Cannon victory. Degtyarev Infantry — the machine gun DP 85 years

One of the most pressing problems of infantry weapons, which appeared in the First World War, was the presence of a light machine gun, capable of all types of combat and all the criteria to act in infantry combat formations, providing fire support for infantry specific. Our homeland during the war acquired machine guns ("rifle guns") from other countries. But the French guns Shosha, also British Lewis, who had a successful design, the mid-1920s were worn out, the data system of machine guns were out of date, apart from the fact there was a tragic lack of spare parts. Planned for the 1918 statement on the creation of a machine gun, "Madsen" (Denmark) under the Russian cartridge formed at a carpet factory in the city do not come true. First, the 20's the development of a machine gun set as a priority in the arms of the Red Army — according to accepted opinion, this particular gun made it possible to solve the problem of the combination of movement and fire at the level of small units in the new criteria. The machine gun became the basis for the modern "group tactics" infantry. In '22 formed a "model" ("flashy") company whose main goal was the cultivation of the group policy as to saturate the infantry automatic weapon, which was missing a hell. When in 1924 the new states of all rifle platoons entered a machine-gun office, due to lack of light machine guns had to equip a heavy machine and one machine gun. Work on the manual machine guns were deployed to "First Tula arms factory", Kovrov plant and machine-gun firing range of courses "The Shot". In Tula FV Tokarev and courses in "The Shot" IN Kolesnikov as temporary solutions puzzles made light machine gun with air cooling of — by type MG.08/18 (Germany) — was taken as the base mass-produced machine-"Maxim". KB Kovrovskogo plant produced work for the long term. In the Design Bureau under the control of Fedorov and his student were conducted Degtyareva experienced working on a unified family of 6.5-mm automatic cannon. For the base was taken Fedorov automatic (it is worth to note that the "automatic" at first wore the title of "gun hand gun," in other words, is not regarded as a personal tool, and as a lightweight machine gun armament for small groups of infantry). As part of this family have developed several versions of manual, easel, "universal", aircraft and tank guns with different cooling circuits and power trunk. But none of the generic or machine guns or Fedorov Fedorov-Degtyareva to mass production was not adopted.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

Vasily Degtyarev (1880-1949 gg.) Head of the workshop PKB Kovrovskogo plant to develop its own standard machine gun began in late 1923. For the base of the scheme took Degtiarev own automatic rifle, which was proposed in 1915. Then the inventor, combining well-known circuits vapor automation (side vents, placed below the barrel), locking the barrel with 2-lugs bred drummer and own solutions, received a small-sized system, which has earned laudatory official review Fedorov. July 22, 1924 Degtiarev was presented first experienced the standard machine gun having a disc magazine. The Commission was headed by NV Kuibyshev, the head of the school, "shot", Chairman of the Shooting Committee of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. Commission were awarded "outstanding originality, rate, trouble-free operation and ease of significant appeal system Degtyareva comrade." It must be emphasized that at the same time the commission recommended for adopting the Air Force of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army Aviation twin 6.5-mm machine gun Degtyarev Fedorova. Experienced standard machine gun Degtyarev machine guns and Kolesnikova and Tokarev, 6 October 1924 were tested at the shooting range in Kuskovo, but dropped out of the contest, as the striker has failed. Commission on the choice of the standard light machine gun (Chairman SM Budennyi) soon was recommended for adoption by the Red Army machine gun Maxim-Tokarev. He was admitted under the symbol MT in 1925.

Machine gun DP

Subsequent experienced Degtiarev standard was introduced in the autumn of 1926. September 27-29 from 2-copies were made about 5 thousand rounds, with all this, it was found the extractor and firing pin are rather weak force, and the gun itself is sensitive to dust. In December, the tests conducted subsequent 2-guns shooting in adverse criteria, gave 40,000 shots only 0.6% of delays, but they also returned for revision. Go with this experienced an improved standard Tokarev and the German "light machine gun" Draize. Degtyareva standard, according to test results, the system has eclipsed peredelochny Tokarev and Draize gun, which then caused a great deal of enthusiasm in the control of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and by the way, which had an option to store large capacity disk. Despite this Degtyarev had in its design to make a number of configurations: by changing the shape and the use of chrome-nickel steel hardened by the bolt carrier from that of the same steel were made piston rod and the ejector, for hardening drummer he was given the form close to the form of drummer Lewis machine gun. It is worth noting that some constructive solutions in machine guns Degtyareva were performed under the obvious influence of specifically studied light machine guns, "Madsen", "Lewis" and "Hotchkiss" (Highland plant had complete sets of drawings, also prepared standards, "Madsen" in the years of war, civilian clothes here repaired guns "Lewis"). But on the whole gun had the latest and unusual design. Two copies of the revised machine gun Degtyarev passed the tests Commission Artkoma Artillery Directorate of the Red Army at the Kovrov plant 17-21 January 1927. Guns were considered "stood the test." February 20 The Commission also recognized the "possible to show how guns standards for all of the following works and judgments on installing them on production." Without waiting for the results of improvements, it was decided to issue an order for 100 guns. March 26 were approved Artkomom designed PCB Kovrovskogo plant "Provisional Specification for acceptance Degtyarev light machine gun."

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

The first batch of 10 guns provided military acceptance November 12, 1927, a party of 100 machine guns, military inspector has been quite Jan. 3, 1928. 11 January Revolutionary Military Council gave an indication to pass 60 machine guns for military trials. In addition, the machine guns were sent to military schools of different military regions, in order to fight the trials commanders could meet with a new tool for the camp fees. Troop and range tests lasted for the whole year. According to the results of tests conducted in February by Scientific Testing weapons-machine-gun firing range and courses "The Shot" was recommended to add to the design flash suppressor designed to reduce the blinding and unmasking acts muzzle flash at dusk and at night. In addition were made and a numb
er of other observations. In August 1928 experienced an improved standard of having a flash suppressor and a modified nozzle regulator of the gas chamber. For 27-28 year issued an order for 2.5 million guns. With all of this at a special meeting of June 15, 1928, in which participated the leaders of the Head of military-industrial management and the People's Commissariat of Defense, recognizing the difficulty in large-scale production of a new machine gun, installed 29-30 years, as the deadline for its establishment with one hundred percent interchangeable parts . At the end of '28, it was decided to complete the creation of machine guns MT (Maxim-Tokarev). As a result, a light machine gun Degtyarev was in the Red Army before its formal adoption. The machine gun was adopted under the designation of "7.62-mm machine gun mod. 1927 "or DP (" Degtyarev Infantry "), also met the designation DP-27. The machine gun Degtyarev machine gun became the first Russian mass development and led her creator of the core and the most notable gunsmiths country.

