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The first Chechen war in the photo of Alexander Nemenova

We present to you release photo of Alexander Nemenova of the First Chechen War and the history of this conflict. (Note: In this issue are photographs that may seem repulsive or frightening)

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

1. First Chechen War (1994-1996 Chechen conflict, the first Chechen campaign, the restoration of constitutional order in the Chechen Republic) — battle between the troops of the acts of the Russian Federation (BC and the Interior Ministry) and the unrecognized Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in Chechnya, and some adjoining villages Fri Russian North Caucasus region, with a view to taking control of areas of Chechnya, which in 1991 was proclaimed Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

2. Officially, the conflict was defined as "measures to maintain the constitutional order," military action was called "the first Chechen war," seldom "Russian-Chechen" or "Russian-Caucasian war." Conflict and his previous actions were characterized by a huge number of victims among the population, military and law enforcement agencies, noted the fact that the ethnic cleansing of non-Chechen population in Chechnya.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

3. Despite the success of certain military aircraft and the Interior Ministry, the outcome of this conflict was the withdrawal of Russian units, mass destruction and casualties, the de facto independence of Chechnya before the second Chechen war and the wave of terror that swept through Russia.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

4. With the beginning of perestroika in the various republics of the Union of Russian, including the Chechen-Ingush were activated various nationalist movements. One of the similar organizations was made in the 1990 National Congress of the Chechen People (NCCP), becoming its own output to Chechnya from the USSR and the creation of self-contained Chechen country. It was headed by the last General Russian Air Force Johar Dudayev.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

5. June 8, 1991 at the II session NCCP Dudayev appointed Chechen independence Nokhchi-cho, so Makarov, the country has developed a dual power.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

6. During the "August Putsch" in Moscow Chechen-Ingush ASSR management supported the coup. In response to the September 6, 1991 Dudayev declared the dissolution of the Republican municipal authorities, accusing Russia of "colonial" policy. On the same day Dudaev guards storm took over the building of the Supreme Council, the television center and the House of radio. More than 40 MPs have been beaten, and the chairman of the Grozny City Council Vitaly Kucenko thrown out of the window, with the result that he died. On this occasion, the head of the Chechen Republic Zavgaev DG spoke at the 1996 meeting of the State Duma "
Yes, on the ground the Chechen-Ingush Republic (now broken) war began in the fall of 1991, specifically the war against the multinational people when crime criminal regime with the support of some of those now here also showing interest in the situation of the patient, this blood-filled people. The first victim was specifically happening people of this republic, and the Chechens again. The war began when in broad day or was killed by Vitaliy Kutsenko, chairman of the Grozny City Council, during a meeting of the Supreme Council of the Republic. When the street was shot Besley, Vice President Municipal Institute. When was killed Kankalik, rector of the same municipal institution. When once a day in autumn 1991 in the streets of Crucible found killed up to 30 people. When starting to illumine 1991 to 1994 morgues Severe were crammed to the ceiling, making the announcement on local television with a request to pick up, to find out who it is, and so on.
— Zavgaev DG, Head of the Chechen Republic, the transcript DG of July 19, 1996.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

7.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

8. Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Khasbulatov then sent them a telegram: "With pleasure vyznat resignation republic's armed forces." After the collapse of the Soviet Union Johar Dudayev declared Chechnya's final withdrawal from the Russian Federation. October 27, 1991 in the country under the control of separatists held presidential and parliamentary elections. President of the Republic has become Johar Dudayev. These elections were declared illegal Russian Federation

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

9. November 7, 1991 Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree "On the introduction of a state of emergency in the Chechen-Ingush Republic (1991)." After that, the Russian control the situ
ation in the country has deteriorated — separatist supporters surrounded the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the KGB, military camps, blocked railway and air hub. In the end, the introduction of a state of emergency was disrupted, the Decree "On introduction of a state of emergency in the Chechen-Ingush Republic (1991)," was canceled on November 11, three day or once signed, after a heated debate at a meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Republic of was initiated withdrawal of Russian military units and parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, all ended by the summer of 1992. Separatists began grappling and looting of military depots.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

