Itself to itself self-propelled Mortar — is not new. In the first self-propelled mortars on the chassis of tanks and armored personnel found the combat use of the second world war in the armies of Germany and the United States. But in the vast majority zabugornye self-propelled mortars were ordinary muzzle-loading field with manual loading the mortars. Similar developments took place in the Soviet Union in 1942, this self-propelled mortars on tank chassis design VG Grabina 107-mm mortar ZIS-26 (1942), and 50-mm mortar C- 11 (1943). But all the Russian self-propelled mortars 1940-1950-ies are not out of step development work.
One reason for the resumption of the middle of the 1960s, work on the 120-mm self-propelled mortar was the expansion of the challenges facing the Navy. So, plans were proactive planting our Airborne groups in the "Palatine Triangle" (the area where the borders of Germany and France and the Netherlands). Specifically in the area had been stockpiled weapons of all American divisions deployed in the European theater of operations in the "period of threat."
But in this case, our Navy could face resistance 2-or even 3 divisions of the Bundeswehr "second stage". Because it became evident that ground impact force Airborne Division on BMD should be the 1st order with the strike force Infantry Division on the BMP.
Russian Navy possessed 85-mm self-propelled ASU-85, also towed guns — 85-mm gun D-48 and 122-mm howitzer D-30. But the firepower of ASU-85 was already insufficient, and the speed of the column towed artillery almost 1.5 times less than the column SAU crawler.
Because in 1965, the Research Institute-100 developed two variants of the installation 120mm mortar with ammunition ballistics and mortar M-120.
In the first case the mortar was placed in a combat vehicle on the tractor chassis MT-LB ("to 6"). Mortar M-120 on a standard gun carriage was placed in the rear of the combat vehicle. The loading was performed with mortar barrel. The vertical guidance mortar from +45 ° to +80 °; traversing angle 40 °. Ammunition — 64 mines. Rate of up to 10 rds. / Min. Secondary armament: 7.62 mm machine gun. The crew of 5 people.
In the 2nd version was used breech-loading 120 mm mortar turret with filing min (drum capacity — 6 min). Mortar located in the tower and turret compartment BMP-1 ("to 765"). Fighting weight mortar had to be 12.34 m vertical angle pointing mortar from +35 ° to +80 °; traversing angle of 360 °. Ammunition — 80 min. Secondary armament: 7.62 mm machine gun. The crew of 5 people.
Both versions Institute-100 remained on paper.
September 13, 1969 Commission on Military-Industrial Committee (SVC) USSR Council of Ministers instructed the CTC Minobschemasha KB (company G-4882) to create a project 2-propelled 120-mm mortar with ballistics M-120.
Oscillating part of both mortars developed the scheme with rollback of the barrel, with a recoil mechanism and the sliding piston bolt. The mortar had hydropneumatic dosylatel mines worked by the energy of the hydropneumatic BATT is charged when the reel. Mortars could fire all staff 120mm mines also the newest active-reactive mine (APM).
The first version of the 120-mm self-propelled mortar received the title of "Astra" and subscript 2 C8, the second — the title "Lily of the Valley." "Astra" was intended for the Army, and "Lily" — for airborne troops.
Mortar "Astra" was created on the chassis serial 122-mm self-propelled howitzer 2 C1 "Carnation". Mortar is located in the tower and had a radial firing. Oscillating part of the mortar is set to tsapfennyh nests of howitzer 2 A31. To reduce the gas content of the crew compartment mortar to equip the system flushing channel (kicker).
120-mm self-propelled mortar "Lily" was created on the chassis of most experienced 122-mm self-propelled howitzer 2 C2 "Violet" ("to 924"). Mortar is located in the wheelhouse self-propelled. Oscillating part of the mortar is set to tsapfennyh nests of howitzer 2 A32. The project compared with the tactical and technical requirements to the "Lily of the Valley" angle horizontal guidance was reduced from 30 ° to 20 °, and missed 12.7-mm machine gun "cliff".
