The term "addiction" is associated with the term "drug" (from the Greek. Narkotikos — soporific). Originally called the drug morphine alkaloids of opium poppy and their synthetic analogues. Now the concept of "drug"Acquired legal sense, means substances included in the list of prohibited substances (List I).
According to the internationally accepted definition, drug addiction — is a violation of the psyche, is the strong desire to take a certain substance (or a substance from a specific group) included in the list of banned substances, to the detriment of other activities and the persistence of the substance use despite harmful consequences. The abuse of drugs not included in the above list, is called substance abuse.
What are drugs?
There are several groups of drugs:
1. Opioid analgesics (Heroin, morphine, codeine, promedol, etc.). They cause euphoria, pain relief, relaxation, passivity. Characterized by a strong psychological and physical dependence. Overdose often leads to death from respiratory failure due to paralysis of the respiratory center.
2. Stimulants (Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine). Cause stimulation of physical and mental alertness, euphoria. It is believed that cocaine generates very strong psychological dependence. An overdose of stimulants can lead to a hypertensive crisis, stroke and myocardial infarction.
3. Alcohol. Disinhibited, and with increasing doses depresses the central nervous system, violates the coordination and articulation. Causes both physical and psychological dependence. Overdose is characterized by coma and death can occur from paralysis of the respiratory center or choking vomit.
4. Nicotine. The most common drug. Stimulates the central nervous system, both types of shapes according to. Highly toxic, but when smoked tobacco lethal dose virtually impossible to achieve.
5. Tranquilizers and sleeping pills. Their initial effect is similar to being drunk, and then replaced by sleepiness. When administered intravenously to quickly produce a deep sleep.
- Barbiturates (phenobarbital, cyclobarbital and the like). Both physical and psychological dependence are formed relatively quickly. Developing socio-and agoraphobia. Death from overdose occurs due to paralysis of the respiratory center.
- Benzodiazepines and related substances (diazepam, triazolam, zolpidem, and others). There is some softer barbiturates. Formed psychological, and chronic administration of high doses — and physical dependence. Overdose is characterized by long soporous condition leads to death is extremely rare.
6. Hallucinogens (Psychotomimetic).
- Psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, DOM, etc.). Cause a strong change in the course of thoughts and perceptions with illusions and hallucinations. Cases of fatal overdose virtually unknown. Possible accidents due to confusion or a false sense of unusual features (traffic accidents, falls, burns, electrocution).
- Delirianty (cholinergic receptor blockers: atropine, scopolamine, Taran tsiklodol, etc.). After receiving the evolving phenomenon of acute psychosis with hallucinations, disorientation, amnesia, etc. Smurtelnaya overdose in adults is rare (in children and adolescents — is possible), characterized by accidents.
- Dissociative anesthetics (phencyclidine, ketamine, etc.). Cause the separation of mental from bodily functions, violate the perception of the body, creating the illusion of being in another place (fictional or real). Ketamine is used in medicine as an anesthetic for without depressing the respiratory and vasomotor centers. Overdose can lead to coma, rarely — to death in susceptible people — to a hypertensive crisis.
Physical dependence hallucinogens do not cause, psychological — is possible, but rarely severe.
7. Cannabis products (Marijuana, hashish, etc.). Cause relaxation, a sense of lightness, sharpen perception, impair short-term memory, increase appetite. Physical dependence does not develop mental weak. Overdose is characterized by weakness, disorientation, anxiety. Cases of fatal overdose was observed.
How do opioids?
In the 70-ies. XX century. researchers have studied in detail the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. In the body, they act just like endorphins (substances that provide pain relief, improve mood), but much longer and stronger.
In the field of human exposure the line between medicine and poison is very vague. Higher concentration — the substance being in minimal doses is an excellent drug against a disease, it is a popular drug. By learning to provide all the new derivatives of opium, chemists and pharmacologists have unwittingly contributed to the spread of opioid addiction. For example, in 1803 in Germany from the opium poppy has been received morphine was 10 times stronger than the opium. At the end of the XIX century. German doctor Heinrich Drezer (who, incidentally, was first used aspirin) synthesized on the basis of a new chemical compound morphine — codeine, at first enthusiastically adopted by pharmacists. It was used for treatment of pain and cough. Codeine is weaker than morphine, however, and it causes physical dependence.
Up to 10 times more potent than morphine another opioid — heroin. It evokes a feeling of bliss, which is soon replaced by a sense of well-being, security. But it turned out that physical dependence on the drug, 91 percent started to use it occurs in less than 3 weeks. Makeshift heroin quickly poisons the body, man degrades eyes. The death of a heroin overdose can occur within a year and a half after the first.
The consequences of drug use
In addition to the strongest urge to use drugs, whether alcohol or other drugs, and the person has other serious problems:
- direct change of mentality caused by the drug during its operation (inebriation, illusions, hallucinations);
- the risk of overdose due to the need to increase the dose received;
- harm to the actual substance (cirrhosis in alcoholism), or the process of its use (sepsis in intravenous drug users);
- abstinence (breaking, hangover), including delirium (delirium tremens);
- mental disorders, other than the effect it (various psychosis and mania);
- the destruction of the mind under the influence of drugs (dementia, amnesia);
- injuries caused by the violation of the instinct of self-preservation, coordination, etc. under the influence of drugs (frostbite in alcoholics, falls from windows because of the emergence of feelings of ability to fly at consumers a number of hallucinogens or stimulants, etc.).
Addicted to some extent, can be almost anyone — life is unpredictable, but there are people who are more prone than others to drug addiction. The man, who became a drug addict, sooner or later, goes through all the stages of degradation (decay) of personality, and soon becomes a curse for his family, his friends and a burden to others.