Russian tank guns. The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T

At the end of the second world was saying that the Russian T-34-85 significantly inferior to the German "Panther" on the reservation and armament. 85-mm gun D-5T German 75mm KwK 40 L/70 inferior to armor penetration, rate of fire and accuracy. Fundamentally principle was that "Panther" was equipped with rangefinder monocular and 1320-mm stereoscopic rangefinder. In addition, some German tanks were equipped with infrared night-vision devices.

In its 44th year, the bureau number 9 for the self-propelled SU-100 made 100-mm gun D-10C (reference 1944). D-10S and 100-mm field gun BS-3 had a monotonous and interior ballistics of the barrel right up to the profile of the rifling. D-10S was carried out from 1944 to 1948 ode inclusive.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T

In the city of Gorky at the end of '44 in the design office of the plant named after Stalin (№ 92) designed the 100-mm tank gun LB-1. By his own device, it was close to the gun D-10S. Its trunk consisted of monoblock tube, muzzle brakes and navintnogo breech. Muzzle Brake was the difference in the respective outer gun LB-1, because the D-10T and D-10S was absent.

Gun LB-1 had a wedge bolt, semi-automatic follower (mechanical) type. Recuperator hydraulic brake hydraulic recoil compensator without spindle type. Sight TS-19.

On Gorokhovetsky range 6 — 14 April '45 proving ground tests have been carried out 100-millimeter gun LB-1 mounted on the T-34 tank. The diameter of the ring in the tower increment up to 1680 mm. Removed from the tank exchange machine gun, and the number of crew members was reduced to 4 people. The suspension of the first 3 rollers turned off. The tank was 33 tons. In the stowed position, its length is 9150 mm. The dimensions of the tank cannon appeared on the 3340 mm. Ammunition of the tank consisted of 30 rounds.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
T-34 with a 100-mm gun LB-1

During field tests carried out in 1000 and went through 501 rounds km. On the ground tests rate the gun LB-1 was 5.2-5.8 rounds per minute.

In conclusion, the Commission stated: "The gun after eliminating defects may be advised to the adoption." But the T-34 tanks equipped by a 100-millimeter cannon into service pending. The reasons for this was that his running gear for the gun LB-1 was obviously weak, well, the war came to an end.

In 1945, an attempt was made to equip the T-44 gun LB-1, this tank in some documents listed under the T-44-100. Weight of the tank was 34 tons against 31-31,5 tons series of T-44. With all of this length with gun forward was 8570 mm against 7650 mm. The roof hatch loader was equipped with 12.7-mm machine gun ANC. Chassis and sides of the tank to protect against cumulative projectiles were covered with 6-mm screen. Gun ammunition consisted of 36 shots.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
Experienced T-44-100

Total produced two most experienced T-44-100. Tests of the tank showed a low maneuverability and reliability. T-44-100 was not adopted.

At the end of 1945 in DB-9 for the average T-54-based gun LB-1 made 100-mm tank gun D-10T. Gun D-10T unlike the basic instruments of the muzzle brake had. Profile rifling compared with gun D-10S to D-10T has been changed, but the depth remains the same. Barrel of the gun D-10T consisted of a pipe-in-One, and the breech sleeve. V had a semi-automatic horizontal shutter mechanical type.

Experienced standard T-54 (object 137) made at the end of 1945 in Nizhny Tagil. In April of next year, the T-54 was adopted, and in the 47th year began mass creation of the tank. Tower T-54 (reference 1946) has cast the large working bevel ("Zaman") around the perimeter of the bottom. Angle of vertical lay cannon ranged from -5 ° to +18 °. The lifting mechanism with manual transmission. Installed on the gun sight TSH-20. Her ammunition was 34 shots.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
Setting the gun D-10T (without stabilizer) The T-54

At the T-54 gun D-10T has been paired with a 7.62-mm machine gun SG-43. A pair of exchange rate 7.62-mm machine gun was mounted on the fender liner in armored boxes. On the tower near the charging flap mounted 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun ANC.