In the active order KB CTC staff presented the option to install a 120-mm mortar M-120 tractor chassis MT-LB. Regular mortar M-120 was retrofitted damper device and is mounted on a pedestal with a ball chase. As required mortar could be simply removed from the drawer and set on the stove (full-time on the M-120) for shooting from the ground. In the same position as an ordinary plate hinged at the back of the chassis.
In 1964, the French company "Thomson-Brandt" began mass creation of a 120-mm rifled mortar RT-61. The mortar was made in the traditional scheme contrived triangle and the other 120-mm mortar shells differed only enormous weight. The highlight of the mortar RT-61 was mine, but almost — Artillery shell with ready-made projections on the driving bands. What is or was a return to the systems of 50-60-ies of the XIX century. The French have advertised this mortar, stating that its effectiveness is not inferior to mine manning 155-mm high explosive shells. Marked by a very large screening rifled min (in range and more than 60 m, and a side — about 20 m). Yet the French propaganda played a role, and by the early 1980s, the 120-mm mortar RT-61 was in service with 13 years of the world.
Interested in them, and Russian military control, and the Central Research Institute of Machine Building clear (TSNIITOCHMASH) has been entrusted to focus on creating a 120-mm rifled mortar. This institute is located in the suburban town of Klimovsk, and there in the late 1960s, was created under the Department of VA Bulavskaya engaged in artillery systems. Works well over the 120-mm rifled mortar began in the Department of Field Artillery running AG Novozhilova.
In TSNIITOCHMASH and GSKBP (later NPO "Basalt") delivered a 120-mm mortar French RT-61 and a few 10-minute s to it. There have been carried out bombings of ammunition without firing (in broneyamah and sectors). The results of these tests have confirmed that the "threaded" to the mortar shell exceeds the usual feathered mine in the affected area by 2-2.5 times.
In 1976, work on a 120-mm rifled mortar fire was brought and the Perm Machine-Building Plant. Lenin. SKB plant under the control of R. & J. #8201, Shvarova and concrete — AY Piotrowski designed a 120-mm gun, and later received index Grau 2 A51. In 1981, the developers of the system and Shvarev Piotrowski became laureates of the State Prize.
The system was unique, having no analogues. Under the gun field artillery mortar understood, howitzers, mortars, anti-tank gun. This tool makes the functions of all the systems listed above. And therefore, not inventing new names for official recommendations and technical descriptions of the two instrument called A51. 2 A51 can lead cumulative fire antitank missiles, rotating high-explosive shells and all typ
es of 120-mm Russian mines. In addition, the gun can fire a 120-mm mines of western production, for example, mine from the French mortar RT-61.
The gun has a wedge gate with semi-automatic follower type. 2 A51 trunk like an ordinary artillery gun. It consists of a tube and the breech. Placed in the breech wedge gate with semi-automatic follower type. The pipe has a constant slope of 40 grooves. Redirection is shot by pneumatic devices. Compressed air is blown and the trunk to remove the residual propellant gas by opening the shutter after the shot. For this purpose the front wall of the tower is equipped with two cylinder. Their automatic charging comes from regular air compressor motor starting systems. The recoil mechanism is also similar to an ordinary gun — hydraulic brake roll spindle type and hydro-pneumatic recuperator.
Sector hoist is attached to the left lodyge tower and horizontal guidance tools is done by turning the tower.
ACS 2 C9 "Nona" can parachute parachute-jet method of An-12, Il-76 and An-22 from the heights of 300-1500 m in the area, located at an altitude of 2.5 km above sea level, with the wind at ground level to 15 m / s.
Shooting from the ACS is conducted only with the space but without preparatory training firing position.
2 shots for A51 engaged SSPA "Basalt", and the chassis — Volgograd Tractor Plant.
By the way, where did so not typical for Russian army proper name — "Nona"? There are many legends walks. Some say that the name of the wife of the 1st of the designers, according to others — abbreviated abbreviation of the name "New Tool to ground artillery."