The main parts of a machine gun: a removable barrel with flash suppressor and a gas chamber; receiver with the sighting device, a cylindrical barrel shroud with front sight and the guide tube, the bolt with the drummer, bolt carrier and piston rod, back-action spring;-release frame with stock and trigger mechanism; disc magazine, removable folding bipod.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

The barrel in the receiver was attached Slight helical projections, was used to fix the flag is closer. On the middle of the barrel had 26 transverse ribs designed to make better cooling. But in practice it turned out that the effectiveness of the radiator was very low and, since 1938 the fins were removed, which facilitated the establishment. At the muzzle of the barrel with a threaded connection was fixed conical flash suppressor. During the march, flash suppressor to reduce the length of the DP was fixed in an inverted position.

A gun was implemented automation scheme of work by withdrawing through the side opening of the powder gases. A hole was made in the wall of the barrel at a distance of 185 mm from the muzzle. The gas piston has a very long stroke. The gas chamber — open type, with piping. The piston rod is aggressively linked to the bolt and the back-action spring, mounted on a rod, placed under the barrel in the guide tube. The gas piston is screwed onto the front end of the stem, with all this back and fixed the mainspring. With patrubkovogo regulator having two gas outlet hole diameter of 3 mm and 4 mm adjustment of the amount allocated was carried propellant gases. The barrel is locked produced by a pair of lugs, reinforced at the edges of the shutter hinges and bred extended rear part of the projectile.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

The trigger consisted of a trigger, the trigger from the sear, a circuit breaker. Fuse propped up behind the trigger. To turn it off completely envelop her hand to her neck stock. USM was calculated only on maintaining a continuous fire.

Shop, crepe top receiver consisted of a pair of discs and springs. The cartridges in the store located on the toe radius bullets to the center. Effort ulitkoobraznoy helical spring that swirled in gear store, the upper disc spinning relatively lower, with all this to the window receiver fed ammunition. Store this design developed earlier for aviapulemeta Fedorov. Initially, the requirements for hand-held machine gun was assumed that the power system will have 50 rounds, but the disc "Fedorov shop" for up to 50 6.5-millimeter ammunition was ready for production, it was decided to keep its basic dimensions, reducing the capacity of the drum 49 to 7, 62-millimeter rounds. Must be answered, that the design of the store with a circular seating patrons could solve the problem of the reliability of the power system by using the Russian rifle cartridge with a protruding lip liner. But soon a magazine capacity has been reduced to 47 rounds since the spring force is not enough to feed the last round. Vyshtampovki circular discs and annular ribs were designed to reduce them died during the shocks and bumps, and reduce the possibility of "seizing" the store. In block sight mounted spring-loaded latch store. On the march window receiver receiver was covered by a special shield that before installing the store was moving forward. Equipment used to store special device PSM. It is worth noting that the store has a diameter of 265 mm created when carrying a machine gun during a fight some inconveniences. After using up the remaining rounds of ammunition in the movements made noticeable noise. In addition weakening spring led to the fact that the store was the last rounds — because of this calculation preferred not hundred percent fit up shop.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

As in almost all machine guns, designed for significant heating of the trunk and saturated firing bursts, made the shot from the rear sear. Bolt carrier to the gate before the first shot was in a posterior position, keeping the sear, with all this back-and-action spring has been compressed (compression force was 11 kgs). Trigger the trigger is descended, bolt carrier frustrated with the whispering and moving forward, pushing the shutter and drummer own vertical bar. Shutter seized from the receiver holder, it shall be sent to the chamber, resting on a tree stump in the trunk. During the upcoming motion bolt drummer moved apart lugs broadened its own part, the reference plane of the stops were in lugs receiver. This scheme is very similar to the Swedish lock automatic rifle Chelman, tests which were carried out in 1910 in Russia (although the combined rifle lock on "scheme Friberg-Chelman" and on the basis of automatic recoil barrel with a small stroke). Drummer and after locking the bolt carrier continued to move forward another 8 mm, nipple reached the capsule holder, breaking it, came a shot. After the bullet passed vent holes in the gas chamber fell powder gases, struck the piston, which encircled his chamber flare, and threw back the bolt carrier. After the drummer took about 8 mm frame, he extricated lugs, then stops were reduced bevels figure recess frame, 12 mm in the way the barrel is unlocked, the gate picked up by the bolt and was driven back. With all of this ejector pulled cartridge cases, that hitting the drummer, was ejected through the window of the receiver at the bottom. Move the bolt equated 149 millimeters (shutter — 136 millimeters). After which the bolt carrier hits the shutter frame and went forward by the back-and mainspring. If at this moment the trigger was pressed, the cycle is repeated automation. If the hook is released, get up on the bolt carrier sear cocked his dwelling in the rear position. With all of this gun was
ready for follow-up shots — the presence of only the 1st Breaker descent created a danger of involuntary shot while moving with a loaded gun. In this regard, the recommendations were spelled out that the loading of the gun should be carried out only after taking a position.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

The machine gun was equipped with a sector with a view of the highest block that was attached to the receiver, and the bar, which has notches to 1,500 feet (100 m step), and a front sight with a protective "ears". Mushka was inserted into the slot on the ledge of the barrel jacket, which resembled the casing machine gun "Madsen". Protective "ears" for the sight also served as a magazine release. Wood butt was made based on the type of machine gun, "Madsen", had a semi-pistol ledge neck and upper ridge improves staging of head gunner. Stock length from the trigger to the back of the head was equal to 360 millimeters, the width of the stock was 42 millimeters. In the butt located oiler. In the wider bottom of the butt machine gun DP-27 had a vertical channel created for the back pull-out support, but serial machine guns carried out without that support, and in the next channel in the butt do not have. On the cover of the trunk and the left have been fixed on the butt sling attachment. Folding bipod were attached buckles, having thumbscrews on the housing bore, their legs were fitted with plowshares.

