Supervolcano eruption, including the plural, as in this picture, can dramatically change the landscape for tens of kilometers and affect the climate of the entire planet (illustration from bbc.co.uk).
In the case of powerful eruptions clear signs of impending disaster usually occur relatively shortly before the event. But scientists have found that binge supervolcano brewing, so far only in theory, can be computed in a few decades before the explosion.
Researchers from France, Switzerland and Singapore have studied images of rocks from the Greek island of Tyre, where three and a half thousand years ago there was a very strong eruption of Santorini, which destroyed Aegean civilization.
Features of crystalline inclusions in pumice from the island allowed us to calculate the conditions of formation of crystals deep under the volcano.
So it turned out that most of these crystals were formed in less than 100 years before the eruption. This means that heavy content of the magma chamber occurred within a surprisingly short time.
Previously it was thought that during the periods of rest (many thousands of years), the magma slowly builds a few miles below the mountain until a breakout occurs, reports BBC News. But the new work paints a different picture.
Followed by a long period of calm is very short (by geological standards) period of training (of a few decades before the eruption) when magma rises up relatively quickly from a deep, holding the position for the "strike." In the example of mixing exploded last portions of the magma in the outbreak occurred and did a few months before the explosion of Santorini.
This high rate of training eruption simultaneously gives hope for early warning. After a sharp change in the atmosphere, you can catch the underground through a series of sensors. While the slow rise of magma for thousands of years makes it impossible to calculate the exact time of the eruption.
The details of such forecasting technology yet to be developed, as long as the end is not clear what causes rapid rise of magma and what processes it brings.
Well, advance warning will give people more time to escape and training. The usual methods of forecasting eruptions (low seismic activity and the release of gases) can only raise the alarm for months, if not a week.
The importance of working hard to overestimate, especially in light of the analysis of the behavior of the subsoil beneath Yellowstone supervolcanoes, public interest which was warmed famous science fiction film "2012?.
(The results of the study of rocks with Tyra found in the material in Nature.)Source: the-day-x.ru