For the first time SAO 2 C9 "Nona-S" in action was shown at the training camp in the Navy training center "Kazlų Ore" on the ground of the Lithuanian SSR.
For all the tests was formed shestiorudiynaya battery CAO "Nona-S." Formation of the battery have passed through the personnel of the mortar battery of the 104th Parachute Regiment led by the commander of the battery captain Morozyuk. Education was under the control of Representatives TSNIITOCHMASH led by AG Novozhilov and KB Machine-Building Plant. Lenin led by A. J. Piotrowski.
After completion of the test on the basis of this battery was formed by self-propelled artillery battalion SAO 2 C9 "Nona-C" of the 104th Parachute Regiment.
Creating a "Nona-S" was conducted by the them. Lenin from 1979 to 1989 inclusive. In all there were 1,432 guns.
In 1981, the artillery system was put into service under the title of "self-propelled artillery gun 2 C9"
At the end of 1981 it was decided to form a battery SAO 2 C9 with its next shipment to Afghanistan. It was formed in the town of Fergana, where previously taken six guns accompanied by a 2-division officers SAO 2 C9 of the 104th Parachute Regiment. PERSONNEL — 3rd battery artillery battalion 345th individual Parachute Regiment, which had arrived from Afghanistan.
Education personnel battery lasted 20 days and ended in a live-fire training center. Types of ammunition — 120-mm mortar shells. The instructors were teaching two officers SAO Division 2 C9 of the 104th Parachute Regiment, excellent practical knowledge acquired in the course of testing and training of personnel. Next they went to the state of the battery. In late October, the battery went to Afghanistan.
Since 1982, the formation of two battalions of the CAO C9 in artillery regiments.
On the basis of the "Nona-S" specifically for the Marine Corps was founded implement 2 C9-1 "Sviristelka." From "Nona-S" it has lacked mooring sites and increased to 40 rounds ammunition.
Since 1981, the plant 2 C9 successfully applied in Afghanistan. The effectiveness of the combat system implementation sent to the attention of Army Command, who wished to have around, "Nona" in both towed and self-propelled in the variants.
First, the designers decided to name the towed version of "Nona-B" by analogy with other artillery systems — self-propelled "Hyacinth-S" and towed "Hyacinth-B." But the title of the flower and the woman's name — not one and the same, and the customer is strictly torn the title "Nona-B". Ultimately bukovku "B" was changed to "K" and towed version was called the B16 2 "Nona-K."
A few words about the structure of 2 B16. The trunk of towed guns equipped with a massive muzzle brake, suction up to 30% pullback. In a combat situation wheels are hung, and the instrument is based on a pallet. On the battlefield weapon can roll over the forces of the calculation with the small rollers on the ends of the yokes. According to the state, "Nona-K" tows the car GAZ-66, but can be used as needed and UAZ-469. On the march trunk develops together with supports and instrument becomes a very compact form.
Since 1985, KB Perm machine factory was working on a 120-mm self-propelled gun 2 C23 "Nona-SVK". The gun itself has undergone modernization and has received a new index 2 A60, although its ballistics and ammunition were left without changes.
One of the features of the locking mechanism of the shutter cylinder with a frame, which makes the function dosylatelya totality. Thanks to the design of such soldiers do not need to waste significant effort to hand in these artvystrelami in the bore, especially on huge elevations when the barrel of the gun was rising vertically. The gun is equipped with a device that controls the temperature of the barrel (an indicator of heat), which is directly related to the accuracy of fire. Tower 2 with the gun was placed on the A60 chassis BTR-80.
On the roof of the commander's cupola 2 C23 installed 7.62-mm machine gun. The machine gun is connected to the traction device TKN-3 A, which allows to deliver fire, remotely controlling the fire from the tower. Inside the C23 2 are two portable air defense systems "Igla-1". Right and left of the tower there is a system setting smoke screens 902 with six grenades 3 E6.
The question arises, why it was necessary to create a new self-propelled gun, why it was impossible to adopt the Army "Nona-S"? Circumstances were many. In 1-x, wheel assembly, "Nona-SVK" provides great mobility and reliability, particularly in the transfer of technology under its own power over long distances.