Machine gun at firing showed good accuracy: core dissipation while shooting "normal" queue (4 to 6 shots) at a distance of 100 meters was up to 170 mm (height and width) by 200 meters — 350 mm by 500 meters — 850 mm by 800 meters — 1600 mm (height) and 1250 mm (width) by 1 thousand m — 2100 mm (height) and 1850 mm (width). At the time of the shooting small bursts (up to 3 shots) increased accuracy — so for example, at a distance of 500 meters core dispersion is equal to 650 mm, and one thousand meters — 1650×1400 mm.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
The Red Army at Stalingrad in the dugout busy cleaning guns, submachine guns PCA-41 and DP-27 machine gun

The machine gun DP consisted of 68 items (without magazine), of which 4 are helical springs and 10 screws (for comparison — the number of parts of German machine gun Draize equated 96, South American "Browning» BAR arr. 1922 — 125, of the Czech ZB-26 — 143 ). The introduction of the bolt as the lower receiver cover, the application of the principle of multi-functionality with other components made it possible to significantly reduce the weight and dimensions of the structure. The advantages of this gun also include ease of disassembly. The machine gun could be disassembled into large pieces, and with the extraction of the bolt to separate the important details. In affiliation with the machine gun Degtyarev included collapsible cleaning rod, brush, two punch, screwdriver, wrench, a device for cleaning the gas paths, the rub, the extractor for dulets detached sleeves (sleeves situation with a break in the chamber of the machine gun Degtyarev, a rather long). Spare barrels — two on the machine gun — were supplied to spec. boxes. For carrying and storing machine gun was used awning. To firing blank ammunition used choke collar with a diameter of 4 mm orifice and a special shop window having a blank cartridges.

Create a series of machine guns DP was delivered and was conducted Kovrov plant (municipal union Plant. Kirkizha KO, plant number 2 Commissariat of arms since 1949 — Plant them. Degtyarev). Degtyarev Infantry distinguished simplicity of production — to produce it required half the straight-measurement and transitions than for the pistol, and three times less than for the rifle. The number of process steps were four times less than for a machine gun "Maxim" and three times less than for MT. Here again, many years of experience as a gunsmith Degtyareva-practice and collaboration with outstanding gunsmith VG Fedorov. In the process of setting the configuration of production were made in the heat treatment the most critical parts, introduce new normal processing, select varieties of steel. One can imagine that one of the key roles in ensuring the accuracy required during high-volume production of automatic weapons at full interchangeability of parts played by cooperation in the 20s with German spices, machine tool and weapons company. A lot of effort and energy in the production of machine gun Degtyarev setting and standardization of the production of weapons on this basis put Fedorov — during these activities to the creation introduced the so called "normal Fedorov," in other words, a system of tolerances and landings, designed to improve the accuracy of production tools. A great contribution to the company production of machine guns was listed as an engineer and GA Aparinov, put on at the factory and straight-creation tool.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Russian fighters of the 115th Infantry Division A. Konkova in a trench on the Neva Dubrovka. On the frontal plane gunner Pavlov with a machine gun DP-27

Ordering DP for 1928 and 1929 has already reached 6.5 million units (of them 500 tanks, 2,000 aircraft and 4,000 infantry). After testing in March and April of '30 a special commission of 13 production machine guns Degtyareva on survivability Fedorov stated that "the vitality of the machine gun was raised to 75 — 100 thousand shots," and "persistence of less stable parts (dies and ejector) to 25 — 30 thousand . shots. "

In the 1920s in various countries to create different light machine guns with magazine-fed — the French "Hotchkiss" arr. 1922 and Mle 1924 "Chatellerault" Czech ZB-26, the British "Vickers-Berthier," swiss "Solothurn" M29 and "Furrer" M25 Italian "Brad", Finnish M1926 "Lahti Zaloranta" Japanese "Type 11" . The machine gun Degtyarev from most of their profitable differed comparable highest reliability and large capacity magazine. Note that once a DP into service took another fundamental tool to support infantry — 76-millimeter cannon regimental standard in 1927.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry&q
uot; - the machine gun DP 85 years
Russian machine-gun in firing position in the middle of the ruins of Stalingrad

Technical properties of the machine gun DP:
Cartridge — 7.62 mm, the obraztsa1908/30 (7,62 x53);
Weight of machine guns (unloaded): no forks — 7.77 kg, with a bipod — 8.5 kg;
Weight of the barrel — 2.0 kg;
Weight bipod — 0.73 kg;
Length of gun: no flame arrester — 1147 mm, with a flash suppressor — 1272 mm;
Barrel length — 605 mm;
The length of the threaded portion of the barrel — 527 mm;
Rifling — 4 rectangular, right-sided;
The stroke length of rifling — 240 mm;
The initial velocity — 840 m / s (for light bullet);
Effective range — 1,500 m;
Blank range on the chest figure — 375 m;
Range of slaughter act bullets — 3000 m;
Length of the sighting strip — 616.6 mm;
Rate of fire — 600 rounds per minute;
Combat rate — 100-150 rounds per minute;
Power — disc magazine capacity of 47 rounds of ammunition;
Mass of the store — 1.59 kg (unloaded) / 2.85 kg (with ammunition);
Strip height of fire — 345-354 mm;
Calculation — 2 people.

YES, DT and other

Because at the time of the adoption of DP service in Russian Union recognized the need to unify machine guns, machine guns based Degtyareva was under development of other types — first aircraft and tank. Here again the experience needed to develop a unified tool Fedorov.

