Can you avoid this catastrophe? Astrophysicists studying culinary habits and character space monsters.
One of the possible end of the world, who are predicting not only science fiction, but scientists the planet can absorb black hole.
Astrophysicists called black hole region of space-time with an extremely strong gravitational field. What would it not horrible, it was not back to back. This is true even of the world, which is why black holes and get their name: the body absorbs all the light falling on it, and does not emit its own seems completely black. And so they are invisible.
Scientists judge the existence of black holes only on the irradiation emitted by falling into them and warm up with space bodies. For example, a supermassive monster center of our galaxy — the Milky Way — astronomers were able to detect, because in this place every day disappears interstellar matter.
Can a black hole and swallow our solar system? Hardly. After all, it is still very far away. Threat — in the other.
Astrophysicist at Cambridge University Albert Shervinsky says that back in 2010 Observatory of NASA "Chandra" has recorded a huge cloud of dust and "acid mist» («acid nebula») size of 16 million kilometers. Ostensibly it is moving in our direction with almost skopostyu world, destroying everything in its path: comets, asteroids, and even the stars. And should reach Earth June 1, 2014. Scientists believe that this cloud in his time was generated by the activities of the most voracious black hole in the Milky Way. And this "horror story" today is the most popular on the Internet.
- The effect of clouds on the planet will be like, as if the ink spilled on handwritten text of the water, which corrodes the words and makes a mess — Shervinsky scares. — Complete destruction of the solar system is inevitable.
Russian scientists do not believe. So, head of the astronomy of the State Astronomical Institute. Sternberg Valentine Esipov assured that any data on the "cloud killer" is approaching Earth, no.
Although, maybe this information is classified? Shervinsky, for example, says that NASA is hiding the data "Chandra" in order not to cause panic. After an ominous cloud may be scattered through 2014. Or maybe evaporate.
Thus, according to the well-known theorist, a member of the Royal Society of London, Stephen Hawking, even black holes can lose energy and eventually evaporate. Although these finals until astronomers have observed.
However, that does not end with horror. At the end of December 2011, Professor Chung-Pei Ma of the University of California and his colleagues using ground-based telescopes in Hawaii were discovered two giant black holes. Of astronomers have not seen. Each of them — almost 10 billion times the mass of our Sun. Prior to this discovery hole is considered the most powerful of the galaxy Messier 87 with a mass of 6 billion solar masses. These monsters are so large that our solar system in their background is as a dwarf. They can eat it without even noticing.
The first is located in the galaxy NGC 3842, located at a distance of 320 million light-years from Earth in the constellation of Leo. The second — in the galaxy NGC 4889, the brightest in the cluster Coma Berenices at about 336 million light years from Earth.
The existence of such large holes, astronomers had no idea. Based on current scientific theories, the centrifugal forces would have to just break them apart.
- Black holes — the most strange cosmic phenomenon — explained astronomer Esipov. — Their gravity is so strong that the normal laws of physics simply do not apply to them.
In order to detect all dangerous for the Earth objects, experts plan in 2016 to begin construction of the newest, largest and most powerful radio telescope in the world of Square Kilometre Array (SKA). It will be 50 times more sensitive and 10 000 times faster than today's most powerful radio telescope operating. In 2012, the International Council report, which will be erected antennas 3000, of which the SKA will consist — in South Africa or Australia.
But today, it is not clear how the threat posed by black holes are real? And is there a way to destroy them? While science is powerless to answer these questions, scientists are trying to learn culinary habits and character space monsters.
DOSSIER ON MONSTER
"Favorite dish" — COMET …
In June 2010, researchers at the European Space Agency to process images from a Japanese space telescope Suzaku. And at 53 million light years from Earth have found a black hole weighing millions of times the mass of the Sun. According to the head of the Astronomical Institute in Kharkov Oleg Sidelina, this black hole "eats" comets. One of them and gave the location. Ice comet flying through the solar system, was part of the cometary cloud, which revolves around this hole.
- We noticed that they disappear in this place with the frequency of the galaxy or two years — explains Sidelin. — Cloud gradually decreases because gravity of the black hole is very strong. The force of attraction of the comet hole splits and forms one of the ring of matter around them. When they fall into the hole, we capture the large X-ray bursts.
March 28, 2011 scientists were able to watch as the powerful gravity of space monster star literally tore to pieces in minutes. And the dying star in the universe has sent his last breath — Bright flashes of radiation. The act of killing took place in the constellation Draco. Captures its orbital gamma-ray telescope, "Swift."
And gas clouds …
In December 2011, in the center of our galaxy through located in the Chilean Andes giant telescope Very Large Telescope, astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching (Germany) have discovered a gas cloud with a mass greater than the mass of the Earth three times.
It rotates in a spiral around the black hole mass is the mass of the Sun is four million times. The speed of rotation of the clouds today — 2350 miles per second, and it is increasing as a result of the impact of terrible gravity. While the "lunch" hole is from her 40 million kilometers. It is estimated that in the "stomach" hole he will fully until the end of 2013. On the proposed scenario, astronomers at the time of "eating" black hole can tear gas cloud in "pieces." Then the X-ray burst will occur due to the compression and heating of the gas. A ground-based and space-based telescopes can fix a flash of radiation.
