Why would a child to read? The answer, in short, is clear: in order to navigate the sea of diverse information, to study at a good school, and in general to become an educated person. It is therefore understandable desire of parents to teach their child to this very important matter. But how?
Previously, it was much easier — was a blue primer with a huge orange letter A on the cover, and the millions of boys and girls (who is three, who is five, who is seven years) mastered by him immortal texts about my mother, who was washing the frame. But these boys and girls grow up and become parents themselves. And then it turned out that times have changed. And there were a variety of ways to teach a child to read. Eyes run — Doman cards, dice Zaitseva, rough letters of Maria Montessori method is seal that promises to teach a child to "read before the walk" … and young parents, afraid not "catch", rushing from one technique to another, from one specialist to more. The policy "compote" rushes along with the parents and the child.
After three late?
"Man Reading to appear before Homo erectus" — Said Paul seals. "Later, learning to read at the age of 6-7 years," he calls "a disaster for any family." Strong words, right?
But Glenn Doman: "Teach the six-month baby is much easier than the year-old, a year old — much easier than six years!" Not far behind and N.Zaytsev: "Where the work on the" Cubes "are not surprised reading the three-year or even two year olds."
Early learning to read — a relatively new phenomenon in our lives. "Further," the results so far, as it has come to Russia for the last decade. However, the first alarming swallows already started to appear. Psychologists say that children who were too early to start learning to read, there are problems in social development. Relatively speaking, this kids a very difficult to fit into the children's group. And it is not because they are intellectually "above" their peers. And because the socialization skills they have not yet formed — at a time when they should have been formed, the brain was busy with another matter: learn to read and write. Surprised and speech therapists children whom early taught to read, it appears, read, without understanding: they just add up the characters-letters in the "right" combination can not retell the contents read.
Of course, at all times there were children who wanted to learn to read themselves and with meticulous pestered parents: "What is this letter?", "Mama, what is the word read? '. In this case, the reading was their own task, and it does not interfere with the formation of other life skills.
But now parents, inspired or frightened slogan "After three late", in one form or another are trying to involve their child to read as early as possible.
When can I start?
Psychologists have identified a number of physiological symptoms:
- The child says the proposals. It is extremely dangerous to begin learning to read, even if the kid is not talking. Some children who were taught to read, for example, cubes Zaitsev before they started talking, there was a delay in speech development. Rather than engage in lively interaction, they read and write with the help of cubes.
- Sufficiently developed phonemic hearing. This means that the baby is well heard every single sound in the word, well separates it from the adjacent aware of what is the word sounds. It could easily pick up, for example, a word that begins with the letter K, and ends with the letter A, or assign a common sound in the words "cat fur, a mouse."
- The child should not be a serious speech therapy problems. When a pipsqueak can not pronounce half of the alphabet, it is, first of all, violates phonemic hearing, and secondly, prevents read correctly.
- Formed spatial orientation. For example, do not cause difficulties the concept of "right" and "left." After all, your child will have certainly read from left to right, and nothing else. When the spatial orientation of the lame, children can, for example, to read the word with the letters, which at the moment they like, "mirrors" to confuse the top and bottom (for example, P and L), etc.
Although the precise age standards are not here, but practice shows that usually these signs appear to five years.
There are purely psychological factors. The famous Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget identified several stages in the psychological development of the child.
- Sensory-motor (birth to 2 years). In this period, the baby form the physical sensations, tactile sensitivity.
- Figurative (preoperational — 2 to 7 years). At the forefront of this period is symbolic play and language development, self-esteem is formed.
- Logic (the period of concrete operations — from 7 to 11-13 years). The child learns to confront the facts, to build logical reasoning.
It is obvious that the ability to learn to read better in the third period. And, in any case, you can not go against nature — to teach the child logical operations, if it is not passed through the stage of symbolic play.
What are the methods of
Numerous methods of teaching reading can be divided into several groups.
In this method, each letter is backed by the support of mnemonic picture: A — Stork, B — drum, etc. To memorize the letters of this method is quite good. But the reader will not do. Let's pipsqueak learns that M — is the letter bear, and A — the letter stork. But why, then, from a serial sequence bears and storks get the word MAMA?
For the same reason it is impossible to teach the child the names of the letters, "um", "de", "er", etc. Is it easy to sweat out a combination of "ka-en-and-a-ge" get the word "book"?
The traditional way of learning. Primers may vary a wide variety of images and characters, but the general principle of ABC is that the child learns to combine individual sounds into syllables and syllables — in a word. In the primer sequence of exercises are given for various combinations of consonant and vowel: ma-am, mo st, mu-um, etc.