More May 17, 1926 were approved as Artkomom. task of designing a unified high-velocity gun, which was used as a manual in the cavalry and infantry, and synchronous and turret in aviation. But was the creation of a real aircraft machine gun on the basis of infantry. The practice of "turning" machine gun in a moving aircraft (at pivot, single-turret, twin turrets) was used in the years of the First World War. In the period from December 27 to February 28 tests were conducted aviation version of the machine gun Degtyarev ("Degtyarev Aviation", YES). Scientific and Technical Committee of the Office of the Air Force of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army found it "possible to approve a plan to account for the serial order submitted sample" machine gun Degtyarev. In 1928, just a motionless machine gun PV-1 design AV Nadashkevicha made on the basis of machine gun "Maxim" in the arms of the Air Force was adopted YES aircraft machine gun turret, which has three rows (three-tier) to store 65 rounds of ammunition, pistol grip, new sights with vane-front sight.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Marines, planted by artillery tractors T-20 "Komsomolets", the photo you can create DT. Sevastopol, September 1941

To the front of the receiver aircraft machine gun Degtyarev screw-on faceplate. In its lower part was fixed pin having a curved swivel mount installation. Instead of the stock were installed grooved wood pistol grip controls and rear handle. Ahead was fixed sleeve top with a ring sight, a muzzle on the thread was attached to the rack bushing having vane-fly. Since the cover was removed and installed faceplate, there have been mounting configurations of the guide tube of the gas piston. Top shop was equipped with a belt grip for better control and quick shift. To provide fire to a limited extent, also to prevent falling into the mechanisms of aircraft shell casings from the bottom of the receiver installed canvas bag-gilzoulavlivatel having a wire frame and a lower buckle. Note that to find the best configuration framework that will ensure safe disposal of cartridges without jamming in the Russian practice, almost for the first time used time-lapse photography work. Weight of gun YES was 7.1 kg (without magazine), the length from the edge of the back of the handle to the muzzle — 940 mm, weight of the store — 1.73 kg (unloaded). As of March 30, 1930 in parts of the air forces of the Red Army had 1.2 thousand machine guns Well, a thousand machine guns were prepared to surrender.

In 1930, the armament also received twin turret DA-2 — its development on the basis of aircraft machine gun Degtyarev Scientific and Technical Committee of the Office of the Air Force in 1927, ordered the weapons-machine gun Trust. The faceplate, which is in front of the receiver, each machine gun was replaced coupling front fastening. For mounting on the installation side served hot flashes sleeves to hold the tube of the gas piston — lower. Rear mounted machine guns were installed on the tie bolts pass through the holes made in the rear tides receiver. In the development of the installation participated NV Rukavishnikov and II Bezrukov. Hook common descent was placed on the pistol grip right gun for additional trigger guard. To strengthen the trigger pull the trigger guard holes. Rod consisted of adjusting the connecting rod and the roller. Machine gun on the left flag guard and the bolt handle is not moved the left side, on its trunk mounting bracket for vane-fly. Because the coaxial machine gun recoil was very sensitive to install and arrow, machine guns installed on the muzzle brake active type. Muzzle Brake was in the form of typical parachutes. Behind the muzzle brake has a particular drive, protecting hand from muzzle blast — later brake mounted on such schemes mnogokaliberny ANC. Guns were connected to the turret via pin. Installation supplied the chin and shoulder rest (up to 1932 had breast rail gun). Weight DA-2 equipped with shops and vane-front sight was 25 kg, length — 1140 mm, width — 300 mm, the distance between the axes of the bores — 193 ± 1 mm. Interestingly, Well, yes-2 have adopted the Office of the Air Force without a formal design of the order of People's Commissariat of Defense. These guns put on the turret Tour and the Tour-5-6, also in aircraft retractable machine gun turret. YES-2 having a different sight tried to install a light tank BT-2. Later, YES, YES-2 and PV-1 has changed a special rapid-aircraft machine gun ShKAS.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Turret TUR-5 under two machine guns Degtyareva. Perfectly visible bags for collecting shells shoot

Weapons-machine gun Trust, which manages the other was not counting the Highland plant, August 17, 1928. Artillery said the management of the Red Army's readiness tank machine gun on the base of the machine gun Degtyarev. June 12, 1929, after the respective trials as weapons armored vehicles and tanks tank gun was adopted by DT ("Degtyareva, a tank," as it is the "standard tank gun 1929") ball mount, which is engaged in the development of GS Shpagin. The adoption of this gun has coincided with the deployment of mass production of tanks — Tank
Degtiarev changed coaxial 6.5-mm tank gun Fedorov is being put on the armor, began to be installed on tanks T-24, MC-1, BA-27 armored cars, armored targets at all.

In tank machine gun Degtyarev out the barrel jacket. The very different trunk additional peeled edges. DP equipped with retractable iron butt, having a folding shoulder pad, pistol grip control, small-sized two-row rotary magazine with 63 cartridges, gilzoulavlivatelem. Fuse and pistol grip are like at YES. Safety lever, located right above the trigger guard, was produced in the form of checks having a tapered shaft. The rear position of the flag, in line of 'fire', front — "fuse." Scope — diopter rack. Diopter was performed on a particular vertical engine, and with spring-loaded latches installed in a fixed position, which correspond to distances 400, 600, 800 and 1000 meters. The sight is equipped with an adjusting screw for adjustment. Fly on the gun was not installed — it was fixed in the front drive the ball installation. In some cases, the gun was removed from the plant and used outside of the car, because DT were attached to the bracket with a removable front sight and bipod fastened to the faceplate. Weight of the machine gun from the store was 10.25 pounds, length — 1138 mm, conning rate — 100 rounds per minute.

Tank gun Degtyarev was used as a coaxial machine gun or mnogokalibernym tank gun is also a special anti-aircraft tank installation. Degtyarev tank during World War II is often used as a hand — combat rate this gun is two times higher than that of an infantry model.

It should be noted that the first World War has developed variant substitution DT "Tank" sub-machine gun with a huge ammunition (designed on the basis of PCA). At the end of the second World War, the Finns have attempted to do the same on the captured tanks with the introduction of its own "Suomi". But in both cases, the armored vehicles and tanks were machine-guns. Russian tanks on the swap tank gun Degtyarev managed only SGMT. Fascinating is the fact that after a forced "decorative" rework armored vehicles and tanks in the Military Historical Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka Degtyareva tank was "international" gun — on bolshennom zabugornyh number of vehicles using diesel fuel barrels simulated "native" machine gun.

Note that in 31, 34 and 38 years of age vulgar Degtyarev DP represented the modernized versions. In 1936, he proposed a lightweight version of the Airborne has no casing, reinforced ribbing and a locking lugs, not counting the machine gun equipped with small-sized box magazine having a pie shape. Then, the designer presented a gun having such a store, with the transfer of the stock in the back and the mainspring. Both guns were opytneyshemi. DP on a trial basis was set sight with the introduction of lateral correction, DP kitted out a telescopic sight was tested in 1935 — the idea of supply machine guns telescopic sight has been popular for a long time, even in spite of the unfortunate practice.

