Lessons mega-tsunami. A year later.

Head for the Sakhalin Tsunami Hydrometeorological Ivelskaya Tatyana, told a symposium held at the initiative of UNESCO, in Tokyo, United Nations University, which focused on the tsunami March 11, 2011 and its lessons.

March 11 in the Pacific Ocean east of the island of Honshu earthquake devastated. After just three minutes Japan Meteorological Agency had issued a tsunami warning.

The earthquake caused the tsunami disaster, which produced massive destruction in the north-east coast of Honshu. Tsunami spread across the Pacific Ocean and is registered in many coastal countries, including the Far Eastern coast of Russia, on the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from Alaska to Chile. Pacific Rim through timely notification prepared in advance.

The first waves reached the coast through the next 20-30 minutes. In some places, penetrated the interior of up to 5 km or more. The maximum height of the tsunami 40.5 meters. Dead and missing nearly 20,000 people. The main damage to buildings and infrastructure occurred in the coastal area that was flooded. Destroyed about 130,000 buildings. So far, several hundred thousand people are in temporary shelters. Damage was quarter of the annual budget Japan.

Effectiveness analysis was performed early warning system during tsunami alarm and conducted field research. Based on the results of UNESCO decided to be held in Tokyo, the University of the United Nations symposium on the tsunami on March 11, 2011, its lessons. Representatives of 25 countries attended the meeting.

Analysis of the events of the Japanese tsunami warning system was conducted openly and with very different points of view, discussed lessons that could be learned from this event. Great and useful material presented TV channel NHK.

On the work of the channel would like to talk in more detail. This extensive network, which has extensive experience in covering natural disasters (typhoons, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis). Disaster response NHK has about 460 cameras with remote control throughout the country. All cameras can transmit video in real time. In addition, NHK has 14 helicopters in 12 locations across Japan for the preparation of news in an emergency. In major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka, are on standby 24 hours a day. With their help, filmed people trapped on the roofs, isolated, with impaired transport network. It is possible to organize the rescue of the people. While NHK continued to broadcast critical information on all types of media, including television, radio and cell phones. Thanks filming NHK managed to recover by the minute event in many affected areas. We would like to mention the film, which was produced by NHK heels, 2 months after the tsunami, with the telling name: "Mega Tsunami. How to escape?".

It was found that, in the first 10 minutes after the earthquake, the movement of people is almost not observed. People engaged in cleaning houses after the earthquake, has been rather quiet. Underestimation of the severity of the situation has cost the lives of a large number of people. People feel safe for brekvaterami, protective walls, dams, designed for wave height of 5-10 meters. Tsunami warning was ignored.

The main reasons that led to numerous deaths, classified as follows:

— Initial underestimation of a strong earthquake, and as a consequence, the low estimate of the expected tsunami. Preliminary modeling tsunami could not predict the whole picture of disaster.

— Failure of the earliest signs of a tsunami (feeling a strong earthquake).

— Ignoring warnings of a tsunami.

— The evacuation was carried out on a vehicle. In Natori especially pronounced problem associated with the use of vehicles during the evacuation. This city has the intersection of five roads, where at the time of tsunami alarm formed a giant tube, and people did not leave until the last car. Hoping to catch up to the arrival of the tsunami, despite appeals more reasonable.

— Some people are not waiting for the abolition of alarms have gone down from a safe height, and returned to the house.

— Failure to define locations or difficult evacuation route.

— In some areas people were evacuated because they were confident that the sea walls and levees protect against tsunamis.

After a two-day symposium was organized trip to the Tohoku region most affected by the tsunami. We drove along the east coast of Honshu, hundreds of kilometers from the south to the north of Natori (Sendai) to Miyako. The scale of destruction is enormous. Destroyed infrastructure and housing sector dozen cities. All we have previously seen the effects of the tsunami on the many photos and videos. That it was possible to see now is totally different from the picture of the early days. Cleared roads and areas subjected to flooding. Commonly removed rubble, metal, store the battered vehicles, appliances, etc. Very attentive to the findings of personal documents and photos. All described and delivered in the archive. I've seen boats and schooners along the roads. As explained by our guides, in this case the owner is engaged in transportation.

According to experts, the amount of debris formed by the tsunami, is about 29 million tons. Volume reconstruction is huge, heavy equipment operating seen often, the road all the way were in great condition, and litter is not only collected, but also sorted. It is assumed to be burning and burial, and recycling. Experts believe that Japan has made significant progress in addressing this problem.

In Rikuzen-Takata emphasis enjoys standing alone pine, not broken, unlike the thousands of other trees destroyed along the coast and broken like matches. This is especially surprising against the background of large-tonnage demolished gates in the bay, bridge and buildings. Pine became a symbol of fortitude of the Japanese people.

Residents of one of the villages on the sunken memorial established with reference to future generations: ".. It was a tsunami and survived only one who escaped fled to the mountain … ..".

A chance to save time and was in the majority of the victims.

Must never forget the past catastrophes. In the case of a strong earthquake is not waiting for official information! And to take the appropriate measures to rescue. First of all, it is — fast evacuation to a safe location on the hill.

Need to be taken and the preliminary steps: establishment of furniture, clearing the entrances to the houses of foreign objects, store houses a three-day supply of water and food. Be sure to determine in advance the most appropriate and quickest evacuation route.

In the past and in the Kurile-Kamchatka Trench were the strongest earthquakes and tsunamis. 1737 and 1952. And we must remember that this could happen again and tsunami may be more than we know from historical chronicles.

With photographs can be found in the photo gallery site Sakhalin Hydrometeorological Service.

The top of the hill, a memorial in Natori

Onagawa. Hospital on the hill, which has reached the tsunami. Wave height — 20 meters

Onagawa. Hospital on the hill, which has reached the tsunami. Wave height — 20 meters

Onagawa Bay. Reversed decided to leave the building on the site and make a memorial. Tsunami height -20 meters

Gently warehousing cars

Collected the garbage. A common pattern all along the coastal settlements

Hill traveled to tsunami wave ship in port Kesennuma. Wave height — 18 meters

Completely destroyed the village, except for houses on the hill

Natori. Desert

Source: meteoinfo.ru.

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