Opinion makers

From the book by Hubert Reichel RUSSIAN will come for sure

Hemingway and terror in Madrid

One day in April 1937, Ernest Hemingway met in Madrid Hotel "Florida" of his compatriot. While in Spain, Hemingway wrote for American newspapers. In this case, OH made no secret of whose side he held in the "Spanish war." Future Nobel laureate was on the side of the Spanish Republic, which provided the desperate resistance of General Franco's fascist coup.

Franco used the military and political support of the fascist regimes of Germany and Italy by sending its military units. In Spain, the Germans carried out tests of new weapons, intended for use in a future war.

So, Hemingway met a colleague, who arrived on the eve of Valencia. Between them struck up a conversation. Hemingway asked a question that has put as a title for one of his correspondence: "How do you like Madrid?"

— The atmosphere of terror — said the journalist — this comes up at every turn. Thousands of bodies lying all around.

— How long are you here?

— Since yesterday evening.

— And where have you seen the bodies?

— They're everywhere — he said — often they can be seen early in the morning.

— You went out this morning on the street?

— No.

— Did you at least one kill?

— No — he said — but I know they are everywhere.

— What are the signs of terror have you seen in person?

— I have not had time to look around, but I know that terror is raging.

— Listen — I said — you arrived last night. You have never come out to the city and want to convince us — those who live and work here — is that right under our noses reign of terror?

— There really is a reign of terror, and you can not deny it — said "expert" — the proof to clear.

This story relates to the time when the Spanish Republic defended by Phalangist Franco. Foreign correspondents were required before sending their messages as amended, to represent their censorship. And "experts" know about it. However, he asked one of his American colleagues are leaving Spain, take the sealed envelope. He said that there is no "nothing special", just a copy of the correspondence from the front, which has just passed the censors.

Trustful journalist took the envelope. She had heard that the Nazis promised her head "expert" 20,000 pounds. However, her colleagues suspected that something was wrong. And for good reason. In the envelope was not at all correspondence from the front, and the article, the content of which was devoted to the rampant terrorism in Madrid, where as if a thousand corpses were piled …

In the evening, the restaurant "Gran Via" everything became clear. The Nazis did not promise his head "expert" 20,000 pounds. This "duck" simply invented.

CIA puts Mr. Alsop on both blades

A former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt had to appear before the court. He was involved in the Watergate scandal. Prior to that, he had to go questioning the federal prosecutor. When the latter asked him a question about the fake telegram, which the government is directly tied to the Kennedy assassination of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, Hunt replied calmly: "Ultimately, at the time of my former life in the CIA I have learned something in the organization of such cases in the spread adulterated articles, telegrams and other similar materials … "

Shortly before the conclusion of the defeated French colonial troops from Vietnam in Hanoi, leaflets appeared. They contain instructions on how to behave in public, if part of the Liberation Army will take the city. The leaflets were signed by the leaders of the National Liberation Front. The leaflets stated that many Vietnamese will be sent to the construction of railways in China. After the appearance of leaflets number of people who sought to register as refugees has tripled.

The whole story — "the fruit of psychological war" waged by the CIA. This was later told Colonel Edward Londsdeyl.

A copy of fake leaflets into the hands of well-known American journalist Joseph Alsop during his trip to South-East Asia. It is possible that he planted it. Alsop was firmly convinced that he is dealing with a genuine leaflet National Liberation Front of Vietnam. The result, according to the statement Londsdeyla, and had the appearance of his sensational articles gloomy. "

With this operation, undertaken within the framework of the dirty "psychological warfare", the CIA wanted one shot to kill two birds with one stone. On the one hand, it sought at the time of the liberation of the Vietnamese people to poison his mind with lies, and the other — to use a well-known journalist for the misinformation of the American people.

Falsifiers of public opinion afterwards composed as fiction, though Vietnamese workers in the Soviet Union and East Germany must "work off debts of Vietnam." In this case, it is a lie that coined the CIA.

