On the dilemma of modern unmanned aerial vehicles in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

Part first.

Why Defense Minister AE Cerdyukov against Russian unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)?

Automatically controlled instrument began to appear in the XIX century, when the mechanization of mass production. Military experiments with the machines, moving without a driver (even including radio controlled airplanes) began during the First World War. During the second world war, the belligerents were used in the fighting some types of unmanned devices, including a remote-controlled bomb. Then followed a period of rapid development of discrete (single-purpose) digital ("computing") devices, right up to modern solutions based on integrated circuits (at the beginning of 2008, "CPU" already contains more than two billion transistors *.

In times of war, cool, especially in its extreme extent, interest in mechanical engineering markedly extinguished as of success for research is often more important is not achievable technology and the ability of inventors to overcome bureaucratic slingshot, and often mundane master budget.

In the conditions of lack of enthusiasm of the Soviet authorities and the financing of small military robotics in the 1960-1980-ies in this country were only single projects with UAVs, which gave a very modest results. Leading position in this sector of the market occupied by other countries, namely Israel, Japan and the United States.

In the 21st century, when the degree of "smart" weapons has increased dramatically and so quickly jumped up demand for modern types of weapons in Russia have developed all the conditions for the emergence of military robotehnicheskoy industry. In our time in this area in the countries of NATO once a year invested billions of dollars, and the number of operating companies in this field have long exceeded a thousand.

The theme of equipping the Armed Forces UAV latest call hard. But the Ministry of Defence so far not been able to work out aspects to be met by the UAV — applicants for service in the Armed Forces. Probably at the moment we can only say that the Russian army wants to take tactical and operational-tactical UAV all zabugornyh producers who agree to implement our Ministry of Defense attribute so modern armed forces. It should be noted that in the matter of production of modern UAV zabugornye designers to a large extent now overtaken our current level of Russian-made unmanned aerial vehicles both in design and in equipment. The same should be said that in Russia all the research and development work on projects of strategic UAVs in real time or not conducted at all, or at least some dismissed him, and once was a small, financed by the Ministry of Defence.

Experts say that before the new operational-tactical unmanned intelligence complex for the Russian Air Force to put puzzles aerial reconnaissance to a depth of 700 km, from the small and medium altitudes, under normal and adverse weather conditions, at any time of day and time of year, in the criteria strong anti-air defense and complex electronic environment with the ability to transfer the acquired intelligence disk imaging via secure radio channels in real-time in the flight range 1800-2500 km and a length of up to 17 hours.

In addition to the Air Force experts estimate the huge demand for UAVs in the Army, where they currently non-existent. Namely, they considered the use of UAVs in the ACS tactical level, the project is also stated more than once, but apparently failed miserably (ACS prepyadstviya Russian tactical level we make out in a subsequent publication). It is believed that the UAV itself needed a little more of three types. Thus, the first type of UAV needed to patrol the areas of terrain, searching sabotage and reconnaissance groups of the enemy, target detection in the area of exploration team that requests the presence of drones with a range of combat introduction of up to 50 km.

According to the views of different professionals, about the same characteristics UAV need for land forces in peacekeeping contingents or in counter-terrorism activities. Thus, according to experts, you need a UAV with a range of up to 100-150 km.

In Russia, the creation and establishment of the UAV is engaged in a number of structures, among which there is a serious design offices, and completely new organization, to show their proposals models drones, so to speak, on the wave of enthusiasm for this oversized aircraft in the middle of the municipal structures of.

Experience in the creation of unmanned aerial vehicles have accumulated in various Russian design bureaus, and among them there are those who are intensely engaged and involved in developments in this area, such as Tupolev, Sukhoi OKB either. AI Mikoyan. Its spices back in 2007 was proposed unmanned reconnaissance and attack aircraft "Scat". At present, a full-size mock-up built UAV "Scat", created to work out design and layout decisions, and for the evaluation and optimization of its features. According to sources close to the Ministry of Defense, all subsequent work on the UAV folded and funding of this project through the country's non-existent.

Among the relatively new developments can be mentioned unmanned aerial vehicle apparatus Tu-300 ("Kite-U"), which effectively created "from scratch" in the OKB. Tupolev. Own contribution to the development of UAV staff brought Yakovlev. They are, in fact, "on the basis of public", carries out scientific research in a number of promising interspecific functional unmanned aircraft systems. But I would like to emphasize that if you analyze the web sites of all of our leading KB aircraft (both civilian and military), is that none of them can not be found or the smallest mention of the fact that these organizations conducted any scientific research or development work in this direction. It creates the impression that in the past three years, Russian KB moved on from this topic.