Seeking to get a small amount of zabronevoy using large-caliber guns in the T-54 had significantly reduced the ammunition, which was 34 shots (supplied T-34-85 was 58-60 shots). Even despite the fact that the diameter of the turret was increased to 1825 mm (1580) because of the huge size of the oscillating tool in fighting compartment crew were distressed. Lack of attachment Polikem significantly hampered the work of charging during the rotation of the tower, reducing the rate of fire, and in some cases resulting in injuries loader. During the shooting unfrequented gassed the crew compartment was great, even despite the presence of spec. fan.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
TankT-54 mod. 1946 ("Object 137")

The tank weighed 36 tons, crew — 4 person engine — diesel V-44 520 liters capacity. s. Most road speed was 50 km / h.

The design of the T-54 in 1949, have improved. Nekordinalno changed the shape of the tower. Instead of 2-external machine guns in the department of management established a 7.62-mm machine gun. In the D-10T standard in 1949 changed only rocker panel (reservation is moving).

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
T-54 modernization in 1951

In 1951 he had a second modernization of the T-54. The tank was the latest tower overhead and improved compaction without working bevels. Instead of sight TS-20 TS-installed 2-22 having alternating 3,5 — and 7-fold increase.

In 1947-1957 the foundation of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T was as follows: 1947 — the plant number 9 (Sverdlovsk) D-10T — 20 pcs., The plant number 172 (Perm) D-10T — 580 pcs., 1948 . — plant number 172 D-10T — 600 pcs.; 1949 — the plant number 172 D-10T — 500 pcs., 1950 — the plant number 172 D-10T — 250 pcs., 1951 — the plant number 9 D-10T — 814 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10T — 981 pcs., 1952 — the plant number 9 D-10T — 925 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10T — 1000 pcs., 1953 — Plant number 9 D-10T — 900 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10T — 1000 pcs., 1954 — the plant number 9 D-10T — 1000 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10T — 1300 pcs., 1955 — the plant number 9 D-10T — 300 pcs., D-10TG — 935 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10TG — 1167 pcs., 1956 — the plant number 9 D-10TG — 1754 pcs., D-10- T2S — 15 pcs., the plant number 172 D-10T — 10 pcs., D-10TG — 100 pcs., 1957 — the plant number 9 D-10T — 16 pcs., D-10TG — 840 pcs., D- 10-T2S — 1190 pcs.

The stabilized gun D-and D-10TG 10T2S

Certainly, the idea of stabilization tank shells belongs to Russia. 09/02/1916, the project was considered Shilovsky gentleman of the bedchamber. The project provides two-stabilized 47-mm single-barrel gun Hotchkiss, which was placed in an armored car. The gun was mounted on a swivel, the tail of which was equipped glide on a vertical gyroscope cage. General Manikovsky issued instructions to begin the ready reference an experienced 47-mm stabilized installation. But the complexity of the system, as the outbreak of the revolution, to finish the job is not allowed. Despite this, "military technician" Shilovsky in 1919 suggested that the management of the Red Army a unique project of 45 tons. armored having a strong gyroscopic system that can not only stabilize 60/102-millimetrovuyu gun, and fill the rollback tool. Two boats on the project Shilovsky were built, but due to the end of the war their civilian mothballed.

Since 1942, the United States issued M4 medium tanks "Sherman" were equipped gyroscopic stabilizer vertical lay. It should be noted that the tanks were supplied with the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease Act, but the Russian tankers clog (muffled) stabilizers. In the UK in 1948, adopted the tank "Centurion" Mk.3 kitted 83.8-mm gun with a plane stabilizer.

In the USSR in the years 1943-1945 did odnoploskostnaya stabilizers STP-34 and STP-S-53 started for the 76-millimeter gun F-34 installed in the T-34 and 85-millimeter gun ZIS-S-53 to T-34-85. Because of the huge size and low reliability of these stabilizers on arms taken nebyli.

