Ju-87 — this seemingly nondescript, angular dive bomber was, in fact, the most famous Luftwaffe aircraft. For its fixed landing gear Russian soldiers dubbed him "laptezhnikom" or "Lapotnikov." Also active plane earned the nickname "Stuck" — from the German Sturzkampfflugzeug — symbols of all the dive-bombers. First, the aircraft caused a heated debate in the leadership of the Luftwaffe, but after the Polish and French campaigns dive-bomber actually became a legend, and the supporters of the "pieces" made a halo around the car unsurpassed beauty and guns.
Dive bomber Ju-87 had some similarities with the carnivorous bird, and in its angular contours looked through something diabolical — Radiator dive-bombers reminded widely gaping mouth, and non-retractable landing gear fairings resemble large claws. All these features of the machine makes a strong psychic effect on those to whom the dive bomber with relentless precision dropped their bombs. Junkers Ju-87 was a very strong car, which had a relatively good for this class of aircraft maneuverability, good reliability, with a fairly decent review. The aircraft crew provides its own beautiful opportunity to hit all the targets with a dive, allowing deviation from the target of bombs within less than 30 meters. With all of this major drawback of the machine was its slow speed. Use this dive bomber could only be subject to the full advantages in the air. Machine was very vulnerable and was a perfect target for a fighter that has demonstrated aerial combat during the "Battle of Britain".
Not in vain this particular plane was listed as one of the signs of "Blitzkrieg" — it was intended to be used in the criteria under-active air defense. In the unlikely event all the pros and poorly protected kopotlivogo "Junkers" fairly rapidly reduced to a minimum. Here and there in the middle of the war, the introduction of this machine was the first day the criteria unsafe for the pilots themselves. The increasing number of Russian fighters and level of training of Russian pilots led to the fact that the loss of Ju-87 dive-bombers hell up. This forced the Germans to create a bombing from a great height, had a negative impact on its accuracy, and allocate to accompany the huge group of escort fighters.
After the battle of Kursk Ju-87 are increasingly used as a training machine, and the remaining troops dive bombers were equipped with flame arresters and translated into units of night bombers. To illumine 1944 to daytime crashes involved only modifications bombers Ju-87G, kitted with 2 37-mm guns (to 12 rounds per gun). Their main purpose was to fight Russian tanks. Uniformly they replaced the troops to more advanced aircraft FW 190F and G. By the end of the war produced about 6500 Ju-87 aircraft of various modifications.
The procedure dive
Located at an altitude of 4600 meters, the pilot dive-bombers found the target for bombing a special viewing window located in the floor of the cabin. After finding the end he let the air brake and turn down the gas, turning the plane 180 degrees and switches to dive at an angle of 60-90 degrees. In order to pilot it was easier to control the angle of the dive on the horizon on glass canopy was applied to a particular degree grid.
Upon closer to the ground plane on the contact altimeter ignited lamp, typically at a height of 450 meters. After that, the pilot presses down the button on the control stick, which were responsible for the dumping of bombs, once this mechanism to automatically cut one out of the plane and the plane began to dive alignment function, with all this congestion experienced pilot to 6g.
The moment when the nose "trick" is above the horizon, air brakes retracted into its standard position, the throttle disclose, propeller pitch is set to climb. The pilot took control of the machine itself and vorachivalsya to normal flight. The remaining bombs under the wings he could use to dive into other detected targets.
It should be recognized that the accuracy of the bombing at the Ju-87 was slightly higher than the Russian dive bomber "Pe-2" because the "Junkers" resets the bombs from a height of least 600 meters, while the Pe-2, dropped bombs minimum a mile high. Under these criteria pilot "pieces" had the opportunity to make a sighting actually "point-blank", according to weather reports and taking amendments "to the eye." In addition, Ju-87 was diving at a relatively low speed (600 km / h) to give the pilot enough time to perform some adjustments line of motion of the flight.
The aircraft design
Lead designer was German dive-bombers Pollman, who in 1933 started to work on the creation of the airplane. At a time when the Air Ministry issued a newcomer to the requirements of dive-bombers, they are actually quite come under the finished car. Own first flight of Ju-87 made in 1935. In his own plane Pollman successfully cooperated for dive-bombers such fundamental properties as a good review, good maneuverability, adequate strength of the design, allowing the machine to do exercises with bolshennymi congestion. Not even weaken fender, making it a notch niche for retraction (which was typical of the new aircraft since) Herman Pollman completed his fixed gear. To reduce drag, he used a huge fairings that Russian soldiers dubbed then bast shoes.