How many monsters in the universe?
Astrophysicists have found dozens of massive black holes in the centers of our neighboring galaxies. And I suspect that the center of any galaxy — and there is a black hole.
It is also possible that the space packed with "microscopic" black holes with a mass average asteroid.
UNEXPECTED EXPERT OPINION
Physicist Lawrence Krauss of the University of Cleveland, Ohio, USA: "Black holes do not"
- I derived the mathematical formulas from which it follows that black holes do not exist. This discovery could resolve the paradox, knocking the last four decades, physicists confused.
In 1974, Hawking showed that black holes are not only absorb matter, but theoretically it may leak. Randomly in space may be a couple of "particle-antiparticle", one of them will fall into a black hole, and another step over the event horizon (imaginary boundary holes) and becomes free. Due to this effect — Hawking radiation — a black hole evaporates slowly. So all that has been absorbed by the black hole in the end for millions of years is radiated back into space. But how can a black hole to be both passionate and radiant?
If black holes radiate away their cloth outward over time, as shown by Hawking, they would have to evaporate without having to form. It would be like pouring water into a glass without a bottom.
I ask opponents: but why, however, the universe behaves as if full of black holes? And I tell them, 'How do you know that it is — black holes? "No, generally speaking, they have not seen. Any object with a huge gravitational field — for example, the remains of supermassive stars — can produce similar effects attributed to black holes. Our calculations show that this is so.
One hundred thousand euro was given for the discovery of a black hole
Sweden has recently been declared winners Kraforda Prize, awarded for discoveries in astronomy, mathematics, and biology, earth sciences research and treatment of polyarthritis. In 2012, the award is presented and astronomers and mathematicians. Award foundation said in a press release the prize committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Prize money equivalent of 4 million Swedish kronor (about 400,000 euros).
Astronomical awards honored Gentsel Reinhard (Reinhard Genzel) and Andrea Guez (Andrea Ghez) for the detection of evidence that in the center of the Milky Way is a supermassive black hole. Both astronomers observe a star orbiting the galactic center, and came to the same conclusion independently.
Prize Kraforda was established in 1980 by the Swedish industrialist Holger Krafordom. The decision to award was made of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Russians fell among winners twice in 1980, received the award mathematician Vladimir Arnold, and in 2008 awarded the Prize astrophysicist Rashid Sunyaev and mathematician Maxim Kontsevich.
A new network of telescopes will monitor the giant black hole
"Monster" is at the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Consolation that it is so far away from us, it seems the size of a grapefruit.
The new array of telescopes may allow scientists for the first time to photograph a black hole. For this purpose the combined 50 radio telescopes around the world in the global scope. They are scattered around the world, including — on Mount Graham in Arizona, on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, California, several radio telescopes in Europe, the South Pole and in Mexico. This giant "eye" will capture the "life" of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, reports dailymail ..
This project is called "Event Horizon Telescope" astronomers from different countries are going to discuss is this Wednesday 18 January. According to experts, the project will also test the general theory of relativity. But while the main goal — a supermassive black hole, which is four million times the mass of our Sun. Consolation that she is from us so far — about 26 000 light-years, which seems to be the size of a grapefruit on the moon. Telescopes will otlezhivat slightest phenomena occurring in the so-called boundary of a black hole, astronomers called "event horizon." Next, unfortunately, will not be able to look: inside the "monster" the laws of physics can not explain what is happening. "Event Horizon" — a "point of no return" from which not even light can escape.
It is because of this effect, black holes are invisible from Earth. Therefore telescopes will follow a "shadow" hole — light around its borders. It should be created suction and dust swirling around her, and gas. Swirling around the black hole like water circling sink in the bathroom, dust is compressed and the friction is converted into plasma heated to a billion degrees or more, causing it to glow and radiate energy that we can detect here on Earth.
And the image glow of matter swirling around the black hole before it reaches the edge to the point of "no return", scientists will be able to see the black hole of the scheme, which they called "the shadow."
The question of the existence of black holes was first raised by Einstein in his general theory of relativity, and was confirmed by decades of measurements and observations of space. However, scientists now say that if they find the "shadow" of the black hole, which will not round, it would mean that the general theory of relativity should have flaws.
- No one has ever seen a black hole, — professor of astrophysics at the University of Arizona Steward Observatory Dimitrios Psaltis. — We're going to do just that. Once we see his shadow, there will be no doubt.
- Even five years ago, such a proposal would not seem reliable — Shepherd Doeleman supported his colleague, associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and principal investigator of the project. — Now we have the technological means to "strike."
- So far we have only indirect evidence that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, — says Professor Psaltis. — But as we will see its shadow, there will be no doubt as to its existence.
By the way, our own Milky Way has about 25 small black holes in the range of 5 to 10 times the mass of the Sun.Source: the-day-x.ru