After fighting on the peninsula Hassan in 1938 from the command staff received a proposal to adopt a machine gun has a power supply system according to the type of Japanese machine gun "type 11" — with equipment immutable store of rifle ammunition clips. The proposal is extensively supported GI Kulik, head of GAC. Kovrovtsy represented variant Degtyarev light machine gun with a receiver and Razorenova Kupinova under the yoke of the rifle reference 1891/1930 G, but very soon the question of such a receiver was fairly removed — the practice of forced to abandon oboymennogo or burst power light machine guns, leaving the military professionals and gunsmiths before choice "tape or shop."

For a long time Degtiarev worked on the creation of the universal (one) and machine-gun. In June-August '28 Artkom on the instructions of the Staff of the Red Army developed the tactical and technical requirements for the new machine gun — for the base machine gun, in order to unify, had to take an infantry machine gun Degtyarev under the same cartridge, but with belt-fed. Already in '30 designer presented the most experienced heavy machine gun with a universal machine Kolesnikov receiver tape supply (system Shpagin) radiator and power trunk. Lapping machine gun Degtyarev ("Degtyarev, heavy machine" DS) was delayed until the end of 1930 and did not give positive results. In 1936 he was presented Degtiarev universal modification DP has a light folding tripod neotemny machine and mount a folding antiaircraft ring sight. This model also has not moved on the most experienced. Weakness regular fry became the very limited use of infantry machine gun Degtyarev installation with additional rods that have a bipod, form a triangular structure. The locking system of the barrel and automation, as embodied in the machine gun Degtyarev was also used in mnogokalibernom machine gun and automatic rifle developed by the most experienced Degtiarev. Even the first sub-machine gun Degtyarev, developed in 1929, has blowback, carrying a machine gun design features of PD. The designer sought to embody the idea of Fedorov, his teacher, unified family of tools based on their system.

First World War in Dehtiarivska KB-2 Kovrovskogo plant in the experimental procedure did so referred to as "the installation of a barrage of fire" — the quad set DP (DT) to arm the infantry, cavalry, armored cars, light tanks, and the needs of the defense. Machine guns were placed in two rows either in the horizontal plane and were provided with regular disk or box-shaped stores in 20 rounds. In the "zenith" and "infantry" versions installation mounted on a universal machine Kolesnikov designed to mnogokalibernogo ANC. Rate of fire — 2,000 rounds per minute. But this way of "fighting for the rate" is not justified, and the action returns to the installation and dispersion were very significant.

Office machine gun DP

The machine gun Degtyarev become the most popular gun of the Armed Forces of the USSR two decades — and the years have been the most "military". The machine gun DP their baptism took place during the conflict in the CER in the border parts of the OGPU — because in April 1929 Highland plant received an additional order for release of the data machine guns. DP machine gun in the armies of the Joint Municipal Political Administration waging war in Central Asia, with gangs Basmachi. Later DP of the Red Army was used in the fighting on the peninsula Hassan and Khalkhin Goal. Together with other Russian weapon "involved" in the civilian war in Spain (AP there had to "fight side by side" with its rival davneshnim — MG13 «Draize"), in the war in China, 39-40 years waged war on the Karelian Isthmus . In fact, the same path were modified DT and DA-2 (on a P-5 and TB-3), so we can say that the beginning of the Second World War machine gun Degtyarev was fighting tests in a variety of criteria.

In the infantry divisions of infantry machine gun Degtyarev was introduced in the rifle platoon and offices, in the cavalry — a saber office. In both cases, the machine gun with a grenade launcher rifle were the main instrument of support. DP at the sight notch to 1.5 thousand meters intended for the destruction of fundamental single and open group targets at ranges of up to 1.2 thousand meters, small living single targets — up to 800 meters, the defeat of low-flying aircraft — up to 500 meters, and to support tanks by firing calculations PTAs. Shelling viewing slots of enemy tanks and armored vehicles took to 100-200 meters. Fire was conducted small bursts of 2-3 shots or bursts of 6 shots, maintaining a continuous long-fire was allowed only in the latter cases. The machine-gunners, who have extensive experience, can conduct aimed fire single shots. Calculation of machine guns — 2 people — gunner ("gunner") and assistant ("second number"). Assis
tant endured stores in a special box, a three-disc. To bring ammunition calculation pocketed more 2-fighters. For the transport of DP in the cavalry was used saddlebag VD.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Gunner with DP-27 A. Kushnir and a fighter with rifle Mosin B. Orlik reflect the opponent's attack. South-Western Front, Kharkov direction

To destroy air targets could be used anti-aircraft tripod standard developed in 1928 for a machine gun "Maxim". Have also developed a special motorcycle Position: bike M-72 had the Ordinary swing frame, hinged in a wheelchair, boxes of spare parts and wheels located between the bike and sidecar and on the trunk. Mounting machine gun admit conduct anti-aircraft fire from the knee without removing it. The bike TIZ-AM-600 was mounted on the steering wheel DT on a special bracket. To reduce the cost of training and the use of shooting ranges for small machine gun Degtyarev could be mounted 5.6-mm machine gun training Blum, which was used in the rimfire cartridge and a unique disc magazine.

Gun DP pretty quickly grabbed popularity because successfully combined the power of fire and maneuverability. But along with the advantages possessed by some gun shortcomings, which were apparent during use. At first, it concerned the inconvenience of operation and features of storage equipment store. Spirited substitute overheated barrel complicated the lack of handles on it, the need to separate the tube and bipod. The substitution of even a trained matching criteria calculation took about 30 seconds. Located under the barrel open gas chamber prevented the accumulation of soot in the gas operated unit, but with an open bolt carrier increased the possibility of contamination on sandy soils. Clogged flare gas piston and screwing his head caused nedohod moving in the frontal part of the latter provision. In general, automatic machine guns in general showed very highest reliability. Antabok bipod mount and was undependable and created additional catchy parts that reduced the ease of carrying. Working with the gas regulator was also awkward — for its permutations taken out the pin, nut wrench, the controller face down backwards, turned and again was fixed. Maintain fire while moving it was only possible using the strap, and the absence of forearm and overall shop did such an awkward shooting. Heavy worn on a neck strap in the form of a loop, strengthened him in front of the store to cut the housing swivel, and to hold the gun for the cover needed a glove.