In Afghanistan, there were 70 units 2 C9 "Nona-S." In the process of fighting, their chassis 2 C9 is often clogged with stones, which made the car motionless.
Wheel system is devoid of this defect. In 2 C23 more ammunition and supplies stroke than 2 C9. 2 C23 is designed for land forces, where there is no BTR-D, and are widely used BTR-80, which simplifies the repair of machinery and training of personnel. Finally, 2 to C23 is less 1.5-2 2 C9.
First series of 30 February C23 was made Perm Machine-Building Plant. Lenin in 1990, the same year tool was accepted into service.
All three "Nona" have the same ammunition and ballistics. Such a combination of ammuni
tion, as in "Nona", there was no one at the artillery system in the world.
In-1's, "Nona" shoot all the ordinary 120-mm Russian mines, including pre-war. Among them, high-explosive
OF843 B, OF34, OF36, smoke 3 D5, lighting C-843 and 2 C9, energetic 3-N-2. Weight ranges from 16 min to 16.3 kg, because of their ballistic data about similar — firing range from 430 to 7150 m, and the initial rate of 119 to 331 m / s. In flight mine aerodynamically stabilized by the feathers (wings).
Shrapnel and high-explosive mines hit the area over 2700 m2. Incendiary bomb 3-W-2 makes 6 fires, its components are burning more than a minute. Smoke bomb does Zahav height above 10 m and a length greater than 200 m, which is smoking more than 3.5 second.
In-2, "Nona" can shoot ordinary artillery shells, the only difference between them — is ready rifling on the case. Shells and OF49 OF51 constructed prototype, only OF49 has a metal casing and contains 4.9 kg of explosive A-IX-2, while the OF51 — metal body and 3.8 kg of explosive A-IX-2. On the effectiveness of these actions shells close to the 152-mm howitzer grenades. The firing range and OF49 OF51 from 850 to 8850 m with initial speeds from 109 to 367 m / s. In flight stabilizing spin projectiles and their dispersion is 1.5 times lower than the min.
In addition to ordinary ammo in sets of active-missile OF50. This shell has a small jet engine, which cut one after 10-13 seconds after the shot exit. Firing range of active-Rockets — 13 km.
B-3, "Nona" can shoot controlled ("correctable") projectiles such as "Kitolov-2", which serve to defeat lightly armored and other small targets with a probability of 0.8-0.9. The missile is equipped with a weight of 25 kg solid propellant engines, creating corrective impulses during the flight. The projectile guidance in using the laser pointer. The firing range "whalers 2" — up to 12 km. Weight explosive — 5.5 kg.
B-4, "Nona" can successfully fight the main battle tanks at a distance of up to 1000 m To this end, it comes cumulative ammunition projectile weighing 13.2 kg, which pierces the armor on a normal width above 650mm.
So Makar, tools such as "Nona" have no equal in the world and can handle a wide range of tasks. These guns took part in a number of local conflicts and a proven track record.
A few words should be said about the use of "Nona-S" during the first Chechen war.
The witness, a correspondent of the newspaper "Red Star" V. Pyatkov outlined the corresponding episode of fighting the introduction of self-propelled artillery, airborne in Chechnya: "In the winter of 1996 in the gorge Shatoyskiy column of paratroopers was ambushed. Place for the conduct of the militants chose very well. Corniche. On the left — the vertical wall on the right — the abyss. While, when the column was stretched around the bend mountain range, the fighters shot down the first car. Trapped on a narrow strand road troopers, devoid of maneuver, according to the canons ambushes were doomed.