10. Dudayev's forces got a lot of tools: Two launchers operational-tactical missile system in the non-operational state. 111 training aircraft L-39 and L-29 149, the aircraft converted into light attack aircraft, three MiG-17 and two MiG-15, 6 AN-2 aircraft and two Mi-8, 117 units of P-aircraft missiles 23 and P-24, 126 units of P-60, about 7 thousand aviasnaryadov GS-23. 42 T-62 and T-72, 34 BMP-1 and BMP-2, 30 BTR-70 and BRDM, 44 MT-LB, 942 car. 18 Grad MLRS and more than 1,000 shells for them. 139 pieces of artillery, including 30 122-mm howitzer D-30 and 24 thousand shells to them; also SPG 2S1 and 2S3, anti-tank guns MT-12. 5 SAM, 25 different types of memory, 88 MANPADS; 105 pcs. SAM S-75. 590 units of anti-tank weapons, including two anti-tank systems Contest, 24 anti-tank complex Bassoon, 51 anti-tank complex Mixed, 113 RPG-7 complexes. About 50 million units of small guns, more than 150 thousand grenades. 27 wagons of ammunition, 1,620 tons of fuel, and about 10 thousand sets of clothing and equipment, 72 tons of food, 90 tons of honey property.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

11.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

12. In June 1992, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev ordered to transfer Dudayevites half of the republic who had guns and ammunition. According to him, it was a forced move, because a significant part of the "transmission" guns have been seized, and take out the rest had no power due to the lack of fighter and trains.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

13. The victory of the separatists in the severity led to the collapse of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Malgobekskii, Nazran and most of the Sunzha district of the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR formed a Republic of Ingushetia in the Russian Federation. Legally, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ended its existence December 10, 1992.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

14. Clear border between Chechnya and Ingushetia has not been demarcated, and to this day (2012 year) Is not defined. During the Ossetian-Ingush conflict in November 1992 in the Country area of North Ossetia, Russian troops were introduced. Relations between Russia and Chechnya deteriorated sharply. Russian high command offered at the same time to solve by force and the "Chechen problem", but then the deployment of troops on the ground in Chechnya was prevented by the efforts of Yegor Gaidar.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

15.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

16. As a result, Chechnya has become virtually independent, but legally not recognized any state, including Russia, the state. Republic had municipal symbols — the flag, emblem and anthem, the authorities — the president, the parliament, the government, the secular courts. Supposed to create the smallest of the Armed Forces, the introduction of its state Exchange — Nahar. The Constitution, adopted March 12, 1992, CRI was characterized as "an independent secular state," its federal government refused to sign a contract with the Russian Federation.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

17. In reality, the municipal system of the CRI was very inefficient in the period 1991-1994 to quickly criminalized. In 1992-1993 in the area of Chechnya is done above 600 murders. For the period 1993 to the Grozny office of the North-Caucasian steel road were attacked by armed 559 trains with a total or partial looting around 4 thousand cars and containers in the amount of 11.5 billion rubles. For 8 months of 1994 was committed 120 armed attacks, as a result of which plundered 1,156 cars and 527 containers. Losses amounted to more than 11 billion rubles. In the 1992-1994 year, as a result of armed attacks killed 26 railway workers. This situation forced the Russian government has decided to terminate traffic on the area of Chechnya in October 1994

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

18. Special fishing was the ready fake memo, which was obtained by more than 4 trillion rubles. The country prospered taking of hostages and the slave trade — according to "Rosinformtsentra"
only since 1992 has been stolen and illegally was maintained in Chechnya in 1790 people.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

19. Even then, when Dudayev finished paying taxes into the general budget and forbade employees to check Russian special services to the republic, the federal center went on to list in Chechnya money from the budget. In 1993, Chechnya has been allocated 11.5 billion rubles. Russian oil until 1994 continued to arrive in Chechnya, for all that she was not paid and resold over the limit.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

20. During the rule of Dudayev characterized by ethnic cleanings against all non-Chechen population. In 1991-1994, non-Chechen (first — Russian) Chechen population was subjected to killings, threats and attacks by Chechens. Many were obliged to leave Chechnya, being expelled from their homes, leaving the Chechens or selling apartments at low cost. Exceptionally in 1992, according to the Interior Ministry, was killed in the harsh Russian 250, 300 — went missing. Morgues were filled with unidentified corpses. The broad anti-Russian propaganda ignited the respective literature, direct insults and appeals to the government stands, desecration of cemeteries Russian [

