Installation clearance UR-77 meteorite

Minefields. Very simple and very effective means of protecting their position from enemy attacks. Of course, they are not an absolute deterrent, but fighting them takes a lot of time and effort. The first way to create passages in minefields appeared shortly after the minutes and consisted of manual detection and neutralization of enemy "surprises." Effective, but long and risky. In addition, preparation of a good specialist business-sapper not fast and complex.

• Alternative living sappers — metal mine sweepers. But this kind of mine equipment will be extended only in times of widespread use of tanks. There have been attempts to use artillery to mine, but it came out even harder, even longer and are not advisable: it was necessary to lay the shells with great precision. And then, with a large consumption of ammunition in the passage still remained a couple of workable min.

 

• The first step to improved mine did the British in 1912. Then a Captain McClintock of Bangalore garrison offered a revolutionary (as it will be) a means to deal with … no, not mine — with barbed wire. In those days it spoil the armies of the barrier means nothing less blood than machine guns or other weapons.

• Proposal McClintock was the destruction of barbed wire explosion. For this five-meter pipe "charge" 27 pounds of gun-cotton. This ammunition is offered to slip under the fence and undermined. Two or three explosions and infantry can pass through the formed "gates." For the elongated ammunition was nicknamed "the Bangalore torpedo."

• During the First World War, it was noted that "torpedoes" may be applied not only one, but in a bunch — a few tubes could combine a few pieces, and for the convenience of moving around the battlefield forward sections were mounted on skis or wheels.

• Between the world wars, the idea, is the simultaneous use of trawls and tank, and "Bangalore torpedoes". The tank was doing sweeps passage for himself and hauled a bunch of pipes with explosives. Further, this "tail" was undermined, and after the tank could go infantry. The first production machine, fitted for the job, was Churchill Snake, taschivshy for a series of five-meter pipe 16.

 

• The first step to improved mine did the British in 1912. Then a Captain McClintock of Bangalore garrison offered a revolutionary (as it will be) a means to deal with … no, not mine — with barbed wire. In those days it spoil the armies of the barrier means nothing less blood than machine guns or other weapons.

• Proposal McClintock was the destruction of barbed wire explosion. For this five-meter pipe "charge" 27 pounds of gun-cotton. This ammunition is offered to slip under the fence and undermined. Two or three explosions and infantry can pass through the formed "gates." For the elongated ammunition was nicknamed "the Bangalore torpedo."

• During the First World War, it was noted that "torpedoes" may be applied not only one, but in a bunch — a few tubes could combine a few pieces, and for the convenience of moving around the battlefield forward sections were mounted on skis or wheels.

• Between the world wars, the idea, is the simultaneous use of trawls and tank, and "Bangalore torpedoes". The tank was doing sweeps passage for himself and hauled a bunch of pipes with explosives. Further, this "tail" was undermined, and after the tank could go infantry. The first production machine, fitted for the job, was Churchill Snake, taschivshy for a series of five-meter pipe 16.

 

Following the tank

• In the Soviet Union on the ground "Torpedo" knew and were related work. But before the war, the country has more priority issues, so the first such facility clearance Corps of Engineers received only after the war. The first Soviet extended charge of KM was a two-meter tube diameter of 7 cm, which was placed 5.2 kilograms of TNT.

• A little later came the opportunity to collect KM triangular sections of US-3 (three on each charge), which, in turn, could connect the design to one hundred meters in length. A method of using a sequence of ultrasonic-3 remained the same — a tank with a trawl pulled charges clearance, after which came their explosion. Due to the triangular section of the US-3 in a minefield formed a passage width of up to six meters.

 

• KM and KM-3 proved to be effective clearance, but not without flaws. Actually clearance took place literally in the blink of an eye. But the training could not match him for speed. In addition, the tank was a good target for the enemy, not to mention the fact that the armored vehicle can also find more "militant" application.

• Then it was proposed to charge self-propelled mine — hundred-meter design of the US-3 must be equipped with 45 solid-fuel rocket motors. As planned, the engines lift the entire structure and dragged into a minefield. There, by the brake cable, the charge exploded. Calculated altitude was one meter. This version of the elongated charge called US-3P.

• The idea was good, but the implementation was a significant problem. All 45 engines needed to run concurrently. Just at the same time they have to go to maximum operation. Applied wiring could not cope with the simultaneous launch. Variation in the time of starting the engine, it should be noted, was a small — of a second. But they sufficed for the erratic movement of the whole structure.

• UR-3R began to squirm, jump from side to side, but after a few seconds, all the same transition to horizontal flight. The flight also did not yield easily. 50-70 cm above the obstacles and the slope of the even at 4 ° were impassable for a charge. At a meeting with too high a hurdle in charge of mine literally flew up into the sky and showing there program of aerobatics. As a result, such a bad temper and a fireworks show US-3R was nicknamed "The Dragon." Later, as will be called and a new system of clearance.