In the CRI-173 (TSNIIAG — Automation and Hydraulics) in 1951 made the vertical stabilizer for the gun D-10T — STP-1 "Horizon". According to curb gun stabilizer given the index of D-10TG. This stabilizer, as in other stabilizers made in CRI-173 T-54, T-55 and T-62 is the principle of gun stabilization, which ensures the continued pursuit and gun sight aggressively associated with it.

The stabilization of the sight of the gun was dependent drawback — when charging the weapon to block the angle of elevation data, and therefore the gunner could not follow the order. All of these tanks (T-64, T-72, T-80, also a heavy T-10) equipped with scopes have stabilized sight and simultaneous podslezhivanie tools for stabilized line of sight.

Gun D-10TG curb stabilizer "Horizon" set in the T-54A. In 1955 he began creating a batch of D-10TG factories number 9 (Sverdlovsk) and number 172 (Perm).

In the D-10TG installed ejector mechanism blowing serving for removal of powder gases after the shot out of the barrel. Fumes in the crew compartment through this by firing guns significantly reduced. At the gate of the cannons were placed safety device that protects against inadvertent descent in the event of impact on the course of the mechanism of re-engagement. The lifting mechanism equipped who donate link that protects the mechanism from damage in the event of grazing foreign objects. In addition, improved sight were used TS-2A-22 and the new stopper tower.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
The T-54A

At the T-54A set the active infrared night vision system TVN-1.

On the basis of the T-54A made commander of T-54AK. Part of the T-54A and T-54 (reference 1951) in 60-70s. has been upgraded. These tanks has been assigned the T-54AM. They were armed with guns D-10TG, and their ammunition increment up to 43 shots. T-54AM got a diesel engine B-55, the caterpillars with RLL and lightweight rollers.

The introduction of stabilizers for guns and machine guns, paired with them, on the one hand, allows to conduct fire on the move. At the time of the shooting on the move from non-stabilized gun could shoot the ammunition, but did not get. On the other hand, adding a stabilizer created difficulties.

When the regulator of "Horizon" on the T-54A while driving on the highway without even firing gun in the turret passed around from 1 all the way up to the second (from the floor of the crew compartment to the roof of the tower). Enclosures was not there and swing stabilized gun often led to injuries of the crew. So, for example, during the tests the T-54A crew commander died. Looking ahead, it is necessary to emphasize that during the fighting in rough terrain, for example, in Nagorno-Karabakh, the crews of tanks T-55 and T-72 turned off the stabilizers to protect themselves from the swinging breech guns, with all this only fired with small stops .

In 1952-1955,. in CRI-173 made plane stabilizer STP-2 "Cyclone". Modernized gun D-10T modified for installation of "Cyclone" in DB-9, given the index of D-10T2S, a tank with this gun got the T-54B.

When the stabilizer control tower and the gun was made with the remote control. Angular velocity guidance were: horizontally from 0.07 to 15.0 degrees per second; vertically from 0.07 to 4.5 degrees per second. At the T-54B, in the end, was introduced spinning floor of the crew compartment. This required a change heater placement and placement of ammunition, which was left without changes. Observation unit commander TPK-1 was replaced by TPKU, in addition, have introduced night vision, driver TVN-2, a commander's TKN-1 night sight gunner TNN kitted-1 infrared spotlights L-2 and OC-3.

Three experienced T-54B (object 137G2) were handed over in June 1955 to rejuvenate himself by the number 183. Factory tests conducted in autumn 1955, the proving ground tests — winter 55-56 years. In 1956, the plant number 9 passed the test batch of 15 guns, D-10T2S with stabilizers "Cyclone". In 1957 he started high-volume creation. In 1956, T-54B officially adopted it. At the T-54B in January 1965 began to set sight TSH2B-32.