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

21. In the spring of 1993, CRI sharply escalated conflict between the president and parliament Dudayev. April 17, 1993 Dudayev declared the dissolution of Parliament, the Constitutional Court and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. June 4 armed Dudayevites under Shamil Basayev seized the Grozny City Council, which took place in the meeting of the parliament and the constitutional court, thus Makar, in CRI occurred municipal coup. In the constitution, adopted in the past year, have been made to the configuration, the country established a regime of personal power Dudayev, which lasted until August 1994, when Parliament was returned legislative opportunities

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

22. After a municipal coup June 4, 1993, in the northern regions of Chechnya, beyond the control of the Government of the separatists in the harsh, formed an armed anti-Dudayev opposition and started an armed struggle against the regime of Dudayev. Was the first opposition organization committee of state of salvation (KNU), who spent several armed actions, but soon defeated and disintegrated. To replace him came the Provisional Council of the Chechen Republic (VSCHR), which declared itself the sole legitimate authority in the area of Chechnya. VSCHR recognized as such by the Russian authorities, to render him every support (including instrument and volunteers).

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

23. Since the summer of 1994 in Chechnya, fighting broke out between the acts loyal Dudayev forces and the opposition of the Provisional Council. True Dudayev forces conducted offensive operations in Nadterechniy controlled by opposition forces and Urus-Martan districts. They were accompanied by significant losses on both sides used tanks, artillery and mortars.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

24. Power of the parties were about equal, and none of them was unable to gain the upper hand in the fight.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

25. Exclusively in the Urus-Martan in October 1994, Dudayev had lost 27 men killed, according to the opposition. The operation was planned chief of the Head of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Aslan Maskhadov. Commander of the opposition in the Urus-Martan Beslan Gantamirov lost between 5 and 34 people killed, according to various sources. In Argun, in September 1994, a group of opposition field commander Ruslan Labazanov lost 27 men killed. The opposition, in turn, on September 12 and October 15, 1994 carried the offensive action in severity, but each time retreating without achieving decisive of success, although it did not bear the huge losses.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

26. November 26 opposition members in the third time unsuccessfully attacked Severe. With all of this is captured by supporters of Dudayev's got a number of Russian soldiers "who fought on the side of the opposition" under contract with the Federal Counterintelligence.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

27. The deployment of troops (December 1994)
At that time, the introduction of the phrase "entry of Russian troops in Chechnya," according to the views of the deputy and journalist Alexander Nevzorov, was mainly caused by a publicist terminological confusions, — Chechnya was part of the Russian Federation. [22]
Even before the announcement of any decision of the Russian authorities, December 1, Russian aircraft attacked airfields and Kalinovskaja Hankala and put out of action, all aircraft at the disposal of the separatists. Dec
ember 11 Russian Federation President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree number 2169 "On measures to ensure law and order and public safety in the terrain of the Chechen Republic." Later, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation recognized the vital part of the decrees and government regulations that justify the acts of the federal government in Chechnya proper constitution.
On the same day units of the Joint Group of Forces (UGA), consisting of units of the Ministry of Defence and Interior Ministry troops entered the area of Chechnya. The troops were divided into three groups and were from three different sides — west of North Ossetia through Ingushetia), from the north-west of Mozdok region of North Ossetia, which borders Chechnya, particularly in the east and from the territory of Dagestan). [24]
Eastern group was blocked in the Khasavyurt district of Dagestan locals — Chechens Akkin. The western group was also blocked by local residents and came under fire near the village of Badgers, but by force, yet erupted in Chechnya. More successfully moved Mozdokskaya group, already on December 12 came up to the village Dolinsky, located 10 km from the Crucible.
Near Dolinskogo Russian troops shelled the Chechen missile artillery installation "Grad" and then joined the battle for this town.
Kizlyar group headed for the village of Tolstoy-Yurt on December 15.
The new units coming UGA began on December 19. Vladikavkaz (western) group blocked Stern from the west, bypassing Sunzhenskiy range. December 20 Mozdokskaya (Northwest) group took Dolinsky and blocked Stern from the north-west. Kizlyar (eastern) group blocked Stern from the east, and 104 marines airborne regiment blocked the city from the Argun Gorge. With all this, the southern part of the Terrible was an unblocked.
So makarom at the initial stage of fighting, in the first weeks of the war, Russian troops were able to take virtually no resistance northern Chechnya