Under its own power

• In 1968, the armament of the Soviet Corps of Engineers adopted the armored car UR-67. It was a chassis BTR-50PK with installed launcher for extended charges. The crew of three machine terminals to the correct position to aim and launched a charge of KM-67.

• In contrast to the previous charge of demining US-67 does not have a rigid structure and a soft and consisted of two 83 meter long hose filled with explosives. In one of KM-67 was located 665 kg of TNT. Solid-fuel rocket (though officially it is called "motor DM-70"), is attached to the front end of the charge, is able to deliver the explosive cord to a distance of 300-350 meters from the car.

• After the initial start-up, the crew was supposed to back to level the cord, and produce it by undermining the igniter (the correct cable is in the brake cable). 665 kilograms of TNT were doing pass a six-meter width up to 80 meters. Neutralization of an enemy mine explosion is due to its detonation fuse.

 

• The main purpose of SD-67 are anti-tank mines. Light anti-personnel mines or detonates an explosive or ejected wave beyond the passage, and mine with fuse pressed twice after exposure to US-67 can remain operational. The situation is similar with magnetic mines, although the fuse can be seriously damaged by the blast.

• As can be seen in SD-67 had enough of problems, but the speed of creating runs (2-3 minutes) and Ammunition of the two charges of war have left no one indifferent. In 1972, "The Dragon" has received a new charge of demining — SPD-72. He became longer (93 meters) and heavier, because it was already 725 pounds of explosive grade POE-7.

• Range shot PSM-72 reached 500 meters, and the maximum size is doing passage rose to 90h6 meters. As before, the SPD-72 crane or manually placed into the appropriate slot machines (fits "snake"), from where you start stretched by solid-fuel missile, descending from the guide.

• In 1978, to replace the SD-67 there came a UR-77 "meteorite", which is now the main vehicle of this class in the Russian army. The principle of operation o
f the new installation is the same, although it has received new ammunition. SPD-77 is similar in its characteristics PSM-72 and differs only in some technological aspects. The basis of elongated charge "77" are detonating cables DKPR-4 each 10.3 meters long, connected to a single power cord cap nuts. SD-77 is based on a light-armored chassis 2C1, taken with the self-propelled howitzers, "Carnation".

 

• The roots of this go to the tractor chassis MT-LB. Rail launcher missile exhaust SD-77 column and boxes, unlike SD-67 were protected as cap towers. A very useful innovation, as in armored boxes of ammunition is almost one and a half tons of explosives.

• Before starting bronekolpak along with starter guide rises to the desired elevation. Then the whole combat work is literally a couple of buttons: one is responsible for the start-up of the solid propellant and the second — for the bombing of the charge, and the third — for the discharge of brake cable. After clicking the third button "meteorite" is ready for breaching the new passage.

• A reload installation requires 30-40 minutes. Bookmark the explosive cord can be made as building blocks using a crane or manually. 2S1 chassis is floating (speed of 4 km / h). It is argued that SD-77 can produce elongated charge even start with water. Tactical aspect of this case is doubtful, but the film footage with a similar start there.

And others … "Dragon Snake"

• A little later, the UR-77, in the early 80’s, the engineering division received a new portable unit UR-83p. Unlike the previous "Dragon" it did not have any gear. Relatively compact and mobile launcher after disassembly can calculate the forces transferred or carried on any road or armored vehicles.

• Operation easel Position same as that of the precursors, but required the use of smaller dimensions elongated charge consisting of a single cord. Except for the start of the guide assembly and other "related" issues, the process of firing the SD-83p is similar to the use of self-propelled units.

 

• The first operational use of remote Soviet clearance took place during the Yom Kippur War in ’73. These were delivered to Egypt installation of SD-67. Next machine mine UR-77 managed to take part in almost all the wars, which involved USSR and Russia from Afghanistan.

• There are reports that in some conflicts, "meteorite" was used not only for its intended purpose: a few times in small towns, they played the role of artillery, laying charges on the streets belong to the enemy. You can imagine what was in place after the explosion of cable homes.

• As for the SD-77 "meteorite", the replacement for it is not planned. The fact that Position concept has been well-developed in step SD-67. The Egyptian experience with this setup only helped finally "polish" the design and methods of use. Thus, the SD-77 for more than thirty years of its existence has not yet been deprecated and is still used by Russian Army Corps of Engineers.

"Meteorite" UR-77 in action

• KM and KM-3 proved to be effective clearance, but not without flaws. Actually clearance took place literally in the blink of an eye. But the training could not match him for speed. In addition, the tank was a good target for the enemy, not to mention the fact that the armored vehicle can also find more "militant" application.

• Then it was proposed to charge self-propelled mine — hundred-meter design of the US-3 must be equipped with 45 solid-fuel rocket motors. As planned, the engines lift the entire structure and dragged into a minefield. There, by the brake cable, the charge exploded. Calculated altitude was one meter. This version of the elongated charge called US-3P.