The aim was twofold. On the one hand, it was necessary to discredit the help that in accordance with the principles of proletarian solidarity for decades exerted fighting Vietnam socialist countries. On the other hand, should distract attention from the fact that the U.S. has not paid a single cent to Vietnam, although, according to the Paris Agreement, the United States has an obligation to compensate for damage caused by them to this country.

"Almost socialist"

Berlin. August 1973 during the World Festival of Youth and Students for the seat of journalists who had gathered from all corners of the earth, served as a hotel "Berolina".

In the late evening hours at the hotel bar meet many colleagues. Every evening the bar people attended, representing the Springer press. Over a glass of brandy he spoke with enthusiasm about the festival of youth, joyous revival, tsarivshem on Alexanderplatz, the interesting encounters with young Americans, etc.

Only one surprised. Correspondence of colleagues, who published in his newspaper, strikingly different from his stories at the bar. It produced a feeling of revulsion. Wrote as if a completely different person. One evening, one of the journalists said, "When I hear what you're telling us here, and the next morning I read what you wrote to your newspaper, I could not help an association with well-known artists of fraud."

A colleague from the Springer newspaper winked slyly and said, "Do not you think that my employer will pay me a brand, if I write about what is really going on here? I write what I have to do. That's my job. But no one can forbid me to express my personal opinion after work. " He snapped his fingers, ordered another brandy and said, "After work, I become almost a socialist …"

A matter of life

Helsinki. August 1975 from the Congress Palace "Finland", where the meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), the hotel "Marek" very close. We decided to walk when we stopped next to a taxi. It was one of our colleagues, who offered us a ride to the "Marek".

We knew him from the meetings in Moscow. His distinguished objectivity. As a Christian, he is not enthusiastic about socialism. However, he was deeply convinced that the Soviet Union sincerely committed to peace, since the second world war has cost him enormous sacrifices.

This time, he gave the impression of the oppressed, shutting a man. He once said:

— I've been working as a journalist. I have closely followed the progress of post-war and deeply worried that we are too often found themselves on the brink of another war. Therefore, I consider the meeting in Helsinki as the most important event of the last three decades. If the process to which Europe has begun at the Meeting, will be continued, it will be the greatest opportunity to save the world.

— What are you so depressing?

— Today I received a copy of the newspaper, which published my first report from Helsinki. Editorial revamped my letters in the opposite sense. The meeting exposed to attack it, and the value and effectiveness are called into question. And all of this is covered by my name. Readers at home I represent as a key witness in Helsinki, voicing such views that radically contradict my beliefs.

— And what are you going to do? — We asked — Will you seek for truth?

He smiled wearily:

— To be perfectly consistent, I should say it out loud. But it affects my existence.

The second category

In April 1983 the Republican Palace in the capital of the German Democratic Republic was the site of an unusual scientific conference. At the invitation of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of more than 140 representatives of the Communist and workers, the national-revolutionary and national-democratic parties, liberation movements, socialist and social democratic parties took their places at the table. Such a conference has not happened.

General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party gave a speech that has found a wide international response, as Erich Honecker put forward in it a number of proposals to the federal government in Bonn.

As he entered in that case one reporter from the Federal Republic? He casually said that because the Lord God is not present at this conference Marxist, she practically significant. "At the conference — the correspondent — a second-rate gains of the ruling communist party, the revolutionary and liberation movements."

If he had bothered to look into available in the press center of the conference guest list, it immediately would set that is attended by 54 chairman and general secretary of the various parties. However, our correspondent true to himself: "Even from Moscow to East Berlin did not arrive any leading figure of the Soviet delegation headed by an unknown engineer shipbuilder."

This "an unknown engineer shipbuilder" was a member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee — the body, which is the same as the tabloid writes about the "heart of the Soviet regime."

Ends meet clearly do not converge.

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