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

28. Storming the Terrible (December 1994 — March 1995)
In the middle of December, the Federal forces began shelling the suburbs of severity, and on December 19 was applied first bombing in the center of town. When the shelling and bombing killed and wounded many civilians inhabitants (including ethnic Russian).
Despite the fact that Stern remained as before is not blocked on the south side, December 31, 1994 stormed the town. In the city take about 250 armored vehicles, are very vulnerable in urban warfare. Russian troops were ill-prepared, between the different departments did not have a lack of cooperation and coordination, many fighter did not have combat experience. The troops had aerial photos of the town, old town plans in limited quantities. Means of communication were not equipped with communication equipment closed, allowing the enemy to intercept the negotiations. The troops have driven the order of the occupation only industrial buildings, squares and non-invasion of home civilian population.
Western Group of Forces was stopped and retreated east and did not solve any action until January 2, 1995. On the north of the 1st and 2nd battalions of the 131st Maikop separate motorized rifle brigade (over 300 people), motorized infantry battalion and a tank company of the 81st Petrakuvskogo infantry regiment (10 tanks), were under the command of General Pulikovskiy, reached the railway station and the Presidential Palace. Confederate forces were surrounded — the loss of Maikop brigade battalions, according to official figures, 85 people were killed and 72 missing, destroyed 20 tanks, the brigade commander, Colonel Savin died, more than 100 troops were taken prisoner.
Eastern group under the command of General Rokhlin also was surrounded and trapped in the fighting with the separatist entities, but still, Rokhlin gave the order to retreat.
January 7, 1995 the group "North-East" and "North" are united under the command of General Rokhlin, and the commander of the group "West" is Ivan Babic.
Russian troops were replaced by a strategy — now instead of the mass introduction of armored vehicles used maneuverable amphibious assault groups, supported by artillery and aircraft. In the harsh began a fierce street battles.
Two groups marched to the Presidential Palace and on 9 January occupied the Petroleum Institute and the Grozny airport. By 19 January, these groups met in the center of the Terrible and captured the presidential palace, but the Chechen separatist troops retreated across the river Sunzha and took up defensive positions in the area of "Minute". [26] Despite the success coming, Russian troops controlled at that time only about a third of the town.
By early February, the number of UGA was increased to 70 000. UGA became the new commander, General Anatoly Kulikov.
Only 3 February 1995 was formed group "South" and the embodiment of the plan began to blockade the Terrible from the south. By February 9 Russian units took to limit the federal highway "Rostov — Baku".
February 13 Sleptsovskaya (Ingushetia), talks were held between the Joint Force Commander Anatoly Kulikov and Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of CRI Aslan Maskhadov on the conclusion of a temporary truce — the sides exchanged lists of prisoners of war, as both parties have the opportunity to take out the dead and the wounded from the streets of the town. The truce, but violated by both sides.
In the 20 days of February in the town (especially in its southern part) lasted street fighting, but the Chechen units, devoid of support, evenly retreated from the town.
At the end of the day, March 6, 1995 group of militants Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev stepped out Chernorechye — the last area of severity, control the separatists, and the city really came under the control of Russian troops.
Was formed in the harsh pro-Russian Chechen administration led by Salambek Hajiyev and Umar Avturkhanov.
As a result, the storming of the Terrible city was virtually destroyed and reduced to ruins.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