Insignificantly different matter entirely from new companies that have come to the modern Russian UAV market with the projects of small and medium-sized aircraft. We will not make early conclusions about the capabilities, advantages or shortcomings of their vehicles, try to focus on what is concrete evidence of our market offering. A series of different UAVs weighing from 5 to 240 kg created in "Unmanned Systems" HALL AERO running Zakharov AV By the way, HALL AERO — the only company today in Russia and the CIS, which produces unmanned aircraft and helicopters. One of them, ZALA 421-20, — with a wingspan of more than 2 meters and a flight speed of 200 km / h It can be equipped with different engines, capable of carrying up to 50 kg payload and stay aloft for up to 8 hours. This UAV is equipped with a stabilized electro-optical camera and can perfectly be used for reconnaissance and surveillance, as on land and at sea. One of the advantages of UAVs — the ability to soar and land and how ordinary plane, and with the introduction of a catapult and a parachute, which is particularly comfortable, for example, when ship-based or using a mobile platform. In the middle of other developments can be noted HALL AERO drones ZALA 421-02 and ZALA 421-02H. They are able to raise into the air up to 40 kg of weight, and of flying for up to 6 and 4 hours, respectively. All UAV production HALL AERO-board computer equipped for flight control and payload and able to do flight program there with the possibility of its operational configuration and transmit video in real time.

JSC "Design Bureau" Luch "," made the complex aerial reconnaissance "Tipchak", one of the purposes of which — reconnaissance at any time of the day on behalf of various security agencies to search, locate, identify and determine the coordinates of the objects in real time at a range of up to 70 km from the ground control Fri. In addition, JSC "Bank" Ray "," states that this UAV has great potential to meet the challenges of peacetime, for example monitoring routes of pipelines and woodland. There are other Russian manufacturers of small and medium-sized UAVs, and not so much as it seems at first glance.

Realizing the potential prospects of Russian market, a number of structures zabugornyh intensely lobbied the issue of cooperation with the Ministry of Defense. Some sources say that as soon as certain officials of the Ministry of Defence increasingly assertive raise the issue of procurement zabugornyh products, citing the technical imperfection of Russian defense industry products. Namely, the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, said: "If our" defense "will be able to create such UAVs, then — please, we are ready to purchase them." Also: "In any case, you can collect the drones on the ground Russia."

Generally do not hear anything about the ability to integrate UAVs into the systems of ACS tactical or technical systems of protection of fundamental military facilities. Planned and another scandal involving the UAV: A personal look at the management of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation promising Russian weapons development and technology has led to the fact that the defense minister slipped (in the literal sense of the word) a document of unknown content. In any case, he confirmed the purchase of several Israeli UAVs, focusing on their "high performance". Indeed, an Israeli drone is not the worst option. But far and not the best. You can also discuss about its long-term coordination aspect of the "efficiency / cost." With all of this the need to support the Russian defense industry recall in Defense RF in general do not want some argue that today the topic was generally forbidden and what is not subject to any kind of discussion.

Apparently, the officials of the Ministry of Defense, not having quite himself "doreformirovat" have already begun lobbying the interests of "foreign" manufacturers.

Surprisingly — there are questions. For example — why, in fact, the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation in general, and Defense Minister Serdyukov, namely, the so energetically oppose Russian UAV production? Also — what a thing of oblivion rather big funds allocated for the project Russian drone?

Be subject to further consideration of these issues in more detail.

May 24, 2010 The Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation (Serdyukov) publicly announced that "in Russia will be created a special center on the use of drones." And, allegedly, only after which the representatives of the "Military Organization" will begin to establish requirements for unmanned aerial vehicles, which are planned to take.

It is, forgive me, a kind of schizophrenia. At first, these people they say that Russian UAVs "do not satisfy the requirements of the military." And now it turns out that the requirements, then we do not have any — they are still going to "form." So what if "requirements" (and whose specifically, if it comes to that), "did not satisfy the" Russian UAV?

5 billion (!) Izderzhali rubles ("mastered") to develop and test Russian UAV. And that still goes — it came out in the absence of specific, serious demands of the customer — the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation to these same drones? All tests were carried out without any "mandatory military standards" to the objects of the test? Hard to believe.

