Mathematics for the little ones

Mathematics for the little ones.  Photo from http://creative.gettyimages.com

Can you do the math with a yearling or two year old tot? Watching what! Alas, all the early development has been taken to reduce it to the account of early learning and reading. And this is contraindicated for such crumbs, their brains are physiologically not ready for such manipulation. But there is another mathematician.

When we talk about math for kids, we have in mind, rather, familiarity with the main logic concepts: one and a lot more-less, above-below, the set, etc. It is obvious that these concepts are necessary not only for the development of mathematical thinking. They generally help to structure the collected information, but this kid takes time. So, please, do not rush!

Some educators insist that the logic of occupation (as, indeed, and other sciences for toddlers) must be held in a special place and a special time, specially reserved for the "lessons". Perhaps for older preschoolers who are preparing for their first meeting with the school, it's true: a special place and time allows you to configure a working mood, get ready. But when it comes to the little fellow from one year to three years, I insist on the fact that the "lessons" are not allowed. All information about the logical structure of the world, of the interaction of cause and effect can be learned literally "between the business on the go."

The principle of the development of the material should be as follows: first, contrasting concepts (one — many, high — low, high — small), and then a more detailed look at what is "in the middle", learn to compare the number, height, size.

What is a lot?

Remember how in a wonderful cartoon of monkey, elephant calf elephant and Mike asks her friends:

— How much should you nuts, to get a lot?

(Parenthetically, we note that the elephant, among other things, raises the old philosophical problem was first formulated by the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno — at which point the number to quality, and a grain of sand will make a "non-heap" in "pile").

But we will not delve into the philosophical empiricism. Now it is important to grasp the concept of "one" and "many." In fact, these words are constantly heard in our speech, and the baby already has a rough idea about them. It remains only during the game to emphasize that "reads" a book one pupa, and sits on the couch lot dolls. The garage is one machine, and the road goes lot machines.

When these concepts pipsqueak learned well, you can go to the definition of "Several". Two or three items — a few.

Please note that your words must be accompanied by action with real objects, not pictures. Do not worry, the time will come when your toddler and the picture clearly shows, where one berry with a lot, and where — a few. But while the pictures for it — it's just a symbol. To deal with them is much more difficult than with real objects that you can pick up.

As much, less is more

The children are usually very strong sense of justice. On and play. Will treat dolls pies. Everyone had enough? It turns out that the pies as many, how many dolls! A little louder, say "the same", highlighting the expression intonation. Options, as you know, can be infinitely many: proteins can distribute nuts, leverets — carrots (organic if you just at this time to clean the carrot soup, or fashioned from salt dough and painted in gouache), the same machine set in garages , built of bricks.

But the thing! At some point it turned carrots less, than hares. And pies, on the contrary, were superfluous, so their more, than dolls.

For those parents who think that it's too easy to report that these tasks are even in math textbooks for the first grade. We are in no way set a goal to pass the curriculum at the tender infancy, but now we would like to outline the basic concepts of logic, which as a kid growing up will learn deeper.

Psychologists have found that determine the number of items to five we can "by eye", without counting, as is the ability to be "embedded" in our brains. We use this ability of his own body. Let's not obsessively count everything that comes to us by the arm, and simply note that lie on a plate three apple, you and I have two legs and two hands, as much as a cat four paws. And stand in the hallway for some reason five slippers: my mother's two, two and one daughter's father's (the second, apparently, animals once again went to travel). Actually, the score and coined in order to avoid repeating the fungus, the fungus and the fungus, and immediately say "three fungus. " At some point, the kid himself will call the number of items.

Especially if you ask him how much candy to give him: one, two, or four at once.

Classification

How invented numerous educational games to "find unnecessary," "make a pair", "pick up the analogy!" Then there just is not: a bird among the giraffes, the squares of the circles, then cornflowers among the cacti.

But when the two-year pipsqueak then sorts the paper cards with unknown baby animals, something that is … unnatural.

In this respect, I really like the idea of Waldorf teachers categorize the items, so to speak, on the basis of common sense. When all the toys baby dumped in a box (even clear), there is a sense of chaos. It is better if the toy will be allotted a special cabinet or shelving unit, and for every kind of toys — their own box or basket. Where it is more convenient to store cubes? They have smooth edges, they can be neatly tucked away in a box. There also will leave and other wood building material.

But different baskets of shells, cones, chestnuts … You can not even explain anything to the kid, not to declare loudly, "This is here only add up the dishes, and here — only the stones!". Just day after day after playing with the baby lay up your treasures. And it can be noticed that the lump accidentally caught in a basket of seashells, wanted here. And he put it where you want and not zapihnet foot under the bed.

In this type of classification has a deep practical sense: streamlined, the room is cozy, and at the right time you can always find exactly what you want.

Everything is known to Compare

Taking a walk with your child on the street, doing household chores, playing the usual plot-role-playing game, pay attention to signs of crumbs items. This house is high, and that — low. The road is wide, see: Mom placed side by side, Dasha and the carriage, and here is narrow, only walking in single file. Please bring a big doll. No, it's small, but we now need more, it will be a doll-mother.

It is in these everyday situations a child learns to compare the size and shape of objects.

A tale of three bears a really up for it! Just pay attention to an important point: do not enter at the same time three concepts — big, medium and small. First it has to be only two subjects for comparison — large and small. And only then show your child that there is also an intermediate option, not big and not small, and medium. If this idea will have your chubby little boy's taste, size can distribute anything. Who said you have to be limited to plates, spoons, chairs and cots? Let bears will be different sizes pillows, blankets, books, hats, etc.

Seriation

Seriation — this is another logical operation. The hypothesis was to distribute the items by size, from smallest to largest. The first experience of seriation kid has got between the bear family distributing numerous household items.

After that, the problem can be more complicate. For seriation are great dolls. To get started, simply open the largest nesting doll crumbs and show her secret. This point can be very joyful, because each nesting doll lies another surprise! Whe
n all the wooden dolls will become familiar with your baby, try to arrange them by height. Consider how they look, look, what matryoshka above or below their sisters. And they can play hide and seek! Give your child the opportunity to test myself, what a doll can hide inside their sisters, and what — not.

Subsequently, the child himself will build on the growth of dolls.

Check whether a number is built, it is very easy. We need only to reassemble all the dolls at a time. If some do not fit into his older sister, then an error occurred. Let's try again? During a game practicing good eye, fine motor skills, develop spatial thinking.

For dolls of different sizes, it is possible, as for the bears, pick up handkerchiefs (excellent, by the tone if they are to approach the matreshkinoy clothes, it is not only an education of artistic taste, but another logical operation). You can give them sticks, slices or cubes of various sizes (let the child decide by himself, what's it like at the bars of soap to wash your hands, markers or paint).

And then you can choose different size for the Little Sisters of the prepared patchwork quilt fabric.

Believe me, such simple at first glance, skill, mean to the development of the baby very much! The famous French psychologist Jean Piaget believed that the level of classification and seriation — a basic measure of the intellectual development of the child.

Inessa Smyk

According to the magazine "Aistenok"

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