In movies about the stateliness of our Red Russian war, usually, arm pistols, machine guns PCA and German fighter — without fail angular MP. In some measure it were true, given the fact that this type of automatic weapons designed for firing pistol ammunition as single shots and bursts, was one of the most popular. But there was something he was not at the end of II World War and 25 years before it started.
The first global war was a test for many European countries, and the real test of their weapons. In 1914, all the armies lacked light mechanical tools, even altered the machine guns in hand, which were equipped with personal Marines. Only the lack of such type of gun feel army Italy, whose fighters ever to wage war in the mountainous criteria.
Most 1st submachine gun introduced in 1915 by the Italian engineer-designer Abel Revelli. He saved a lot of their own design parameters normal "machine gun" — dual 9-mm guns, with an emphasis in Kazennikov recoil pad with 2 handles, which was built in the starting device, providing the firing of the entire trunk at a time or both together. For the automation Abel Revelli return valve used to roll back the friction that slows the shutter speaking specifically provided in the grooves of the receiver (the groove Revelli).
Creating a new type of weapon quickly established at the company, "Villars-Peroz" and "Fiat", and by the end of 1916 a large part of them equipped infantry and crews fighting airships. In general, soon it became clear that the sub-machine gun designer Abel Revelli complicated, powerful, it is inherent in immense expenditure of ammunition, and accuracy of fire was very unsatisfactory. In the end, the Italians were required to complete the production of double-barrel automatic monsters.
Germany, of course, did not develop much faster own enemies in time, but surpassed them in high regard. Patented designer Hugo Schmeisser in December 1917 gun MP-18 was a rather deliberate subtleties of design, which was later copied in almost all European countries. The main unit of automation was similar to the Italian, but without suspension bolt recoil friction simplify the mechanism that allowed the guns. Externally, the MP-18 resembled shortened shotgun, with a barrel, covered with metal casing. The receiver is housed in a conventional wood box with the usual fore and example. Drum magazine, taken from the pistol "Parabellum" standard in 1917, went into 32 rounds. The trigger can fire only in the mechanical mode, as the MP-18 was a very unthrifty. Before the end of the war factory Bergman released 17 thousand units of submachine guns, a tremendous part of which, however, did not have time to get into the army.
In our state the first sub-machine gun, or as it is called — a "light rifle" made in 1927 specifically for cartridge extensively vserasprostranennogo then pistol "revolver" recognizable gunsmith Fedor Tokarev. In general, the tests proved useless because of low-power ammunition.
In 1929, a similar instrument made Vasily Degtyarev. In fact the case, it was somewhat reduced standard of his own machine gun DP — ammunition were located in a brand new disc magazine capacity of 44 cartridges, which was mounted on the receiver, locking the breech bolt satisfied with sliding workers fighting larvae. Model Designer Vasily Degtyarev rejected, pointing to comments to the decision adopted on a lot of weight and extremely highest rate of fire. BEFORE 1932, he graduated from the designer to work on another, very different sub-machine gun, which is 3 years later and was taken to arm the officers of the Red Army.
In 1940, our army had in his own possession submachine gun Degtyarev (RPE). How effective it is tool, showed the Soviet-Finnish War. Later development of new models engaged Boris Gavrilovic Shpitalnaya and Jora S. Shpagin. In the end, examples of the most experienced field tests revealed that the "sub-machine gun Boris Shpitalniy need to modify" and the sub-machine gun ZHoru Shpagin was recommended as a basic tool to arm the Red Army instead of PPD.
Taking as a base PPD Jora Shpagin conceived instrument, arrangement of a very primitive technical indicators that failed in the final version. In the prototype version in a few months, there were 87 items, despite the fact that there were 95 RPM.
Made Zhoroj Shpagin gun-Gun worked on the thesis of free slide in front of which there was a ring piston, which encircled the back of the trunk. In the primer cartridge which fed into shop, hit prytok attached to the gate. The trigger mechanism is designed for firing single shots and bursts, but without limitation volley. To increase the accuracy of Jora Shpagin cut the front end of the barrel jacket — by firing the powder gases, striking against it, partly quenched by the impact, the burden tilt the gun back and upwards. In December 1940, the PCA adopted the Red Army.
Length: 843 mm.
Capacity: 35 rounds in the sectoral store or 71 rounds in a drum store.
Caliber: 7,62 x25 mm TT.
Weight: 5.45 kg with a drum, 4.3 kg with the horn, 3.63 kg empty.
Effective range: about 200 meters queues of up to 300 m single shots.
Rate of fire: 900 rounds per minute.
Unprecedented reliability shoots regardless of the criterion, even in the bitter cold. The firing pin in a very hard frost breaks the cap tightly, and the butt of a tree does not allow hands "freeze."
Firing range approximately twice larger than that of the main opponent MP 38/40.
The highest rate has created the highest density of fire.
Several massive and heavy. With the drum-type magazine is very uncomfortable to wear on his back.
Prolonged loading drum-type store, stores usually charged to the battlefield. "I was afraid," small particles of dust more than a rifle, covered with a thick layer of dust a little, began to misfire.
Possibility of making accidental discharge if dropped from a height onto a hard surface.
The highest rate for the shortcomings of ammunition passed into the defect.
Patron bottle-shaped warps often enough at the time of the store in the chamber.
But even with these seemingly significant shortcomings in terms of accuracy, range and reliability of the PCA is many times superior to all available at the time types of submachine guns South American, German, Austrian, Italian and British made.
During the war, not an instrument once perfected. First PCA was equipped with a special sector sight, designed to deliver fire up to 500 meters, but experience has shown that effective use of guns was only at a distance of 200 meters. In view of this sector sight was replaced with absolutely normal in production, and zeroing L-shaped-moving completely to fire the 100 meters and 100 meters above. Combat experience has confirmed that such a sight does not reduce the principal properties of the instrument. Apart from making configurations in sight, was introduced a number of small configurations.
PCA was the vserasprostranennym automatic infantry weapon of the Red Army during the Russian majestically. They were armed with tank crews, artillery, paratroopers, scouts, engineers, signalers. Extensively used by partisans in occupied Nazi areas.
PCA is widely used not only in the Red Army, and in Germany too. Most of them were armed SS troops. The army has the Wehrmacht was a massive 7.62-mm PCA and converted chambered for 9×19 mm "Parabellum". In this alteration in working towards the well tolerated, it was only necessary to change the adapter and the barrel store.