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First experiences in the development of Russian tank guns

The first Russian tank guns with some stretch of the imagination be considered 76-millimeter cannon protivoshturmovye standard in 1910, set in 1915 by 30 armored languid like "Harford." This gun is often incorrectly called by the name of armored vehicles. For example, in the Museum of Artillery gun billed under this sign: "Harford gun."

76-millimeter cannon protivoshturmovye first take on armament for forts and they were equipped with wheeled carriage. At the Putilov after the First World War was designed to set the gun cabinet in armored vehicles. Tumba was attached to the bottom of the machine with the 12-bolt. The front of the tables had a thin rectangular flange to which the tower is screwed up armor, riding a 3-rollers on radial chase. The thickness of the turret was 6.5 mm.

The body of the instrument was a prototype 76-mm cannon mountain standard in 1909, the 76-millimeter gun rather short reference in 1913, and 76-mm field gun standard in 1927, but had the worst ballistics. Ammunition consisted of armored high-explosive grenades weighing 6.41 kilograms and shrapnel weighing 6.5 kilograms (of 44 rounds). The vertical guidance ranged from -5 ° to +25 °, but the table was designed to fire +11 °, of the table range was 2660 meters. Bronetseley used for the destruction of shrapnel posed to strike. No one armored vehicle made at the time did not maintain contact this projectile.

"Harford" used extensively in World War I, as a civilian war. According to some reports, "Harford" is also used in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War.

In late 1919 — early 1920. of the Red Army came in the first tanks. They were all captured, captured from the interventionists and White Guards. Most of these tanks — English "diamonds" that we have got the title of the motor by name — "Ricardo".

Tanks "Ricardo" were armed with short-barreled 57-mm gun Hotchkiss. Gun Hotchkiss had wedge gate opening and closing it manually. Outside the 57-millimeter gun Hotchkiss was like faster on the sea, not the tank. It was set to swivel installation on the side of the tank in the sponson. Tanks "Ricardo" in service of the Red Army consisted until 1929, but have not been built. Accordingly, the 57-millimeter gun Hotchkiss repaired, but in the creation of not running.

The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells

French 37-mm tank gun Hotchkiss was somewhat modified version of naval gun, which was adopted by the first of the 1880s. The shutter gun — fourth automatic (the closure — Hand). Recuperator spring gun, air compressor, hydraulic. Ballistics gun was bad enough. The action of the projectile was ineffective and armor and infantry. But, as they say, not having the best … Because the plant number 8 (Podlipky) in June 1928 issued an order for the creation of the first 206 Hotchkiss guns. The plant according to your guns at once appropriated index 7K. Within 31-32 years the plant was commissioned in 1080 Guns Hotchkiss. Their creation was completed in 1932. 37-millimeter cannon Hotchkiss tanks were armed with "Renault", the MS-1, two-tower T-26 tanks and armored vehicles BAI, BA-27 and BA-27M. As of November 1, 1936 of the Red Army in 1327 consisted of military training and 60 37-millimeter guns, Hotchkiss.

The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells

Gun mount armored car "Garford" (76-mm gun model protivoshturmovaya. 1910 on the cabinet)

Along with their creation in the years 1925-1930. was developed several Russian projects 45 and 37-mm tank guns, some of which have even gone to ground tests of prototypes. 45-mm tank gun OAT reference system in 1930 at the factory number 8vypuskalas small series, under the symbol 6K. In 30-31 years made 26 T-24 tanks filled with these guns. The plant number 8 in 1932 showed a further 80 guns 6K, but the Ordnance Department did not take them.

The fact that the 28 August 1930 entered into a contract with the German company "Byutast" (a dummy firm of "Rheinmetall") to supply sovetstkih 6 Alliance of prototypes artillery systems and technical documentation to them. Some of these systems came and 37-mm anti-tank gun, which is February 13, 1931 adopted the Red Army under the title "37-mm anti-tank gun is the standard in 1930."

The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells

Engineer Syachentovym drafted installation tank swinging of the 37-millimeter cannon "Rheinmetall". Gun released under the symbol PS-2 (gun Syachentova) on armament was entitled "The 37-mm tank gun reference 1930" anti-tank gun PS-2 and the "Rheinmetall" had similar ballistics and the device. Shutter with horizontal V-quarter automation.

PS-2 gun was mounted on the serial twin-turret tanks T-26 mod. 1932, the BT-2 is also on the experimental swatch T-35. In the Red Army on November 1, 1936 there were 187 military and 36 educational PS-2.

The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells

37-mm gun in the turret of a light tank BT-2

The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells
The first experiments in the creation of the domestic tank shells

37-mm tank gun

1 — battery hole, 2 — slot sighting pads (for systems that were to be repaired and re-issued, this slot is not), 3 — breech, 4 — shoulders 5 — the middle part, 6, 8 — step 7 — muzzle Part 9 — helical thread, 10 — lock holes

Panzer industry produces a large machine with a cannon towers were produced than the 37-millimeter cannon standard in 1930, because in 1933 it was decided to equip the 370 tanks BT-2 dual 7.62-mm machine guns, YES-2 instead of the 37-millimeter guns.

It should be noted that all these years, the design Russian tank guns was taken as a
base analogue field gun. In tank gun would be another breech Linkage, recoil device, but ballistics, interior trunk and ammunition were similar counterpart.

According to the article by Alexander Shirokorad, the magazine "Arms and equipment"

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