RCC Gabriel

RCC Gabriel
Israel began to develop anti-ship missiles in just 6 after the country’s independence. In 1954, the year of Raphael (at that time he was named Institute 3) engaged in the development protivokarabelnoy rocket titled G-25, created to spoof the coastal cannon artillery. Later adapted for the rocket launch from aboard Dakota transport aircraft, with the operator of a guided missile with a joystick, located alongside the pilot. Range of acts of this missile was limited within line of sight of the operator, and was less than 20-km. Noteworthy that this proposed missile and ground troops, but the command has not expressed intrigued, citing the fact that a small range of 6 km is very big for the Army, as well as the largest range «exceeds the requirements of the ground forces.»

Navy with pleasure took the missile into service, giving it the name «Luz». Another noticeable thing: the missile was first tested on May 18, 1959, on board the destroyer, the Eilat, then victim RCC Russian production. The testing revealed a major shortcoming of the rocket. Relatively thick smoke rocket motor propulsion and gas control devices significantly impeded optical guidance operator missiles at the target. In the main this has an impact on the pointing accuracy of the adjustment, so from time to time the rocket did not reach the target or passes over it. In the Navy has been specially created group involved in the creation of electronic control devices.

In August 1962, Egypt conducted tests missiles, ground-to-ground made by German scientists to obtain asylum in the country of pyramids. Fact tests not joke alarmed control of Israel, commissioned Raphael to urgently develop missiles, ground to ground. Rafael threw all their forces to this project postponing the subsequent development of RCC «Luz». As a result, the development of RCC «Luz» concern ran across the aviation industry in Israel (Israel Aircraft Industry, IAI). IAI had to do at the creation of RCC «Luz», but eventually got crude rocket. In order to end missile development in IAI was created by a group of engineers led by who joined for the purpose of Rafael engineer Uri Evan Tov (?????????). He changed the concept of dividing the missile guidance system into two components; one consists of a radar altimeter, and other semi-active homing radar. First allowed to approach the target missile at low altitude, the second highest secrecy ensured implementation (GOS exuded nothing) that fully justified itself in battles with Egypt and Syria. On the other hand, the guidance system limits the range and can not create a fire-horizon.

Because IAI was more approximate by the Ministry of Defence, then, despite the delay in the project, its financing problems appeared. Development successfully ended in 1969 when he performed on board the missile boat Haifa RCC Gabriel successfully hit the target, simulating an enemy missile boat. Immediately after these tests, the Israeli Navy took Gabriel RCC adopted.

For a day or RCC war Judgment Gabriel stood by the majority of missile boats BMS Israel. In the course of the war were fired about 50 missiles, half of them hit their targets (details here).

So Makar, RCC Gabriel Mk1 range was about 20 miles (according to some sources, 25 km). She was armed with a semi-active homing (GOS), significantly limiting the ability to combat boats, radar because his boat had to be in active mode and highlight goal until its destruction. On the other hand, it has spurred the creation of Israel and the active use of advanced electronic warfare and to develop strategies for implementing RCC. So, they launched only after all running RCC opponent disoriented and away from the combat course clutter.

By 1972, the ninth year was developed RCC Gabriel Mk2 over-range actions in the 36 km, which was achieved by increasing the size and increase the properties of the solid propulsion motor. Missile guidance system configurations and also did not undergo limited combat abilities boats. The missile entered service in 1976 year. In Taiwan RCC Gabriel Mk2 performed under the title Hsiung Feng 1, and in South Africa under the title Skerpioen (Scorpion).

In 1978, he was a model of RCC Gabriel MK3 A / S. She endured significant changes and could also apply to the F-4 «Fantom», A-4 «Sky Hawk», C2 «Kfir», «Sea Scan». It has a range of 60 (other sources say 80) km and active radar homing allows its use in the «fire and forget».

Antiship missiles Gabriel Mk 3 classes «surface — the surface» (I) from starting the engine 6, and «air — surface» (II)

The missile has a normal aerodynamic scheme. The housing consists of 3 main compartments. The first is the guidance system, including an inertial navigation system and homing, 2nd power supply in the 3rd polubroneboynaya warhead designed to hit targets of different classes and curb contact fuse slow action. In the middle of the fuselage placed crosswise 4 wing and propulsion 5, aft — cruciform control surfaces 7 and 8 actuators. Missile has a small radar cross section (RCS).

Active radar homing Interference-proof X-band frequency hopping frisky able to operate in homing in on the ship Jammer so makarom significantly reducing the effectiveness of missile defense attacked the ship.

Running RCC MKZ Gabriel A / S aircraft carrier is in the spectrum heights 90-9000 meters, at speeds of 400-650 km / h and at low altitudes of 650-750 km / h on huge.