29. Establishing control over the lowland areas of Chechnya (March — April 1995)
After the storm, Severe main task of the Russian troops was to establish control over the lowland areas of the breakaway republic.
Russian side has started to conduct intensive negotiations with the population, urging local residents to expel militants from their own communities Fri Together with the fact Russian division occupied the commanding heights of the villages and towns. Because of this, 15-23 March was taken Argun, March 30 and 31 were taken without a fight fooling around town and Gudermes respectively. But militias were destroyed and freely leave the settlements.
Despite this, in the western regions of Chechnya were local fights. March 10 began fighting for the village Bamut. April 7-8 composite detachment MIA, consisting of Sofrinsky brigade of internal troops and supported by troops and riot police SWAT entered Samashki (Achkhoi-Martan district of Chechnya). It was alleged that the village was defended by more than 300 people (the so-called "Abkhazian battalion" Shamil Basayev). After Russian troops entered the village, some residents who had gun, began to resist, in the streets of the village began a firefight.
According to a number o
f international organizations (namely, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights — UNCHR) in the battle for Samashki killed a great number of peaceful inhabitants. This information disseminated separatist agency "Chechen-Press", but was quite controversial — so, according to representatives of the human rights center "Memorial" the data "not credible." According to the "Memorial", a small number of peaceful inhabitants killed in the sweep of the village, was 112-114 people.
Either way, this operation has caused a great resonance in the Russian society and strengthened the anti-Russian sentiment in Chechnya.
April 15-16, started the decisive assault Bamut — Russian troops managed to enter the village and gain a foothold in the suburbs. After that, but Russian troops were obliged to leave the village, because now the militants occupied the high ground above the village, using an old missile silos SRF designed to conduct a nuclear war and invulnerable to Russian aviation. Series of battles for this village lasted until June 1995, and then fights were suspended after the terrorist attack in Budennovsk and resumed in February 1996.
By April 1995 Russian troops had occupied almost the entire plain territory of Chechnya and the separatists have focused on sabotage and guerrilla operations.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

30. Establishing control over the mountainous areas of Chechnya (May — June 1995)
From April 28 to May 11, 1995 Russian side announced the suspension of hostilities with his own hand.
Advent resumed only on May 12. Beats Russian troops occurred in the village of Chiri-Yurt, covers the entrance to the Argun Gorge and Serzhen-Yurt, located at the entrance to the Vedeno Gorge. Notwithstanding the significant an advantage in manpower and equipment, Russian troops are bogged down in the opponent's defense — in fact, to take the Chiri-Yurt, General Shamanov took a week shelling and bombing.
These criteria Russian command decided to change the direction of the blow — instead Shatoi on Vedeno. Division fighters were pinned down in the Argun Gorge and June 3 Vedeno was taken by Russian troops, and June 12, were taken Chatou district centers and Nozhai-Yurt.
Also, as in the plain areas, the forces of the separatists was not defeated, and they were able to get out of the abandoned villages pt. Because even during the "truce", the militants were able to transfer a significant part of its own forces in the northern areas — May 14 Severe city raked them over 14 times

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

31. Terrorist act in Budennovsk (14-19 June 1995)
June 14, 1995 a group of Chechen militants numbering 195 men led by warlord Shamil Basayev on the trucks drove into the area of the Stavropol Territory and braked in the town of Budennovsk.
The first object of the attack was the police department building, then the terrorists took the city polyclinic and rounded up civilians trapped in her inhabitants. Only in the hands of terrorists, there were about 2,000 hostages. Basayev made demands to the Russian authorities — the cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya, negotiations with Dudayev brokered by UN officials in exchange for the release of hostages.
These criteria authorities decided to storm the structure of the clinic. Due to leakage of disk imaging terrorists managed to get ready to repel the assault, lasted four hours, eventually commandos rescued all of the body (not including the head), freeing 95 hostages. SWAT loss amounted to three people killed. On the same day was made a bad second attempt to storm.
After the failure of force to free the hostages, negotiations began between the then Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and field commander Shamil Basayev. The terrorists were provided buses that they share with 120 hostages arrived in the Chechen village of Zandak where the hostages were released.
General loss of Russian side, according to official data, amounted to 143 persons (of which 46 were employees of law enforcement agencies) and 415 the wounded, the loss of the terrorists — 19 killed and 20 wounded