The T-55

In the years 1952-1955 in the Soviet Union during the nuclear test a huge number of times tested the effect of nuclear explosions on the T-54. In the years 1952-1953 during the tests revealed that the blast at quite a distance bolshennom unfold Locked in traveling tower T-54 at 90 °. As a result, the stopper of the tower broke out teeth on the crown of overhead that led to the tank is not full combat capability. After t
hat changed the locking mechanism of the tower.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T

During the following tests emerged that the T-54 tanks in a radius of 300 meters from the epicenter of the explosion were derived from the system, but the vast distances that did not happen. But the test animals (rabbits, dogs) that were on the ground crew at a distance of 700 meters from the explosion died from the shock wave. Perhaps the power of explosions ranged from 2 — 15 kT.

Ministry of the Defense of test results claimed by the industry to create a system of sealing the tank. If too much pressure on the outside of the tank was equal to one atmosphere excess pressure inside must not exceed 0.3 of the atmosphere, the response time of the containment system should not exceed 0.3 seconds after impact tank gamma. Development work on the establishment of ESD (anti-nuclear defense system) for the T-54 was assigned to Kharkov design bureau under the control of Morozov.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
Setting the gun D-10T2S in the tower of the T-55

Kharkov CB in the 2nd half of the 59th year, has sent to those Uralvagonzavod. documentation PAZ. Yuri Kostenko said: "When the factory realized that significant changes are coming in mass production, and the backlog in the design office there are proposals that do not fundamentally alter the properties of the combat vehicle, but they have improved significantly (increase of engine power to 580 hp ., increasing the speed of supplies, ammunition guns increase to 43 shots, and the rest), it is natural to introduce the idea to the configuration data in the design of complex, coupled with PAZ, setting the tank to the new index. Thus was born the T-55 tank. "

Arms of the T-55 in comparison with the T-54B is actually not changed — the main instrument was the gun D-10T2S curb stabilizer "Cyclone". But unlike the T-54B on the new car out anti-aircraft gun. Only the 70-year to some T-55 began to establish a 12.7-millimeter anti-aircraft guns.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
Placement of ammunition in the T-55

May 8, 1956 T-55 (to 155) have adopted, batch creation from June 58 th to July 62 th year.

In 1961, work began on the equipment of the T-55 PAZ. In the Institute began to develop hydrogen-based material Brokers, who had twice the least, compared with the lead, with specific weight, but provides the same protection against gamma radiation. Armor covering material Stand designers began referring to red lining. T-55 with a red lining got the T-55A. Batch creation of the T-55A began in 1962 in Omsk.

Ballistics and ammunition 100-mm gun D-10T

First 20 years in ammunition D-10T included caliber armor piercing and ordinary high-explosive shells (BR-412, BR-412D, BR-442B and PF-412), although the development work to create new types of ammunition were carried out from the end of 1940 g For example, in 1949, made a wedge bolt to the D-10T with iron shuttering for caseless loader. In 1949, the test instrument having caseless loading (in other words, a clean-burning well) were unsatisfactory. First, 50-year gate redesigned and re-tested. But this "nut" was not hard for the 50's, the, and the work done.

On the 54th, the work was carried out to establish a 100-millimeter-fledged cumulative non-rotating shell to the BS-3 and D-10T.

In the summer of 1964 resulted in proving ground tests armor-piercing ammunition for the gun D-10T, developed at SRI-24. Piercing projectiles during the test had an initial speed of 1415 meters per second and a blank range 1660 meters at a target height of two meters. At a distance of 2000 meters projectiles penetrated the 290-mm armor on the normal and 80-mmillimetrovuyu at an angle of 60 °. In 1967, the piercing projectiles 3B8 entered service.

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T
T-55M

As an example demonstrating the sabot projectile gun D-10T2S can lead Karabakh war, which from a distance of about 1200 meters of Azeri T-55 tank-piercing projectile hit the tower of Armenian T-72 tank, but the armor is not broke. T-72 did not have reactive armor.