In this situation, a senior columns decided to use a self-propelled guns, "Nona-S." Their ability to fire on the actual movement of the vertical line, literate acts artillery spotter Lieutenant Andrew Kuzmenova, received in this battle seriously wounded, have allowed as soon as possible to support the defending fire. This decided the final battle in favor of the Marines. Losses in the battle could not be avoided. But they would have been even worse without Grab gunners plans militants cut off by the complete destruction of the tower. "
And the participation of "Nona" during the second Chechen war, famously said Maj. Gen. AV Grehnev, the last from 1991 to 2002, chief of artillery of the Airborne Troops, "One of the best examples of our artillerymen — act in a harsh battery commander self-propelled artillery battalion Ryazan regiment of the 106th Airborne Division Captain Alexander Silin. During the fierce fighting for the center of the town, when, acting on foot, a battalion of paratroopers Ryazan few days in a row, being completely surrounded rebels fought off an angry attack the enemy, the final battle in almost all acts intended corrected Silin captain of artillery. Well-organized and expertly adjusting the regimental artillery fire by phases and fronts, Silin not give great enemy forces approach the paratroopers held buildings. For courage, heroism and Prof. acts during street fighting in the harsh Captain Alexander Silin was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian …
Show after the defeat of the militants in Dagestan during a pause in the fighting has been fruitfully applied to the command of Navy training groups Airborne to the recent large-scale campaign. One of the main activities of this training was just raising the artillery component. And when the troops fled the border of the breakaway republic, each regimental tactical group was already on the artillery battalion, which had in its composition from 12 to 18 self-propelled artillery guns or D-30 …
In addition to successful actions and good preparation Airborne Artillery (this provides at least the fact that, going to the mountains, the scouts of the GRU and the FSB tried by all means to bring concrete landing artkorrektirovschika), is to provide the courage and bravery of our gunners " .
In the end is to tell about the 120-mm self-propelled guns 2 C31 "Vienna", the layout of which was first shown at an exhibition in Abu Dhabi in 1997
2 self-propelled gun C31 created on the chassis battle BMP-3 and is intended first for fire support infantry battalions operating in the BMP-3.
The machine is made by assembly scheme with the aft engine compartment. Management office is located in the front part of the body along its longitudinal axis. Battle stations installed in it with an armored turret with arms occupies the middle part of the body. The crew consists of four people, including a driver is in the department of management and installation commander, gunner and loader — in the fighting compartment.
The hull and turret machines are welded construction. Armor protects the crew from small arms bullets and shrapnel gun artillery shells and mines.
2 self-propelled unit C31 armed with 120-mm rifled gun 2 A80, the design of which is the development of design tools A51 2 2 self-propelled C9. It also consists of a rifled barrel with a combined automatic gate with fencing of the cradle, recoil mechanism and sectoral hoist. Feature of the instrument setting 2 C31 is the increased length of the barrel, will greatly increase the range of fire when using ammunition 2 A51. The gun is equipped with a pneumatic rammer and a system of positive venting of the barrel after the shot. Pointing guns in the vertical plane is in the range of angles from -4 ° to +80 °, with all this servo drive is used, automatically restoring the tip after each shot. The horizontal guidance tools made by turning the tower.
Self-propelled unit 2 C31 has a modern fire control system. At the disposal of the gunner'
;s periscope sight, and there are separate sight for direct fire. Housed in the commander's cupola right from the gun commander installation has a system of autonomous target detection with the introduction of its own means of surveillance and reconnaissance. Cupola can be rotated by 90 ° and provides a good overview of the commander of the advance. The system also includes fire control and navigation systems topographic binding.
Full Ammunition plant consists of 70 shots, placed in a mechanized combat pack in the fighting compartment. Chance also shooting with the filing of shots from the ground. For this purpose, on the right side of the machine there with an armored hatch cover.
Auxiliary self-propelled weaponry consists of 7.62 mm PKT machine gun mounted on the roof of the commander's cupola.
For smoke-screens on the frontal armor of the tower mounted two blocks of 12 81-mm grenade type 902 A. The shooting smoke grenades can be carried out automatically on the team sensor laser TSHU-2 "Blind-1."
In 2005, an experienced model of self-propelled guns 2 C31 "Vienna" was sent to the municipal tests, which successfully completed in 2007 and in 2010, OAO "MZ" passed the Ministry of Defence first batch of 2 C31 "Vienna".