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

32. The situation in the country in June — December 1995
After the terrorist attack in Budennovsk, from 19 to 22 June, in the harsh passed the first round of talks between the Russian and Chechen sides on which it was possible to achieve a moratorium on military actions for an indefinite period [32].
From June 27 to June 30, there was the second step of the negotiations, which was agreed to exchange prisoners of war "all for all", disarmament groups CRI, the withdrawal of Russian troops and the holding of free elections. [32]
Despite all the agreements reached, violated the ceasefire by both sides. Chechen units vorachivalis to their villages, but not as members of illegal armed groups as "self-defense groups" [33]. In all areas of Chechnya were local fights. Some time there is tension could resolve through negotiations. So, on August 18-19, Russian troops blocked Achkhoy-Martan, the situation is resolved in the negotiations in the severity [32].
August 21, group of militants warlord Alaudi Khamzatov captured Argun, but after a heavy bombardment undertaken by Russian troops left the city, which was then introduced Russian armored vehicles. [32]
In September Achkhoi-Martan and Sernovodsk were blocked by Russian troops, as these communities are Fri militias. The Chechen side refuses to leave the occupied position because, they said, it was "self-defense groups" had the right to be in accordance with the agreements reached earlier. [32]
October 6, 1995 by the Commander of the Joint Group (UGA) General Romanov was assassinated, as a result of which he was in a coma. In turn, had suffered "retaliation" in Chechen villages. [33]
October 8 made a poor attempt eliminate Dudayev — through the village of Roshni-Chu suffered an air strike. [32]
Russian management decided before the election change of control pro-Russian administration of the Republic of Salambek Hajiyev and Umar Avturkhanov by the former manager of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Doku Zavgaev [33].
December 10-12 Gudermes, Russian troops occupied without resistance, was captured by troops of Salman Raduev, Hunkar Pasha and Sultan Israpilov Geliskhanova. December 14-20, the battle for the city, about a week "cleansing" handy Russian troops to take quite Gudermes under his control. [33]
December 14-17 in Chechnya held elections conducted with a large number of violations, but still recognized as valid. Supporters said the separatists in advance to boycott and non-recognition of the election. In the election defeated Doku Zavgaev, receiving over 90% of the vote, with all that participated in the elections, all military personnel of the UGA [33].

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

33. Terrorist attack in Kizlyar (9-18 January 1996)
January 9, 1996 a detachment of militants numbering 256 men under the command of warlord Salman Raduev, Turpal Atgeriev Ali Pasha and Khunkar Israpilov made a raid on the town of Kizlyar. Initially, the purpose was to militants Russian helicopter base and armory. The terrorists killed two transport helicopters Mi-8 and took several hostages from among the soldiers guarding the base. To the town began to catch up Russian military and law enforcement agencies, because terrorists seized clinic and maternity home, herded there for about 3,000 civilian inhabitants. At this time the Russian authorities did not give the order to storm the clinic, so as not to exacerbate anti-Russian sentiments in Dagestan. In the course of negotiations failed to agree on the provision of militants buses to the border with Chechnya in exchange for the release of the hostages, which was supposed to land at the border. January 10 column with the militants and hostages moved to the border. When it became clear that the terrorists will go to Chechnya, a bus convoy was stopped by warning shots. Taking advantage of the confusion Russian control, the rebels captured the village May Day, who was there disarming a police checkpoint. From 11 to 14 January the negotiations took place, 15-18 January, a bad storm the village. In parallel with the storm Pervomayskogo, January 16 at the Turkish port of Trabzon group of terrorists seized a passenger ship "Avrasya" the dangers of Russians shoot hostages if the storm will not be stopped. After a two-day meeting terrorists surrendered to Turkish authorities.
January 18 under the cover of night fighters broke through the encirclement and went to Chechnya.
The loss of the Russian side, according to official figures, 78 people were killed and several hundred wounded.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

34. Militant attack on the stern (6-8 March 1996)
March 6, 1996 several groups of militants stormed from different directions to control the harsh Russian troops. Gunmen seized Staropromyslovskiy Town area, blocked and fired at Russian checkpoints and roadblocks. Despite the fact that Stern was under the control of the Russian armed forces, separatists during the withdrawal took with them supplies of food, medicine and ammunition. [34] The loss of Russian side according to official figures were 70 killed and 259 wounded

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

35. The battle near the village of Yaryshmardy (16 April 1996)
April 16, 1996 column of the 245th Motorized Rifle Regiment of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation that was moving in Chatou was ambushed in the Argun gorge near the village Yaryshmardy. The operation ran warlord Khattab. Insurgents shot down the head and bringing up the rear car, so makarom column was blocked and suffered significant losses — was lost almost half of all armored vehicles and personnel.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

