experienced China. Chinese weather satellite FY-1C series Fengyun, which was placed in polar orbit at an altitude of 865 km was hit by a direct hit of anti-satellite missile, which was launched from a mobile PU Xichang launch site and was able to intercept a weather satellite on a collision course. As a result, the satellite lesions appeared accumulation of debris. Later ground tracking system detected at least 2300 fragments of cosmic debris, which was the size of 1 cm or more.
In Russia, the official release of cosmic interceptor missiles in the current time does not exist. Russian program that aimed at combating satellite enemy groupings called «satellites Fighter» and was deployed in 70-80s of the last century. During this test applets into Earth orbit the satellite interceptors that without the help of other maneuvering, approached with a view to attack, then made undermining warhead. Since 1979, the system began to combat duty, but tests in the framework of the applets were stopped in connection with the adoption of a moratorium on the contamination of cosmic space, the current state and prospects of the applets are not reported. Besides, in the Soviet Union were working on liquidation of enemy satellites with ground-based laser systems and missiles stationed on fighter-interceptor (such as the MiG-31).