In the arms of the infantry divisions shred machine guns constantly increased at the expense of first light machine guns — if the 1925 infantry division by 15.3 thousand people. personnel had 74 machine guns, then in 1929 to 12.8 thousand. there were 81 hand and 189 machine guns. In 1935, the data of the 13 thousand people have already accounted for 354 and 180 hand-held machine guns. In the Red Army, as in some other armies, machine gun was the primary means of saturation troops automatic weapon. Staff from April 1941 (the last pre-war) foresaw the following relationship:
Infantry Division wartime — by 14483 people. personnel there were 174 and 392 heavy machine-machine guns;
Division reduced strength — by 5864 people. personnel there were 163 and 324 heavy machine-machine guns;
Mountain Division — by 8829 people. personnel there were 110 and 314 heavy machine-machine guns.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Russian assault squad in the iron breastplates CH-42 and DP-27 machine guns. Guards-attack aircraft after a combat mission. 1st ShISBr. The 1st Belorussian Front, Summer 1944

DP has been in service in the cavalry, marines, troops of the NKVD. Second global war, which began in Europe, the apparent percentage increase in the German Wehrmacht, the number of automatic weapons, carrying out the reorganization of the Red Army sought increase output of tank and machine guns, also make configurations in a production company. In 1940 he began to build up production capacity used in the production of machine guns. By this time it worked out technology of bores dornirovaniem that allowed speed in a couple of times and significantly reduce the cost of creating trunks — along with the transition to the introduction of a cylindrical barrel with a smooth outer surface played a significant role in increasing production and lowering the cost of infantry machine gun Degtyarev. The order for 1941, approved on February 7, included 39 thousand infantry and tank machine gun Degtyarev. The Kovrov plant number 2 April 17, 1941 WGC worked manufacture machine-guns and APs. Since April 30, the creation of DP guns were deployed in a new building, "L". People's Commissariat of arms gave newcomer production rights branch of the company (later — Highland separate mechanical plant).

From 1939 to mid-1941, the troops of light machine guns increased by 44% on June 22, 41 in the Red Army there were 170.4 thousand machine guns. This type of weapon was one of those who compound the western districts were provided even beyond the state. For example, the Fifth Army in Kiev neighborhood especially military manning machine guns was approximately 114.5%. During this period, an exciting application was received by tank guns Degtyareva — Directive of the General Staff of 16 May 1941 50 newly formed tank regiments mechanized corps to staff the tanks to fight the enemy armored vehicles were guns, also with 80 machine-guns in the regiment — for self-defense. Degtyarev tank during the war and was put on combat snowmobile.

With the onset of World War II legacy YES-2 found a new use — as anti-aircraft guns to fight the aircraft flying at low altitude. July 16, 1941 Osipov, Chief of the Head control defense, wrote Yakovlev, Head of GAU, "shortage of anti-aircraft guns can be eliminated to a large extent, if for a short term to adapt to conduct anti-aircraft fire to 1.5 thousand twin machine guns YES-2 and as many is removed from the aircraft machine guns PV-1. " Well, for this machine guns and DA-2 anti-aircraft mounted on a tripod standard 1928 via pin — that is, such a setup used at Leningrad in 1941. Vane-fly substitute ring of anti-aircraft machine-gun sight. In addition, the DA-2 mounted on a light night bomber U-2 (Po-2).

During WWII the main manufacturer of machine guns and armored infantry machine gun Degtyarev was a workshop number 1 number 2 of the plant, their creation was also placed in the Urals, DP and the factory "Arsenal" (Leningrad). In the criteria of military production had lower requirements for finishing of small tools — for example, abolished finishing the processing of external parts and components are not involved in the work of automation. In addition reduced rates ZIP — instead of 22 drives for each machine gun position to the beginning of the war was give
n only 12. Despite this, the whole process documentation was made "on the letter B," in other words, sought to comply with all mandatory standards and did not allow configurations in the form, materials, parts and sizes in all plants involved in the production. Release of light machine guns, despite languishing condition remained stable compared. VN Novikov, Deputy People's Commissar of the arms, in his own memoirs: "This gun did not cause tension in the People's Commissariat of special weapons." During the second half of the 41th, the troops were 45,300 machine guns, in '42 — 172800, in the 43 th — 250200, in the 44th — 179700. In the army on May 9, 1945 there were 390 thousand machine guns. Throughout the war the loss of light machine guns were 427.5 thousand, in other words 51.3% of the total resource (including the set during the war and pre-war supplies).

The extent of implementation of machine guns can be seen in the subsequent figures. SAU in the period from July to November 1942 passed the 5,302 guns of all types of areas south-west. In March and July 1943, the Battle of Kursk in the preparation of the troops of the Steppe, Voronezh, Central fronts and the Eleventh Army received 31.6 million light and heavy machine guns. The troops, who fled to the Kursk coming, had 60.7 million guns of all types. In April 1944, the beginning of the Crimean operations troops Separate Maritime Army, the 4th Ukrainian Front and side air defense had 10622 easel and light machine guns (approximately 1 machine gun on the staff of 43 people.) In the infantry armed with machine guns fraction also changed. If a rifle company in July 1941 by the state has 6 light machine guns, a year — 12 hand, in 1943 — 1 easel and 18 machine guns, and in December of '44 — 2 and 12 heavy machine manual. In other words, during the war, the number of machine guns in the rifle company, basic tactical unit, has more than doubled. If in July '41 armed infantry division had 270 guns of various types, and in December of the same year — 359 through year this figure already stood at — 605, and in June of '45 — 561. The decrease by the end of the war bit of guns associated with an increased number of submachine guns. Applications for machine guns went down, because from 1 January to 10 May 1945 was delivered only 14,500 (not counting the time it is delivered to the upgraded DP). By the end of the war infantry regiment had 108 manual and 54 heavy machine guns at 2,398 people.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Russian gunner leads machine gun fire from the DP-27. AE Empty the "Great Patriotic War"

In the course of the war have revised implementing rules and machine guns, though in the case of hand is needed in the least. "Combat Infantry charter" from the 1942 range of opening fire with a machine gun was set distance of 800 meters, but it was also recommended by an unexpected fire from a distance of 600 meters as more effective. In addition abolished the division order of battle to "fetter" and "shock" of the group. Now a light machine gun in a different criteria acted in a chain of charging and separation. Now the main thing for him was listed as small bursts of fire, combat firing rate was equal to 80 shots per minute.

