French military developers stunned the world of the new warship. The revolutionary tool is a "submersible frigate" or, as they call it themselves designers, "submarine above water."
On opened on October 25 in the Paris suburb of Le Bourget European naval show EURONAVALE-2010 presented a lot of promising projects warships the coming future. Specialists correctly identify two trends: the creation of a missile defense ships and boats, specially designed for the basing of unmanned aerial vehicles. Among them is as mundane surface ships, and very futuristic projects such as "Dip frigate» SSX-25 proposed by the French company DCNS.
The French themselves called extraordinary ship "Emergent submarine": specifically so can be translated into the Russian language is French title Sous-marin de surface. The ship has a length of 109 meters semisubmerged underwater hull optimized for large moves on the surface. To do this in an elongated knife-like hull of the ship installed specially massive gas turbines that move the three water-jet propulsion, with all this "surfaced submarine" will be able to get 38-speed hub of more than 2,000 nautical miles.
Turbines and diesel engines underwater course placed on a single base in a bulky deck superstructure. Upon arrival in the combat area ship commits a "dive", partly transformed into a submarine.
With all this vozduhopoglotiteli turbine and exhaust valves special devices are locked out of the add-nominated "snorkel" (scuba unit supply diesel air) from the central part of the ship — Azipod, and in the nose — the depth of the handlebars. Submerged displacement of the ship is 4,800 tons, it can travel at speeds up to 10 knots.
To observe the surface in all of this can be used a special retractable mast like a periscope, equipped with radar and optical sensors of various kinds.
The company does not report, whether the ship is able to operate in one hundred percent submerged, in other words without sliding devices for sampling the air, only to go electronic. The company stresses that their diving boat for anti-submarine purposes is not optimized, it still has eight torpedoes for self-defense in the bow torpedo tubes.
The main armament of the ship — 16 universal vertical launchers for placement of a cruise (including anti) and anti-aircraft missiles.
So Makarov, as a promising French ship designers offer some hybrid frigate (the highest speed, seaworthiness, a powerful missile system) and impact Underwater Boats (stealth, the ability to storm the purpose of underwater position). Immersed body will provide a hybrid vehicle lowest vulnerability to pitching, making it measured starting platform, and developed an add-in part will allow to get rid of such shortcomings submarine as cramped. Moreover, deep body — it's also the least visibility in all the spectra and the highest efficiency due course of least resistance at the interface.
In addition, as noted by the experts at, well-developed add-in allows you to place it in different pretty comfortable accommodations for special forces and its specific hardware — an advantage denied to special-purpose submarines. In the superstructure, of course, can be arranged and a special hangar for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), especially presentable in terms of rotorcraft with vertical take-off. These helicopters, robots can be stored in automated shelves around the hangar with a retractable roof, which will be disclosed for the production and reception of the UAV.
Of course, in such configuration, the ship should be considered first as a scout, created for covert collection of disk imaging and long in any coastal area, for whatever reasons, are not accessible to gallakticheskoy or air reconnaissance. Another possible purpose of this ship — clearing a base for commando covert strikes against coastal facilities, cleaning of beaches in front of the arrival of the main assault force. It is clear that the more valuable it will be against an opponent who lacks the modern means of anti-submarine warfare.
One should not think that the French invented something fundamentally new. Diving and semi-submersible submarine known since the last century, some ships are even used in combat. Thus, the British destroyers class submarines to the first world, kitted out (due to lack of massive diesel engines), steam-turbine units, were practically diving ships in armed clashes act of emergent situation, hoping to protect the body the water column. The semi-submersible vessel can be considered fully and big-name "Monitor": the first self-propelled artillery spiral-shaped metal craft, applied northerners during the U.S. war in civilian clothes for the bombardment Hempltonskogo raid.
You can also think of the German mini-submarine type "Zeehunde" and "Zeetoyfel": the first is an attempt to creation of a maritime analog single-seater fighter, and the second — sabotage the ship with access to the saved objects by caterpillars.
Various projects diving ships were created in the USSR. These were practically of early Russian Submarine "Truth." To achieve high speeds above the water Designer Andrew Asaph tried to give the submarine contours of a destroyer — a speedboat at the time of surface ships. But for the destroyers typically ratio of length to width and width to sediment completely typical submarine. As a result, submerged ship poorly managed, and the highest in store buoyancy is very slow the dive.
Very unusual and looked project diving torpedo boat 1231 "Dolphin". The idea gave Nikita Khrushchev personally. Looking around once at the naval base in Balaklava speedboats projects CDB and CDB-19-5 and should be based in the same submarines, he expressed the idea that in order to ensure the secrecy of operations of the fleet, which is especially important in the criteria of nuclear war, to strive "lower"Fleet under the water, and proposed to start"lower"Missile boat.
In accordance with the TTZ ship Project 1231 was intended to apply unexpected missile attacks on naval vessels and transport in narrow places on the approach to naval bases and ports of the enemy, the role in the defense of the coast, areas of deployment of the fleet and the coastal flanks of ground forces in repelling the assault landing and violation of maritime communications Opponents also to carry the sonar and radar surveillance in locations dispersed naval base. It was assumed that the solution of the tasks set group of similar vehicles had deployed in the area and for a long time to be in a submerged position in the waiting position or move closer to the enemy also submerged, keeping in touch with them by means of sonar.
Having become acquainted, missile floated at high speed out on the limit missile salvo rockets, then again immersed or fixed on the enemy with the greatest speed on the surface. Being in submerged submarines and a large speed in the attack were to reduce the time spent under the influence of the enemy firepower, including air attack.
Project quite successfully evolved from 1959 to the removal of Khrushchev in 1964, when it was frozen and later closed
The only application in which the div
ing boats have justified — is semi-submersible high-speed landing craft, used, for example, the North Korean saboteurs, and since then, and some of their Iranian colleagues. The same type of court, but "self-made" and Colombian drug traffickers use to deliver its product to the United States. This nizkosidyaschie boats up to 25 meters, the water part of the boat above the surface to a height of less than 45 cm, they can carry up to 10 tons of cocaine. South American military and law enforcement agencies call them self-propelled semi-submersible boats, Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles (SPSS). The detection of such little ships is very difficult even for so great curb service as the South American Coast Guard.
Apparently, this guided and French designers: Somali pirates have any big or diving submersible ship, most likely really do not see it. But is it worth powder and shot? Can it happen that such a ship class will be more expensive than a frigate and a submarine taken together, and by the efficiency — worse than each individually? It is clear that in real time no one will be able to answer this question, but all the same it seems that the future of the least exotic vehicles.