In the NII-24 in 1963-1964, designed 100-mm round with a chemical. shell type "FROM", equipped with a substance such as "P-33" or "P-35" for the U-tank guns and 8TS D-10T. This work was very "fragrant code -" Lily of the Valley. "

Technical features shots of a unitary charging to 100-mm gun D-10T:
Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — PF-412;
Index shot — UOF-412;
Blaster — RGM-6, B-429;
Weight:
propellant — 5.5 kg;
shell — 15.6 kg;
shots — 30.2 kg;
explosive in the projectile — 1.46 kg;
The initial velocity — 900 m / s;
The firing range — 15 sq m;
DPA at the target height of 2.7 m — 1260 m

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — OF32;
Index shot — 3UOF10;
Blaster — In-429;
Weight:
propellant — 5.6 kg;
shell — 15.96 kg;
shot — 30.36 kg;
explosive projectile in — 1.7 kg;
The initial velocity — 900 m / s;
The firing range — 15 thousand meters

Type of projectile — armor-piercing and with ballistic tips;
Index of projectile — BR-412D;
Index shot — UBR-412D;
Blaster — DBR-2, MD-8;
Weight:
propellant — 5.5 kg;
shell — 15.88 kg;
shots — 30.4 kg;
explosive projectile in — 0,061 kg;
The initial velocity — 887 m / s;
The firing range — four thousand meters;
DPA at the target height of 2.7 m — 1220 m

Type of projectile — Armor-piercing thick-headed;
Index of projectile — BR-412B;
Index shot — UBR-412B;
Blaster — MD-8;
Weight:
propellant — 5.5 kg;
shell — 15.88 kg;
shots — 30.1 kg;
explosive projectile in — 0,065 kg;
The initial velocity — 895 m / s;
The firing range — four thousand meters

Type shell — thick-headed with the ballistic armor-piercing tip;
Index of projectile — BR-412B;
Index shot — UBR3;
Blaster — DBR-2;
Weight:
propellant — 5.5 kg;
shell — 15.88 kg;
shots — 30.1 kg;
explosive projectile in — 0,065 kg;
The initial velocity — 895 m / s;
The firing range — four thousand meters

Type of projectile — piercing ostrogolovy;
The index of the projectile — the BR-412;
Index shot — UBR-412;
Blaster —
MD-8;
Weight:
propellant — 5.5 kg;
shell — 15.88 kg;
shots — 30.1 kg;
explosive projectile in — 0,065 kg;
The initial velocity — 895 m / s;
The firing range — four thousand meters;
DPA at the target height of 2.7 m — 1200 m

Type of projectile — Subcaliber;
Index of projectile — 3BM8;
Index shot — 3UBM6;
Weight:
propellant — 6.5 kg;
shell — 5.7 kg;
shots — 20.9 kg;
Reference speed — 1415 km / s;
The firing range — 2 thousand meters

Type of projectile — cumulative;
Index of projectile — 3BK5M;
Index shot — 3UBK4;
Blaster — LG-2;
Weight:
propellant — 4.55 kg;
projectile — about 12 kg;
shots — 22.6 kg;
explosive projectile in — 1.0 kg;
The initial velocity — 900 m / s.

100-mm rifled gun D-46T

The Design Bureau of the plant number 9 at the end of the 1940s. designed the latest gun D-46, which had the best ballistics, compared with the D-10T and BS-3. Initial rate of 17 kg armor-piercing projectile equaled 1000m / s, the pressure in the bore — 4 th kg/cm2. D-46T was armed rammer. It has been two options most experienced guns — towed D-46 and D-46T tank. Tow had to change the BS-3 tank — D-10T.

5/21/48, the project gun D-46T agreed with the plant number 183. In July 1949, the plant number 9 was dealt two experienced standard gun D-46T with spare tube. In one of the documents of the 49th, it is said that the 100-mm gun D-46T has been installed on a medium tank T-64. Both variants gun D-46 for service not received. Perhaps, the management considered that the gain in ballistics compared with BS-3 and D-10T is low.

Shots unitary loading to the 100 mm gun D-10T

Russian tank guns.  The family of a 100-mm tank gun D-10T

Case brass D-412 weighing 8.5 kg or steel H-415 weighing 6.0 kg.

According to the article by Alexander Shirokorad, the magazine "Arms and equipment"

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