36. Elimination of Dudayev (21 April 1996)
From the very beginning of the Chechen campaign Russian secret services did not once tried to remove the President of CRI Johar Dudayev. Samples send for a purpose murderers end unsuccessfully. Found out that Dudayev often said by satellite phone system «Inmarsat» [35].
April 21, 1996 Russian AWACS aircraft A-50, on which the equipment was installed for the signal bearing a satellite phone, was ordered to take off. Right in this area of the village Gehi-Chu motorcade drove Dudayev. Unfolding own phone Dudayev contacted Konstantin Borovoy. At this point, the signal from the phone was intercepted, and two Su-25 took to the air. When the planes have gained goal, the motorcade was fired two missiles, one of which was right on target. [35]
Closed by decree of Boris Yeltsin several military pilots were awarded the title Hero Russian Federation

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

37. The negotiations with the separatists (May — July 1996)
Despite the success of some Russian Armed Forces (successful elimination of Dudayev, the final capture of villages Fri Goyskoe, the old Achhoy, Bamut kids around), the war began to take a protracted nature. In the criteria of emerging Russian presidential elections, the management decided to once again go to the talks with the separatists. [33]
May 27-28 in Moscow hosted a meeting of Russian and Ichkeria (led Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev) delegation, which failed to agree on a truce with the June 1, 1996 and the exchange of prisoners. Immediately after the talks in Moscow, Boris Yeltsin flew to stern, where he congratulated the Russian military with a victory over the "rebel Dudayev regime" and announced the abolition of conscription. [33]
June 10 in Nazran (Republic Ingushetia) in the process of yet another round of negotiations, agreement was reached on the withdrawal of Russian troops from the territory of Chechnya (except 2-brigades), disarming separatist groups, holding free and democratic elections. The question of the status of the republic temporarily postponed [33].
Prisoners in Moscow and Nazran violated the agreement by both parties, namely, the Russian side is not in a hurry to withdraw their troops, and Chechen field commander Ruslan Hayhoroev claimed responsibility for the bombing of commuter bus in Nalchik. [33]
July 3, 1996 the incumbent Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin was re-elected to the presidency. New Security Council Secretary Aleksandr Lebed announced the resumption of military operations against the militants.
July 9, after the Russian ultimatum, fighting resumed act — aircraft launched strikes on militant bases in the mountainous Shatoi, Vedeno and Nozhai-Yurt districts. [33]

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

38. Operation "Jihad" (6-22 August 1996)
August 6, 1996 units of Chechen separatists of b
etween 850 [36] and 2000 [37] people were newly stormed severe. Separatists are not putting their own to capture the town, they were blocked by the administrative structure in the center of the town, also fired at roadblocks and checkpoints. Russian garrison under the command of General Pulikovskiy, despite the significant an advantage in manpower and equipment, was unable to hold the city.
Severe storm at once with the separatists also seized the town of Gudermes (taken by them without a fight) and Argun (Russian troops retained only the commandant's house) [37].
According to the views of Oleg Lukin, specifically the defeat of Russian troops in the harsh Khasaviurt led to the signing of the ceasefire agreements

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

39. Khasaviurt Agreement (31 August 1996)
August 31, 1996 representatives of the Russian Federation (Chairman of the Security Council Alexander Lebed) and Ichkeria (Aslan Maskhadov) in the town of Khasavyurt (Dagestan) signed the armistice agreement. Russian troops absolutely withdrawn from Chechnya, and the decision on the status of the republic has been postponed until 31 December 2001.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

40. The outcome of the war was the signing of agreements and conclude Khasaviurt Russian troops. Chechnya has once again become the de facto independent, but de jure unrecognized any country in the world (including Russia) State.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

41.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

42. Destroyed homes and villages were not restored, the economy — only criminal, in general, a criminal she was not only in Chechnya, according to the former deputy Konstantin Borovoy, kickbacks in the construction business contract packages of the Ministry of Defense, during the First Chechen War, reached 80 % of the contract amount. . Because of the ethnic cleansing and war Chechnya left (or been killed), virtually all non-Chechen population. The country began the interwar crisis and the rise of Wahhabism in the upcoming led to the invasion of Dagestan, and then the beginning of the second Chechen war. "

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

43. According to data published by the Joint Force Headquarters, the loss of Russian troops were 4103 people killed, 1231 — missing / deserted / prisoners, the wounded 19,794

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

44. According to the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers, the loss amounted to more than 14,000 people dead (documented cases of death according to the mothers of dead servicemen).

