After ten years on the Northern latitudinal course will carry more than 100 million tons of cargo a year. The State Duma of the Russian Federation supported the project development of the Baikal-Amur Railway in 2025, the so-called BAM-2.
— This railway line will help the further development of the Far East, will be one of the points of growth of production in the district — said the presidential envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District Viktor Ishayev.
Areas adjacent to the BAM differ favorable geographical position, possess large stockpiles of both hydrocarbon and solid mineral resources. But the degree of utilization of the existing resource potential is small enough. Proven consist principally of forward-categories. In industrial scale use only coal mine, iron ore, building materials and hydrocarbons.
Regions crossed by BAM have lower than the national average, the level of socio-economic development. For example, the share of gross regional product per capita, only the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) was superior to the national average. The indicators of other subjects ranging from 52 per cent in the Trans-Baikal region and 81 in the Khabarovsk region of the Russian average. The total GRP areas of the BAM zone is not more than five per cent of the total GRP of all subjects of the Russian Federation, which does not correspond to their important role in the country’s geo-strategic position and rich natural reserves areas.
Sustainable development of the Far East and Trans-Baikal, and the decision of the federal and regional targets for the use of the resource, industrial and transit potential of the east of the country are only possible in the implementation of complex infrastructure project of reconstruction of BAM.
According to forecasts, by 2020 the volume of freight traffic on the BAM should increase three times, and passenger turnover — by 18 percent.
The first and main element of the project should be the development of the railway itself and output it to the new volume of cargo. Today, the limiting factors are the scarcity of bandwidth, low speed, high wear of the roadway. However, according to the calculations of large mining companies, only coal in the coming years, they are ready to transport up to 70 million tons a year. Constantly growing traffic volumes of ore from the Amur region, Yakutia, the Jewish Autonomous Region. In addition, BAM — an important carrier of general cargo, oil, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, wood. And the active position of Russia to increase its capacity to serve traffic from Southeast Asia to Europe will further attract up to 14 million tonne-kilometers of transit cargo per year. Thus, according to experts, the total load on the Northern latitudinal in 2020 will be 106.8 million tons a year.
To solve this problem, it is necessary not only to reconstruct Kuznetsovsky tunnel (which will make it possible to transport by rail 25-28 million tons per year, no more), but also pave the second way, because today BAM almost its entire length — single-track. Implementation of the project will require the construction of 2,592 kilometers of second main track. Due to the increase in multiple traffic capacity to change trains and locomotives to transfer to electric traction, as well as to increase the capacity of railway junctions and technical stations.
In addition to the construction of the track infrastructure will need to upgrade and increase the capacity of units engaged in rail transportation, maintenance and providing services. According to preliminary estimates, it is necessary to attract 114,000 railway workers specialties and 184 thousand — construction. It is assumed that the builders will be occupied on rotational basis in temporary settlements, the construction of which is accounted for in project start-ups. Plan to attract workers on the basis of intra-regional and inter-regional watches and relocate them and their families for permanent residence. As a result of the implementation of the BAM-2 overall growth of resident population in the regions adjacent to the highway to reach more than 435,000 people. So should be a block of the project associated with the development of human settlements along the route, social infrastructure and public utilities.
Another aspect of BAM-2 — the development of the Pacific port in the Khabarovsk Territory. They have already found a second wind, as on the coast formed Busan — Sovetskaya Gavan industrial and transport hub and port special economic zone (poetry).
For objective reasons, the approach to the financing of major projects, including in the program of "the social and economic development of the Far East and Trans-Baikal" — software destination in 2011-2013 reduced by 62 percent.
— Under the impossibility of large-scale public investment and the need to address infrastructure failure, hindering the development of the economy, requires the use of innovative tools — the deputy minister of industry, transport and communications Khabarovsk Krai Bogdan Musyanovich. — Plan Development of BAM is to become one of the largest mega-projects over the past thirty years, and a bright example of the effectiveness of public-private partnership in Russia.
According to the ambassador, only the first phase of the BAM-2 will need about 400 billion rubles. Sources of funds are diverse: in addition to direct investment of the federal budget and the Railways money can come from the issuance of bonds and the privatization of a number of railway facilities. In addition, some costs must take the far eastern regions of the Federation, especially in terms of infrastructure development.
The project is an integrated development of the area of BAM is expec
ted to attract 3.2 trillion rubles of private investment. The total amount of public investment in the project on the basis of a public-private partnership will be five trillion rubles. For example, due to budgetary sources of funding with the possibility of the use of tools of public-private partnership is supposed to modernize the entire site Tayshet — Sovetskaya Gavan.
As a result of regionally based BAM is possible to create a new industrial area, based on the extraction and processing of minerals and energy development.