This year, for the first time in my life I came to Transcarpathia. It was May, the warm weather, gorgeous mountain nature, unusual for the rest of the territory of Ukraine architecture. And yet, everywhere bloomed cherry blossoms. Of course, Transcarpathia liked from the first minute. I liked as well as once skirts, Galicia, Poland. And the first city that I have met have been Hust. Certainly not the most impressive city of Transcarpathia, but for a first impression about the region — just the right option.
Hust could not help but like. The provincial cozy towns in the west of Ukraine many, but such as Hust,’ve seen for the first time.
Unusual chaotic building, winding streets, Czech quarter, tall spiers of temples and ruins of a castle on the hill above the town, and of course, cheap but tasty wine Transcarpathian left unforgettable impressions of Hust.
HUST is located at the foot of the mountains near the confluence of the river with the extraordinary name of the Tisza River.
The settlement existed there already in the tenth century and served as the strategic fortified settlement, which controlled one of the outputs of the Carpathian Mountains in the lowland Serednedunayskuyu. In 1090 at the top of the mountain, which rises to us surrounding area by 140 m (altitude — 330.4 m) began construction of a fortified castle. The castle was erected over a century and ended in 1191. Already in 1242 the Tatar-Mongols invaded and destroyed it, but the fortress was quickly restored.
In 1329 the city was granted the status of a corona. In the same year the Hungarian king for special services granted the castle knight Drago ancestor Vlad Tepes, better known as Count Dracula. In the XV century. King Mátyás granted the castle with salt mines in the vicinity of his wife, Queen Beatrice of Aragon. In the XVI — XVII centuries with the development of firearm lock constantly reconstructed and strengthened. In 1511, King sold Ulaslo II rebuilt the castle of Baron Gabor Pereni. Around that time owned the castle Zsigmond Luxembourg, and Ladislav (Lajos) II (1516 — 1526).
In 1526, after the defeat of the Hungarians in the battle against the Turks Hust with surrounding lands passed to the Principality of Transylvania, which was under the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Subsequently became the owner of Hungarian Istvan Bochkoi magnate, and after him — Gabor Bathory, Prince of Transylvania. In the XVI century Hust sold for twenty thousand Prince Migal Teleki. In 1594, the fortress withstood the attack of the Crimean Khan Giray, and in 1661 — an attack the Turkish army. Traveler Evliya Celebi, and the poet, being a member of the Turkish Embassy, compared with a known stronghold fortress Iskander. When at the beginning of the XVIII century. kurutsev revolt led by Ferenc Rakoczy II, his colleague Emmerich Iloshvai trick to win over the chateau custody and seized the fortress. Has become an important strategic point in the uprising kurutsev.
The castle consisted of the upper and lower houses, surrounded by defensive walls. Entry to the bottom (outside) the castle was in the south-eastern part of the wall, and in the upper (inner) — In the north-west. Each entry defended the two towers and lifting bridge over the moat. The entrance gate to the south-east tower defended directed acute angle outward. On the east wall strengthened triangular tower, west and north — the bastion. In the southern part of the castle, built in 1550 and named in honor of the Emperor Ferdinand, was a cylindrical tower. In the upper part of the arsenal was in the middle of the chapel was, and at the bottom — powder magazines. The northern part of the castle defended the square watchtower.
At the top of the castle was the arsenal, home owners, and the commandant of the castle, a tavern and a very deep well depth of 160 meters. In the yard (below) were the economic and residential buildings, castle church, tanks for water storage. It housed the palace buildings and other facilities. Sometimes the castle was used as a prison. At the bottom of the yard were cellars, of which the surface has led several underground passages.
In 1766, during a thunderstorm lightning struck one of the cellars, where gunpowder was stored, it exploded and flew into the air lock. The future Austrian Emperor Joseph II came to inspect the effects of the disaster and decided to transfer the military garrison in Mukachevo. However, local legend says that the explosion in the castle called the legendary folk oprishok Pinto, who was one shot hit the Powder Tower.
The fortress once again hit by a severe thunderstorm in 1798, when it was destroyed south-east tower. After this fortress was never recovered. Its stones are the end of the XVIII century. partially went into the construction of the church, and after a while was pulled eastern part of the castle. At present, the ruins of the fortress remained outside the gate, the Powder Tower, the bastions, the walls around the perimeter.
From the top of Castle Hill is clearly seen Hust and the surrounding valley:
On the slopes of the mountain there is a cemetery with a chapel, built in 1877:
And we go down from the mountain and move to the center of the city to explore the many attractions Justa. On the streets of blooming cherry blossoms:
The main attraction of the city — the defense Calvinist church in the Gothic style, also known as the Church of St. Elizabeth. The temple began to build in the XIII century, but its form it has acquired in the first half of the XV century. Further restructuring is not spoiled the look of the church.
The temple consists of three parts: the high Gothic tower, isolated from the main volume of the church, the nave and the associated presbytery. Bell tower is rectangular in plan with the completion of a tent, rebuilt in the XVIII century.
The walls of the church are cut Gothic lancet windows, and the angles of the walls supporting buttresses.
In one of the interior walls preserved ancient fresco in the XV. featuring three Hungarian kings — Ladislav, Stephen and his son Imre, who have been canonized. The fresco was found during restoration of the 2004 — 2005 period.
Near the very center is the Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne. The temple was built in the Baroque style in the XVIII century. For its construction used stones from the castle. It was placed on the tower with a clock tower bell Hust castle. Today, the church belongs to the local Hungarian community.
Quarter in the city center:
Over the Independence Square stands the huge Cathedral of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, which was built for the 1994 — 2005 period.
Almost opposite is functioning synagogue originating from the middle of the XIX century. Unlike most towns in western Ukraine are preserved authentic Jewish community. During the Second World War, kept things the Jews, who were taken by the Nazis. The temple which is essentially ceased their activities. During the Soviet period, it tried to turn into a club of local shoe factory. The interior of the synagogue preserved wall paintings.
Another temple in the city center:
Just about the most interesting area is Justa "Bohemian quarter", built in the early twentieth century, who arrived here Czechs colonists. Among his two-storey houses, covered with authentic red tile, you can wander for hours and feel really abroad.
Bohemian quarter — not only monument of Czechs stay in Transcarpathia and Hust. In 1919, Justus and the surrounding areas were ruled Czechoslovakia. Czech authorities have built in high school, a hospital, officers’ casino. When the Czechs in the 20s was built City Hall, which housed the district government.
Cottages in the town center:
The road leading to the railway station in the city center:
Old railway station:
Text and photos by Andrey Bondarenko
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