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

45. But it should be noted that the data of the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers contain only the loss of conscripts, net losses of contract soldiers, fighters of a special unit, etc. The loss of the militants, according to the Russian side, accounted for 17 391 people. According to the chief of staff of the Chechen units (later President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria) loss Maskhadov Chechen side were about 3,000 people were killed. According to the HRC "Memorial" the loss of fighters do not exceed 2,700 people killed. Number of losses for certain civilian population is not clear — to assess the human rights organization Memorial, they account for up to 50 thousand people killed. Russian Security Council Secretary Alexander Lebed estimated the loss to the civilian population of Chechnya 80,000 people dead.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

46. On December 15, 1994 in the conflict zone launched "The mission of the Commissioner for Human Rights in the North Caucasus," which consisted of deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation and a representative of the "Memorial" (later called "The mission of public institutions under the control of SA Kovalev") . "Mission Kovalev" did not have formal opportunities, and acted with the support of several human rights organizations, the public, coordinated the work of the Mission's Human Rights Center "Memorial".

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

47. December 31, 1994, the other day Russian troops storming the Terrible, Sergei Kovalev, a group of State Duma deputies and journalists negotiated with Chechen militants and parliamentarians in the presidential palace in severity. When the storm began, and the square in front of the palace began to glow Russian tanks and armored vehicles, civilian persons took refuge in the basement of the presidential palace, soon there began to appear wounded and captured Russian soldiers. Correspondent Daniel Galperovich recalled that Kovalev, being in the middle of the rate of Dudayev's fighters, "almost all the time was in a basement room, equipped army radio", offering Russian tankers' way out of town without firing if they will m
ark the route. " As argued is in the same journalist Galina Kowalska, after they showed flaming Russian tanks in the center of town,

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

48. Beliefs led by Kovalev Institute of Human Rights, this episode, as well as all human rights and antimilitarist position Kovalev became the reason for a negative reaction from the military administration, representatives of state power, and countless adherents of "state" approach to human rights. In January 1995, the State Duma adopted a draft resolution in which his work has been recognized in Chechnya unsatisfactory: as he wrote, "Kommersant", "because of its" one-sided positions, "aimed at justifying the illegal armed groups." In March 1995, the Municipal Council has discharged Kovalev of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Russia, according to the views of "Kommersant", "for his expressions against the war in Chechnya"

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

49. International Committee of the Reddish Cross (ICRC) since the beginning of the conflict unfolded the program from the immense assistance to victims, ensuring in the first few months more than 250,000 immigrants enforced food parcels, blankets, soap, warm the clothes and plastic covers. In February 1995, in the severity of the remaining 120,000 inhabitants 70,000 thousand completely dependent on aid from the ICRC. In the severe water and gutter were one hundred percent destroyed, and the ICRC quickly began to organize the supply of drinking water to the town. In the summer of 1995 once a day, about 750,000 liters. chlorinated water, based on the satisfaction of the needs of more than 100,000 inhabitants were delivered by tank trucks in 50 pt distribution across harsh. During the subsequent 1996 year produced more than 230 million liters. drinking water for the inhabitants of the North Caucasus.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

50.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

51. During 1995-1996, the ICRC carried out a number of assistance programs to victims as a result of armed conflict. Its delegates visited some 700 people detained by federal forces and Chechen fighters in 25 places of detention in Chechnya and adjacent regions, brought more than 50,000 recipients of letters on letterhead message Reddish Cross, who became the only option for separated families to make contact with, because all types of communications were interrupted. The ICRC provided medicines and medical materials 75 infirmaries and medical facilities in Chechnya, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan, was involved in the restoration and providing medicines for hospitals in the harsh, Argun, Gudermes, fooling around, Urus-Martan and Shatoi, provided regular care homes for the handicapped and children shelters.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

52.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

53.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

54. Various ladies 'movement ("Soldiers' Mothers", "white shawl", "Women of the Don" and others), have been working with soldiers — members of military operations, liberated prisoners of war, wounded, and other categories of victims in the war.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

55.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

56.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

57.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

58.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

59.

First Chechen War photographs by Alexander Nemenova

60.

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