Ju-87 — is a double-metal single-nizkoplan having fixed landing gear. The fuselage machine metal round consists of 3 parts: the front, where the engine and its systems, medium — cabin crew and rear, which carries the tail plane. A single vertical tail assembly machine with all-metal wing strut stabilizer. At the height of each wheel is located on the 2 trimmer. External trimmers had links with the automatic dive Abfanggerat, as airbrake, interior trims facilitate the pilot control of the car. The external appearance of the appropriate bar stabilizer, and of the entire aircraft as a whole can be considered as the weight compensators, having a form of semi-circular pieces on the ends of the elevator.
Wing aircraft was also very memorable and was performed on a "reverse
gull", was the appropriate W-shaped. W-shaped wing is allowed to reduce the weight and size of non-retractable landing gear. In the center section machine housed large fuel tanks, hatches them fillers were placed on top of the center section on both sides of the fuselage. Trapezoid console with a break on the trailing edge attached to the center section in the 4 points to the rear and a front facing sidewall. Two slotted ailerons and four slotted flap ensure the preservation of good-quality dive-bombers flight data for all steps of the flight vehicle. This design was common for a company called Junkers and Doppelflugel — double wing. The ailerons were equipped with trimmers and had an external weight compensation. Also on the front spar were placed brake pads, which represented a profiled plate size 2300×160 mm with a longitudinal slit. Brake flaps and flaps had a hydraulic mechanization. At the dive-bombing airbrake control was performed using an automatic Dive Ahfanggerat.
Was non-retractable landing gear and had a traditional design. The main landing gear were covered with removable cowlings and were interchangeable for both racks. Dimensions main wheels — 840×300 mm. Has also provided the option to install dive-bombers on ski gear.
Cockpit Ju-87 was in the middle of the fuselage between the 2nd and 5th frames, with all this on the 3rd strengthened bulkhead mounted power protivokapotazhnaya frame. The canopy consists of 4 parts: the front hood, the sliding part of the canopy pilot, motionless of the cab between the pilot and gunner and the sliding part with the ball mount MG 15 machine gun gunner-radio operator. In front of the fuselage dive-bombers was placed through the front spar box-finder, which at the bottom of the fuselage was covered with a glazed windows, hatches, and the inside of the cab — a special mobile enhanced dural flap. When using it, the pilot was able to accurately determine when to start the dive at the target. Between the pilot and gunner positioned short-wave radio FuG VIIa.
Propeller-engine group consisted of 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine Jumo211. Its power is dependent on the model ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 hp Propeller plane was wood, shirokolopastnym a diameter of 3.40 m and had a variable pitch. Swash propeller blades and motor control combined with automatic dive into one mechanism that produced steering control of the propeller blades, feeding fuel to the engine work the valves of oil and water radiators, system mechanization of feathers and wings.
Armament consisted of a dive-bombers 2-motionless 7.92-mm MG 17 machine guns (ammo, 1000 rounds per gun), which were located in the wing, also moving MG 15 machine gun in a ball mount. Ammunition for this gun was located in the discs that were on the right side of the gunner-radio operator. Bomb load Ju-87 reached 1000 kg and was located on 3 hardpoints. Using a special H-shaped plug-trapeze bomb from the central bomb rack during the dive-bombing was diverted to non-dangerous distance from the aircraft, so as not to fall within the area of its propeller. Armament could vary depending on the version. Thus, anti-dive-bombers option Ju-87 G-2 was equipped with with 2 37mm Flak 18 guns.
The performance properties of the Ju-87B2:
Dimensions: wingspan — 13.6 m, length — 11.1 m, height — 4,01 m
Wing Area — 31.9 square meters. m
Aircraft weight, kg
— Empty — 2750
— normal take-off — 4090
Motor type — 12 — cylinder Junkers Jumo-211Da power 1200 hp
The highest speed — 380 km / h
Most dive speed — 650 km / h
Practical range of normal — 790 km.
The highest rate of climb — 333 m / min
Service ceiling — 8,000 m
Crew — 2 people.
The desired load: 1000 kg bombs, two wing-7.92-mm machine gun MG-17 and a 7.92-mm machine gun MG-15 mobile hand-set radio operator.