Targeting can be done in 2-modes: standalone and adjusted inertial navigation system midcourse line of motion. First used in the missile launch with stormtroopers (fighter-bombers), and second with the basal planes patrol aircraft filled with radar capable of immediately accompany multiple targets (aircraft «Skan C»).

When shooting in the first mode, the bearing and distance to the target 5 determined using radar or taken from other aircraft, missiles are entered in OBC immediately with current information about the speed and the spatial position of the carrier at the time of launch. After launch the missile falls on a plot of 2 to 20 m height, then make horizontal flight under the control of the radio altimeter. To ensure a gentle descent pitch angle is controlled by the program there in advance in the memory of the calculator.

Missile guidance horizontal midcourse 3 provides inertial navigation system and onboard computer. After the release of the search area 4 in advance programmed point cut one active GOS will detect and capture seven goals. On a plot of 8 homing altitude, regardless of the sea state, is 1.5, 2.5 or 4.0 meters. In the inertial system of the GOS in continuous input current range and bearing to the target, adjusting the line of motion of flight done rudders control.

The main control mode RCC MKZ Gabriel A / S is offline. Cueing with all this is carried out by 3 methods.
The first method is performed automatically input from the airborne radar. Upon entering the aircraft carrier in the area range missiles input acts targeting stops blinking and informs the pilot about the ability run RCC.

Second method provides for receiving data from the external intelligence tools, such as other aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle.
Third method is more common, the calculated values ​​of the bearing and distance to the destination entered in OBC missiles manually via fire control panel system. In addition, for the timely inclusion of GOS pilot establishes one of the calculated range missile range: near (20 km), medium (20-40 km) and far (over 40 km).

To reduce the search area (ie, the time spent GOS growth in secret mode) when you hover rockets Gabriel Mk 3 can run adjustment inertial midcourse line of motion. In this case, the aircraft carrier continues to accompany target after missile launch, and adjusts the line of movement of its flight by radio command strip. Correcting errors 6 inertial reduces the possibility of evasion purpose, in addition, there is the possibility to include in a massive countering active seeker in the immediate vicinity of the attacked ship.

Rocket Ship Gabriel MKZ also can also be used in the radio command guidance mode with backlit radar targets like missiles earliest modifications.

Rocket Gabriel MkZ is armed Israeli Navy since 1982 (some sources say that she was not accepted for service).

History RCC Gabriel Mk4 covered the secret, but according to some reports it is armed with a turbojet engine and has a range of 200 km in the act. On the number of missiles made and adopted also not reported.

Further development of RCC RCC is Gabriel Gabriel Mk5, developed at the present time concern IAI. This last line RCC Gabriel aims to become the main antiship weapons Israeli navy ships. Size it will fit type Exocet anti-ship missiles and Harpoon. The implication is that Gabriel Mk5 will own more highest performance than most of the modern anti-ship missiles, especially when used in coastal waters and in overcoming advanced missile defense (soft-kill and hard-kill) the enemy.

Maybe the new version will be based on a version of early, which replaced the Navy Gabriel Mk2. The existence of such missiles (question about Gabriel Mk4) was never officially confirmed, but an indirect confirmation of its existence is the fact that unlike most other users, Israel has not updated their RCC Harpoon (RGM-84D) configuration to Block II (RGM- 84L).

Hints at the possible existence of Gabriel Mk4 first appeared 2000s when IAI took part in an international tender for equipping new frigates of the Singapore Navy. Ultimately, Singapore suspended own choices missiles Harpoon.

Gabriel Mk5 will use an advanced active seeker supported by modern management system, created to optimize the overall combat effectiveness of the RCC. We will be significantly improved missile discrimination ability and the selection of targets, especially in coastal waters are usually congested sea transport, as in the creation of broad criteria and complex signals wrong purposes. Like most advanced anti-ship missiles, Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the enemy’s defense, whether it means the multifunction display of the system, or fire weapons. It is developed to meet modern action by disruption of enemy electronic warfare, the use of advanced baits and jamming.

It is expected that Gabriel Mk5 become an integral part of a new set of offensive and defensive systems currently being developed concern IAI. This brand new weapons system will also include SAM distant radius acts Barak-8, multi-mode integrated combat control and multifunctional ship’s radar Elta (IAI) EL/M-2248 MF-STAR, which argues Elta outperforms indicators SPY-1 radar AEGIS .

According to statements made by IAI, RCC Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the limitations of existing missiles:
overcome the problem of selectivity (discrimination and selection of targets) in busy coastal waters;
cope with the rapidly changing tactical situation;
cope with a number of coastal targets;
overcome close chaff, false targets and active interference;
overcome means destruction by fire (hard-kill defense).
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