Ski units in winter criteria transferred guns "Maxim" and the DP-draggers on boats in readiness to open fire. To reset the machine guns and the guerrillas was used paratroopers parachute landing bag PDMM-42. Troopers first war-gunners have already mastered jumping with regular infantry machine gun Degtyarev on the belt, it is often used instead of "manual" option is more compact tank machine gun, with a higher-capacity magazine that was the least susceptible to perish. In general, a machine gun Degtyarev proved to be very reliable weapon. It is recognized and opponents — say, trophy DP readily used by Finnish machine gunners.

But the experience of the introduction of an infantry machine gun Degtyarev pointed to the need for more light and compact reference to the conservation of ballistic characteristics. In 1942 he announced a competition to develop a new system of light machine gun, the weight of which does not exceed 7.5 kg. From 6 to 21 July 1942 proving ground tests have been experienced machine guns, designed in KB Degtyareva (magazine-and belt-fed), and the development of the Vladimirov, Simon, Goryunova also novice designers in the set which was the Kalashnikov. All the standards of the tests on the data received to finalize the list of comments, but in the end the competition was not given the applicable standard.

DPM light machine gun

More successful were the modernization infantry machine gun Degtyarev, much less that the creation of the upgraded version could be faster. At this time, the plant number 2 worked several design companies solve their range of problems. If CB-2 running VA Degtyarev, the main work on new designs, the tasks of modernization produced samples were solved in the Department head designer. The work on the modernization of machine guns ran AI Shilin, but also the Degtyarev not let them out of sight. Under the control of a group of designers, which included PP Polyakov, A. Dubinin, AI Skvortsov AG Belyaev, held in 1944, the modernization DP. With the main aim of this work was to increase the agility and reliability of the machine gun. ND Yakovlev, head of GAC, and D. F. Ustinov, People's Commissar of the arms, in August 1944, submitted for approval by the State. Defence Committee of the configuration made in the design, pointing out all of this: "Due to the structural changes in the upgraded machine guns:
— vitality back and the mainspring is increased, there was no possibility of substitution removing guns from firing position;
— exclude the possibility of the loss of fry;
— improved accuracy and accuracy of fire;
— improved ease of use in combat. "
ICT decision on October 14, 1944 were approved configuration. The machine gun was adopted by the designation PD ("Degtyareva, infantry, upgraded").

Differences gun DPM:
— to-and-from the mainspring barrel, which was heated and gave the draft, was moved to the back of the receiver (spring tried to move more in 1931, it is possible to build on the experienced machine gun Degtyarev presented at the time). To install the spring on the tail drummer wore a tubular shaft and the back plate was inserted in the guide tube, which stood above the neck of the stock. In connection with this coupling was eliminated, and the stem are made as a single piece with the piston. In addition changes the order of disassembly — now it started with the guide tube and the back-and mainspring. The same configuration brought in a tank machine gun Degtyarev (DTM). This made it possible to disassemble the gun and remove small faults without removing it from the ball set;
— set the control knob pistol in the form of the slope, which was welded to the trigger guard, and 2-wood cheeks, fastening screws to him;
— simplified form of the butt;
— on the bypass machine gun instead of a circuit breaker imposed non-automatic safety lever on the type of tank machine gun Degtyarev — sloping axis checks fuse was under the trigger lever. Locking occurred at the frontal position of the flag. This fuse was reliable because he was acting on the sear, making a harmless carry a sp
are machine gun;
— the leaf spring in the ejection mechanism has been replaced with a helical cylindrical. The ejector is inserted in the gate, and for its retention pin was used, also served as its axis;
— folding bipod were made integrally, and hinges moved a few back and above the axis of the bore. At the top of the casing collar set of 2-welded plates, which created the eyelets for attaching the bipod legs with screws. Bipod become stronger. To substitute their separate trunk is not required;
— weight decreased gun.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years
Degtyarev machine gun system (PDM) arr. 1944

Upgraded tank gun Degtyarev have adopted at the same time — 14 oktyabrya1944, Issue DT ended January 1, 1945. Part of the lightly loaded parts such as sliding butt machine gun DT made to reduce the cost of cool stamping. During the work of the proposed DPM version with retractable butt as a DT, but braked at a constant butt of the tree, as a more reliable and comfortable. In addition proposed to implement the modernized tank gun Degtyarev weighted barrel with longitudinal dales (as in the experimental DC-42), and from this option, refused. In total, between 1941 and 1945 at the Kovrov plant number 2 was released 809,823 machine gun DP, DT, PDM and DTM.

Apart from the Russian Union guns DP (DPM) operated by the armies of the German Democratic Republic, China, Vietnam, Cuba, North Korea, Poland, the Mongolian People's Republic, Somalia, Seychelles. DPM machine gun produced in China under the designation "Type 53", this option was used in Vietnam, was in service with the Army in Albania.

"Degtyarev Infantry" armed Russian Army changed the new RPD light machine gun Degtyarev under the crotch 7.62-mm cartridge reference 1943. Supply DP and DP remaining in warehouses "surfaced" in the 80's — 90's during the post-perestroika military conflicts. These guns have fought wars in Yugoslavia.

The regimental standard machine gun in 1946 (RP-46)

Large dead weight and bulkiness of disk gun shop Degtyareva caused multiple samples of its replacement to the tape food as before the Second World War, as during it. In addition tape made it possible to power a rather short period of time increment and fire power to fill that gap between the abilities of machine-and hand guns. The war revealed the desire to increase the density of anti-personnel fire on the most important — if the '42 in the defense of the density of small-arms fire on the front meter ranged from 3 to 5 bullets in the summer of 1943 during the Battle of Kursk, this figure was 13-14 bullets.

Weapons of victory.  "Degtyarev Infantry" - the machine gun DP 85 years

Total for the machine gun Degtyarev infantry machine guns (including modernized) was established under the 7 options receiver tape. Locksmiths debuggers PP Poles and AA Dubinin in 1942 to a hand gun DP developed another version of the receiver under the iron or canvas belt. In June of the same year with the guns receiver (parts made by stamping) have been tested at the site GAU but they returned for revision. Two variants of the receiver under the tape in 1943, introduced the Degtyarev (in one embodiment, the receiver circuit was used drum Shpagin). But the heavy machine guns, up to 11 pounds, the inconvenience of using power system also load Kovrovskogo plant number 2 is more urgent orders have become a prerequisite break this work.