In fact, this combination — the invention is not present. Previously, it was called a warehouse, and especially children learned by heart: "Buki" "Az" is "BA", "Lead", "Az" is "BA" … In all such warehouses in the Russian language there are about two hundred.
"Correct" ABC does not have to be of first child the letters of the alphabet, and then show how they are connected to each other. It is much better if the processes are parallel, because even two pairs of vowels and consonants can be "folded" a lot of different combinations. In this "folding" and is the process of reading.
Surprisingly, the majority of parents and teachers, in turn, tried all the new-fangled techniques, anyway back to the old bukvarnomu principle. Of course, it's not as glamorous and easy, but it gives an opportunity to the child to make a very important step to combine the letters into a warehouse and storage — in a word. This principle is well-suited for right-handers, with a dominant left hemisphere (that it is "responsible" for the analytical skills).
The method of whole words
It came up with an American scholar Glenn Doman. In its Child Development Institute in Philadelphia Doman he conducted a number of experiments, which essentially boiled down to the following. Infants from two months of age, when they start to focus glance at a fast pace showed different cards with images of words and sentences. During a teacher or mother read the inscriptions on the cards.
First, these "lessons" lasted 5-10 minutes, then gradually increased their duration. The child thus memorized the entire word.
It should be noted that the methodology strictly determined by the size of letters, cards, the amount of information. Many parents, infected enthusiasm Doman, enthusiastically wrote at night myriad of cards, and the day showing their child. Gradually, however, interest in the cards at the child died away, lost, and parental enthusiasm, and they blamed the failure of only himself retreated, he says, from the methodological canons.
This method is well suited to the English language, where there is practically no system of declension and conjugation, but is problematic for the Russian language with its extensive and complex system of endings. If the child remember the word "table", the form of "table", "table", etc. have saved separately. Often the children in such cases and completely ignored by the end, trying to say them at random.
They are not heard we only deaf.
Petersburg N.A.Zaytsev teacher came up to put on the storage cubes and tables. Despite the low cost of raw materials razverstok set of cardboard cube, teaching aids, tables, posters and audio tapes is expensive — an average of about one thousand rubles. In this case, they still need to stick together, to fill different fillings: wooden sticks, metal caps (set of caps are sold separately) or tinkling bells. However, there is a "ready-made", glued kit. It is, however, more expensive, but for a beloved child did not mind. For what pays "advanced parent"?
Plus, this technique is that the child is in the form of a game immediately remembers the warehouse, a combination of letters. As a global reading method is more suitable for Zaitsev lefties, which are easier to perceive the entire word or warehouse, and analytical skills — their Achilles' heel. The same goes for children with disabilities in the emotional sphere, autistic traits.
But, as is often the case, plus, in some cases it becomes a minus. Understand how to connect one letter, merges with another — it means making some discovery. Zaitsev deprives a child of the possibility of himself come to this discovery, immediately offering ready stock.
What does it lead? Speech therapists and speech pathologists suggest that children learn to read, "according to Zaitsev," often "swallow" the end can not understand the part of speech (after all, they are used to share it exclusively to the warehouses, and nothing else).
N.A.Zaytsev aims to show the child only those letter combinations that are possible in principle in the Russian language. For example, in his system is not shy or combinations zhy not vary the softness / hardness and F ZH (knife and rye), Which is why there is a small cube ZHYU-SAME-ZHYA GETS BY MS-ZH. There is a "tower" HA-WO (SAME)-HA-SAME-MRS-G (ZH). But this principle is carried out, unfortunately, inconsistent, although it is declared that "science and the present analysis, due to the phonetic spelling and grammar of our cubes and tables, more than all the combined phonetic school materials" (quote from the "Textbook for parents, educators , teachers', p. 13).
Look at all the dice is consonant with the vowel E (BE, ET, ET, etc.). So, the child gets used to this combination as it is possible to in the language. Meanwhile, this combination is possible only in a very few exceptions.
According to the system Zaitsev, a combination of hard and soft consonant with sound [e] should differ by letter: FE and FE. These combinations are available in all cubes, tables, manual, "Read and Sing." Quite naturally the child will think that you need to write cafe and coffee. (This idea prompted me to question my eldest daughter, who had learned to read "by Zaitsev": "Mom, why is written cafe, time we have a cube of PV? Why would he then need? ")
And in fact, in the Russian language almost no words in which the letter E appears after a consonant (except Sir, the mayor, a peer, ude, plein air, although the last word in modern print and sometimes written by e). So, every word, which is a combination of hard consonant sound [e] we have to separate and prevent attempts to explain your child to write a word through E, and in fact the vast majority of these words, for example, coupe, tennis, highway etc.