It should be noted that Russian companies engaged in the production of drones can already offer the Russian military vehicles that are comparable in features with global standards. For example, the St. Petersburg company "Transas" heavy UAV developed "Watch-600" which is a kind of analogue of the South American MQ-1 «Predator», widely used by U.S. troops in Iraq and Afghanistan.
By the way, this UAV would like the brakes more thoroughly. There is such a worldview in RuNet that this UAV including our Defense ugrohat same 5 billion

Indeed, the "Watch-600" — the first more or less successful intelligence unmanned Russian production unit.

First preparatory information about this bespilotnike appeared in the exhibition "Interpolitex" in 2008. UAV "Watch-3 '(later received the title of" Watch-600 ", in accordance with the highest take-off weight) was first presented at the MAKS-2009. Currently the complex are graduating from the development stage.

Manufacturers of UAVs said that he belongs to the class of medium-heavy drone of long duration flight, although its systematization — another issue discussed. Just manufacturers have stated that the UAV "Watch-600" solves puzzles detection and identification of objects in real time, in all weather conditions and at any time of the day. Data is being transmitted by satellite link or a direct radio link (within the visible area).

Unfortunately, the stagnation of Russian (Russian) military, one of the problems of the Russian army. Another line in the left-hander is ridiculed.

It is also noteworthy. Why Defense quietly looked as wasted spent billion, and did not conduct any landmark trial to evaluate, in the right direction designers are working or not.

I'm not going to incriminate MO in spending — it seems to me, is the responsibility of the Attorney General. And at this moment, the Ministry of Defence, represented Popovkina, blames ALL Russian designers, they Tipo izderzhali 5000000000 and did not do anything that would satisfy the demands of Defense.

In general, they say the creators of the UAV, the military had not clearly defined the requirements that are in need of mandatory order was put into drones. Manufacturers have evolved impression that no one in the Ministry of Defence did not realize what the UAV required Russian army, and why specifically.

But not everything is as bad as it seems at first glance, and Russian producers civilian and military drones catch up "international colleagues" in 2013, said CEO of the concern "Vega" Vladimir Verba. "In the coming two to three years will be a breakthrough in the Russian market of this technology," — just as he said.

According to him, in the coming few years, the volume of Russian market of unmanned aircraft systems will be about 300 million rubles. Verba noted that "Vega" has developed an overarching program from the creation and development of UAVs in Russia since 2025, which was created by order of the military-industrial commission, given in May 2008

Naturally hunt to believe Vladimir Verba, but, nevertheless, in April 2009 the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in Israel zopoluchilo 12 vehicles «Bird-Eye 400», «I-View MK150» and «Searcher Mk-II» 53 million bucks. Later, it was concluded and the second contract for the supply of 36 Israeli UAVs in the amount of 100 million dollars, and in April 2010 it became clear to buy in Israel for another 15-minute sets. At the moment, these UAVs are comprehensive tests and their learning Russian military.

It is not so long ago, Defense Minister Serdyukov announced the deployment of UAVs in Russia the production of various types, in what will be involved and foreign companies. According to the Minister of Defense, France may be one of the partners in the production of UAVs — such offer French side expressed by the forthcoming plan of military cooperation for 2011

And then everything happens because foreshadowed much of professionals. As the saying goes, "it was exactly on paper, but have forgotten about the ravines." So here, the negotiations for the sale of Israeli drones to Russia frozen. This happened after the intervention of the government of Israel. Moreover, the government of Israel is not just intervene, they will block the intense deal to sell a large lot of RF unmanned vehicles for military use and construction of the joint venture.

Premise was the fear of Israeli control over the receipt of Russian technology to create a silent UAV. Technology transfer of, which, in spite of the sample failed to reveal the secret of the creation of the silent drone was a sensitive issue. Although no one is talking about, that transmit RF designs the most advanced UAV in the arsenal of Israel's Defense Ministry, the deal still has to be part of Russian technological breakthrough.

If all this is not a secret that the Russian sample copy of technology professionals, including Israel, have not met with success.

However, as acknowledged by the head of a Russian company producing UAVs, the Government through the Ministry of Defence during the existence of the UAV production has not made a 1st order. Lobbying abilities Russian manufacturers are not comparable with similar abilities western manufacturers. So Makar, Our homeland simply buys an old imported from other countries instead of drones order to provoke his own creation.

Now I think it was clear that foreign military equipment Our homeland will buy. The decision is final and the final, and most likely, in the coming term is not subject to debate.

[I] * Intel has released a chip containing more than 2-billion transistors — habrahabr.ru/blogs/hardware/31409

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