The reasons for the defeat of the army of snow-white

One of the most ostrodiskussionnyh questions about plainclothes war — is the problem of destruction of "white", white movement. Someone reads about the small number of white compared with armadas Reds, second recall unpopularity of snow-white movement among the population, especially the peasantry, others say that the Bolsheviks were able to turn the tide in their favor just by mass terror. Versions and a lot of theories, but apparently, this issue can not talk about the so-called. "Main reason" — Snow-white motion was defeated because of the whole complex of circumstances.

Weak ideological base of the snow-white movement. Reddish (the Bolsheviks) had a strong idea that could unite the vast majority of the population of — workers and farmers. Snow-white as such, did not have the idea absurd to believe that they were monarchists who fought for "a united and indivisible Russia", based on the principles of "autocracy, orthodoxy and nationalism." Opponents of the Bolsheviks were the most different parties, movements, groups: the Socialist — Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks and "centrists" — Constitutional Democrats (Cadets), Octo-up of nationalists and monarchists. And the same monarchists were not united, speaking for the various candidates for the throne, and they fought the socialists, liberals, trying to prevent their gain.

On the basis of helplessness ideological platform, you can select another reason — white could not put forward unpopular for most of the population overall program from action and start to do it. The Bolsheviks are absolutely beat them with their motto of "land to the peasants", "factory worker", "right of nations to self-determination, secession and the formation of sovereign states," etc. The white government turned against the peasants themselves, trying to resolve the issue in favor of the ground landlords, pushed Nationalist motto "united and indivisible Russia". Attempts to order the restoration of old times they have irritated the majority of the population.

The Bolsheviks clearly fished mood of the peasantry and VIII Congress in March 1919 changed its peasant policy. They fled from the policy of "neutralization" of the middle peasant to seek an alliance with him. In the end, reddish able to deploy a large, peasant army in its own base. For example, in March-April, 1919, at the peak of success of the army of Alexander Kolchak, he had about 130 thousand people, at this time, Anton Denikin was 60 th. army, Nikolai Iudenich about 10 thousand infantry and cavalry, Vladimir Marushevsky (forms the northern army), about 15 thousand, and the number of the Red Army during this period has increased to almost 1.5 million soldiers.

In September and October 1919, while the highest success Denikin, he had 150 thousand people, Kolchak had 50 thousand have Iudenich 15-20 thousand, Miller's 20 thousand, Vladimir Tolstova 20 thousand ( separate army commander of the Ural). A strength of the Red Army by this time grown to 3.5 million bayonets and sabers.

With all the multiplicity of the Red Army, it could maintain a high level of discipline. In white army desertion enlisted personnel of the farmers and workers took a much more serious proportions than in the Red Army. Rear of white mired in drunkenness, corruption, looting.

The Bolsheviks were able to attract in the construction of a significant part of the Red Army officer corps of royal of, so-called. military experts. Quality Reds parts is constantly growing.

Reddish were able to organize in the rear of a snow-white motion a network of underground Bolshevik committees began a general guerrilla movement. This greatly weakened the fighting capacity of white armies, who had to exert great efforts to deal with the peasant movement. A number of historians even believe that specifically peasant movement was the main prerequisite for the defeat of white. The Bolsheviks, in contrast to the snow-white, could provide a strong base, and this was achieved not only through repressive measures (white, too, did not hesitate to use them), and thanks to a certain compromise with the peasantry.

Another cause destruction of white — a profitable position in relation to the Bolsheviks areas of white fronts. They were in their own location field with the highest concentration of population and development of industry, including the two largest cities — Moscow and Petrograd. The Bolsheviks could carry more mass mobilization, and having on the area many ideological supporters of the working class. In addition, it facilitates the ability to maneuver armies — defeating or weakening of the 1st enemy could throw the shock forces on another front.

The intervention of the Western countries has led to the fact that around the Bolsheviks began to unite patriots, statesmen. They saw in their power, which will be able to save Russia.

It is necessary to note the fact that the Western powers supported Snow-white movement is not at full strength. Their aim was the destruction of, divide it into spheres of influence and the most bleeding of the Russian people in civilian clothes fratricidal war. They did not need a "united and indivisible Russia". Because helping snow-white with one hand, the other hand, Westerners have prevented them and kept the Reds — Such as Trotsky, who was an agent of the impact of U.S. monetary circles.

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