WORLD (the system as early development) Paul Tuleneva
This technique deserves special mention. The author believes that to put the letters in the words of any normal child can have a year and read fluently — to two years. For this world assumed to show the child birth cards with letters, to voice them without admitting to his field of vision, God forbid, were other items. "First of all, — Says Mr. seals — letter. And the other toys — then. " You can imagine such a situation for a baby? Personally, I — no.
Thus, it is proposed to miss a child's development is not one, but two stages — the sensory-motor and shaped. What we laws of nature? How to tell the heroine of a fairy tale, "I will issue a new law of nature." Unfortunately or fortunately, it's still no one could.
"This study and play!"
Without a game since a small child can not be taught anything else. If a preschool teacher seats kids at their desks and behaves with them in the same way as a school teacher, it is a bad teacher. A good teacher will come up with a lot of games: he has a squirrel will die, he will build a locomotive of the letters with the child, the suit shop, where they will "sell" goods only with a certain letter. Otherwise the child and do-it will not get up and leave. And parents, developing his treasure on a particular procedure, firmly believe that they are playing with the child. However, this is not a game that is now most needed baby.
Is it easy to learn to read?
Do you remember yourself as you learn to read? I very well remember sitting with my mother on the couch with the very little blue primer on his knees, panting from the strain, folded letter by letter. The problem was in my global: read the big book of fairy tales of the peoples of the USSR. I distinctly remember that it was difficult, the letters would not like to take shape, and if they were formed, then so slowly and stiffly, to the tales that were — as to the North Pole.
How he wanted to make life easier for your treasures! Push to explain to think of some clever way that will allow him to "take and start reading." However, practice has shown that the best result that the child will be proud of, there is a case he will make reasonable efforts to this. In psychology this is called optimal frustration. It lies in the fact that the child should be a little bit difficult (but not so much that of impotence he threw the case), it must tighten and to overcome this difficulty.
After all, when the learning process is perceived only as a pastime that is satisfied with parents or teachers, the child gets used to it. And at school, when you have to work to get the desired result, it is perceived as the greatest injustice of the world.
There is one more point. The fact that all the techniques we are talking about, learn to put the letters in the word. But to be able to connect the letters in the word — it does not mean to be able to read! From this ability to cursory reading thick books huge distance. And here there is no technique that will allow it to cut. Only his own work, one page after another, and the book for a book can bring awkward "folding" bukovok a quick preview of the text. And this way the child can go again only when it is ready for it. I know many examples when the child being able to read from 2-3 years to rea
lly read only close to six years. So whether or not to rush things?
And finally, a little test that will help determine whether it is time to teach your child to read, or better yet wait. For each positive response record on a point each.
- Whether your kid loves to listen to fairy tales and stories?
- Whether he is able to retell them?
- Arises whether he has the desire to be considered independently of the book?
- The content of fairy tales interests your child more than pictures in a book?
- Does your toddler letters, asking if you teach him to read?
- Simulates he read aloud (opened the book to the correct page with the phrase "read" it)?
- Whether your child is trying to "write" their own books, pasting pictures in a notebook?
- When your toddler to adult readers, whether he listens attentively?
- It neatly stores your favorite book?
- Your child has a rich vocabulary?
- He likes to read books more than watching TV?
- Ask your child to pick a word that begins with the same letter, which ends with the word "table." Did it work?
- If your baby is already familiar with letters, whether he is trying to put them together yourself?
- Does your baby has no speech therapy problems?
- Ask the child is the same whether the word Beetle and Shook. Distinguishes whether it sounds like?
- Usually, he said detailed proposals?
- Your baby is learning to read with pleasure?
- He knows a lot of poems and songs?
0 to 5 points
If your baby is less than five years, then you do not have to worry about. But reading is not better hurry. If a child is on the verge of school life, try to interest my child reading process. Choose books with large print, good pictures and fun content. And maybe he'll like the book myself, loved — illustrated with his own photographs?
From 6 to 12 points
At this point, you can talk about the average intelligence of your baby to read. Perhaps the interest in books he situational, unstable. What books surround your baby? Cause if they wish to take a closer acquainted with them? Sometimes the "real, big" book scare the kids with its volume. Start with small booklets or magazines.
13 to 18 points
Your child is ready to learn. He is interested in not only the ability to read, "as adults", but also an opportunity to learn a lot of useful and entertaining books.
According to the magazine "Aistenok"