But it works in this field is not completed. The successful development of the power strip machine gun RPD was the basis for the resumption of work on the introduction of a similar power to a PD rifle cartridges. In May 1944, tested the standard DS and have not yet put into service upgraded DPM equipped with a receiver design PP Polyakov and AA Dubinin — constant participants of modernization "Degtyareva Infantry" — under the control of the designer Shilin, the role of the locksmith debugger Lobanov. Ultimately, this embodiment was adopted receiver.

Feeding mechanism of the link iron belt travel drives the bolt handle when it is moving — a similar principle was used in 12.7-mm DShK, but now handles traffic receiver passed through a special sliding bracket, and not through the swinging arm. Ribbon — ring sealed steel, with closed link. Filing — right. A special tray served to guide the tape. Cover lock latch receiver has similar stores in BF (PDM). The barrel weighed down to the ability to fire longish queue. New barrel, the need to drive the ribbon supply and efforts to supply cartridges from the tape claimed to make the configuration in the design of gas operated site. Design, controls, and build the rest of the gun was the same as that of the basic DPM. Rate reached 250 rounds per minute, which is three times higher than the rate of PDM and was comparable with the machine gun. On the effectiveness of the fire at ranges up to 1000 meters, he approached one and crew-served weapon, although the absence of the machine did not give the same maneuverability and accuracy.

May 24, 1946 modernized in such a Makarov gun was adopted by the Council of Ministers of the USSR under the designation "7.62-mm machine gun company commander reference 1946 (RP-46)." RP-46 was the last descendant of a unified "family DP" (RAP, although it was the development of the same scheme, was a fundamentally new tool). The name "company commander gun" shows the eagerness to fill the niche of automatic weapons support company commander level — machine guns were the means of the battalion commander, hand — were in the platoon and offices. According to its features heavy machine guns did not meet the increased mobility of infantry, could only operate on the flanks or in the second band, occasionally provided timely and adequate support for advanced infantry lines in the criteria of the increased rapidity and agility fight — especially on rough terrain, mountains and villages Fri . At the same time, a light machine gun of the same caliber fire did not develop the necessary capacity. In fact, it was conducted on a temporary substitution of a "single" machine gun, which is still missing in weapon system, or — on the next step to the creation of a Russian machine gun. RP-46 machine gun, which was 3 times lighter SHM significantly surpassed this regular gun maneuverability. In addition RP-46 to cut one set of weapons to light armored vehicles (Airborne ASU-57) as a secondary weapon of self-defense.

The combination of the waste in the production system and the receiver are assembled from parts stamping cool, make it possible to rapidly create a new machine gun. Belt fed lowered the weight of ammunition carried by the calculation — if the RP-46 unloaded weighed more DP of 2.5 kg, the total weight of the RP-46 with ammunition to 500 rounds was 10 pounds less than the DP who had in store such as bullets. The machine gun was equipped with a folding shoulder pad and handle. But a separate cartridge box caused difficulties in the battle, because the change of the position of the RP-46 is almost always sought to remove the tape and charge it on the latest positio
n.

RP-46 in the last 15 years was in service. And his heavy machine gun SGM changed a single PC. Apart from the USSR, RP-46 was in service in Algeria, Albania, Angola, Bulgaria, Benin, Cambodia, Congo, China, Cuba, Libya, Nigeria, Togo, Tanzania. In China, a copy of the RP-46 produced under the designation "Type 58", and in North Korea — "Type 64". Although in terms of production RP-46 yielded significantly own "parent", and now he has found in some countries.

Technical properties of the RP-46 machine gun:
Cartridge — 7.62 mm obraztsa1908/30's (7,62 x53);
Weight — 13 kg (equipped with tape);
Length of gun with flash suppressor — 1272 mm;
Barrel length — 605 mm;
The length of the threaded portion of the barrel — 550 mm;
Rifling — 4 rectangular, right-sided;
The stroke length of rifling — 240 mm;
The initial velocity of the bullet (heaviest) — 825 m / s;
Effective range — 1,500 m;
Blank range — 500 m;
Range of slaughter act bullets — 3800 m;
Length of the sighting band — 615 mm;
Rate of fire — 600 rounds per minute;
Combat rate — up to 250 shots per minute;
Power — iron belt at 200/250 cartridges;
Mass equipped with tape — 8,33 / 9,63 kg;
Calculation — 2 people.

List of References
1. Bakhirev VV Kirillov II Designer VA Degtyarev. M., "Military", 1979.
2. Combat Infantry wearied of the Red Army, hh. 1.2. M., "Military", 1945-46.
3. Bolotin DN History of Russian small guns and ammunition. St. Petersburg., "Polygon", 1995.
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5. St. Vladimir A. The Kiev direction. M., "Military", 1989.
6. Horse transport of the Red Army. A short description and exploitation. Moscow, 1944.
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8. VA Degtyarev My life. Tula Oblast book publishing house in 1952.
9. P. Egorov Combat units introduction of ski / / Military Gazette 1943 № 23-24.
10. Plant. VA Degtyareva, shtrishki stories. Carpet, 1999.
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12. Malimon AA Russian Machines (note test-gunsmith). Moscow, Russian Defense Ministry, 1999.
13. The real part of small guns. Edited by AA Blagonravova. Book 2. M., "Gosvoenizdat," 1946.
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15. Instructions on small business. The gun rifle platoon. Moscow, Publishing Division NKO, 1935.
16. Instructions on small business. The base fire from infantry weapons. M., "Military" 1946.
17. VN Novikov The other day, in the days of testing. L /. "Politizdat", 1988.
18. Its base of small guns. Edited by VN Zaitsev. M., "Military", 1953.
19. Hunters H. Small arms majestically in the Russian Army Russian war / / Military History magazine 1969 number 1.
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21. V. Fedorov The evolution of the string instruments, v.2. L /., "Military" 1939.
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According to the article, "Degtyarev infantry," Simon Fedoseyev
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