• The idea was good, but the implementation was a significant problem. All 45 engines needed to run concurrently. Just at the same time they have to go to maximum operation. Applied wiring could not cope with the simultaneous launch. Variation in the time of starting the engine, it should be noted, was a small — of a second. But they sufficed for the erratic movement of the whole structure.

• UR-3R began to squirm, jump from side to side, but after a few seconds, all the same transition to horizontal flight. The flight also did not yield easily. 50-70 cm above the obstacles and the slope of the even at 4 ° were impassable for a charge. At a meeting with too high a hurdle in charge of mine literally flew up into the sky and showing there program of aerobatics. As a result, such a bad temper and a fireworks show US-3R was nicknamed "The Dragon." Later, as will be called and a new system of clearance.

Under its own power

• In 1968, the armament of the Soviet Corps of Engineers adopted the armored car UR-67. It was a chassis BTR-50PK with installed launcher for extended charges. The crew of three machine terminals to the correct position to aim and launched a charge of KM-67.

• In contrast to the previous charge of demining US-67 does not have a rigid structure and a soft and consisted of two 83 meter long hose filled with explosives. In one of KM-67 was located 665 kg of TNT. Solid-fuel rocket (though officially it is called "motor DM-70"), is attached to the front end of the charge, is able to deliver the explosive cord to a distance of 300-350 meters from the car.

• After the initial start-up, the crew was supposed to back to level the cord, and produce it by undermining the igniter (the correct cable is in the brake cable). 665 kilograms of TNT were doing pass a six-meter width up to 80 meters. Neutralization of an enemy mine explosion is due to its detonation fuse.

 

• The main purpose of SD-67 are anti-tank mines. Light anti-personnel mines or detonates an explosive or ejected wave beyond the passage, and mine with fuse pressed twice after exposure to US-67 can remain operational. The situation is similar with magnetic mines, although the fuse can be seriously damaged by the blast.

• As can be seen in SD-67 had enough of problems, but the speed of creating runs (2-3 minutes) and Ammunition of the two charges of war have left no one indifferent. In 1972, "The Dragon" has received a new charge of demining — SPD-72. He became longer (93 meters) and heavier, because it was already 725 pounds of explosive grade POE-7.

• Range shot PSM-72 reached 500 meters, and the maximum size is doing passage rose to 90h6 meters. As before, the SPD-72 crane or manually placed into the appropriate slot machines (fits "snake"), from where you start stretched by solid-fuel missile, descending from the guide.

• In 1978, to replace the SD-67 there came a UR-77 "meteorite", which is now the main vehicle of this class in the Russian army. The principle of operation o
f the new installation is the same, although it has received new ammunition. SPD-77 is similar in its characteristics PSM-72 and differs only in some technological aspects. The basis of elongated charge "77" are detonating cables DKPR-4 each 10.3 meters long, connected to a single power cord cap nuts. SD-77 is based on a light-armored chassis 2C1, taken with the self-propelled howitzers, "Carnation".

 

• The roots of this go to the tractor chassis MT-LB. Rail launcher missile exhaust SD-77 column and boxes, unlike SD-67 were protected as cap towers. A very useful innovation, as in armored boxes of ammunition is almost one and a half tons of explosives.

• Before starting bronekolpak along with starter guide rises to the desired elevation. Then the whole combat work is literally a couple of buttons: one is responsible for the start-up of the solid propellant and the second — for the bombing of the charge, and the third — for the discharge of brake cable. After clicking the third button "meteorite" is ready for breaching the new passage.

• A reload installation requires 30-40 minutes. Bookmark the explosive cord can be made as building blocks using a crane or manually. 2S1 chassis is floating (speed of 4 km / h). It is argued that SD-77 can produce elongated charge even start with water. Tactical aspect of this case is doubtful, but the film footage with a similar start there.

And others … "Dragon Snake"

• A little later, the UR-77, in the early 80’s, the engineering division received a new portable unit UR-83p. Unlike the previous "Dragon" it did not have any gear. Relatively compact and mobile launcher after disassembly can calculate the forces transferred or carried on any road or armored vehicles.

• Operation easel Position same as that of the precursors, but required the use of smaller dimensions elongated charge consisting of a single cord. Except for the start of the guide assembly and other "related" issues, the process of firing the SD-83p is similar to the use of self-propelled units.

 

• The first operational use of remote Soviet clearance took place during the Yom Kippur War in ’73. These were delivered to Egypt installation of SD-67. Next machine mine UR-77 managed to take part in almost all the wars, which involved USSR and Russia from Afghanistan.

• There are reports that in some conflicts, "meteorite" was used not only for its intended purpose: a few times in small towns, they played the role of artillery, laying charges on the streets belong to the enemy. You can imagine what was in place after the explosion of cable homes.

• As for the SD-77 "meteorite", the replacement for it is not planned. The fact that Position concept has been well-developed in step SD-67. The Egyptian experience with this setup only helped finally "polish" the design and methods of use. Thus, the SD-77 for more than thirty years of its existence has not yet been deprecated and is still used by Russian Army Corps of Engineers.

"Meteorite" UR-77 in action

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