Submarines Narwhal (Project of the American company Holland 31)

July 12, 1907 Tsar Nicholas II was approved by the "small shipbuilding program," under which, apart from building flooded the vessels of different classes, provides for the construction of the Black Sea Fleet of 3 submarines. MGSH the summer of 1909, has developed a major TTE (tactical and technical elements) of the future Black Sea boats, the design speed of which was on the surface and 12 knots submerged 10 knots, with a cruising range of all of this was supposed to be 1000 and 100 miles respectively.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

June 3, 1909 new tactical and technical elements were sent to interested Russian plants in order "to build submarines necessarily conducted in Russia."

MTC Commission, led by Captain First Rank Beklemishev MN, 11 and 13 July 1909 could see the 16 projects. With all of this had been rejected projects, which provided for the introduction of common engines that also contain suggestions of plants that do not engage in submarine building. Specially made subcommittee, which included snorkeling and officers led by Lieutenant Commander Gadd AO, 1 August 1909 gave preference to projects Nevsky (underwater boat a displacement of 490 tons) and the Baltic (with a displacement of 450 tons) plants. Specialists MTC when we discuss the subcommittee joined divers beliefs, but on September 11 the captain of the first rank, Assistant Chief MGSH, A. Stahl claimed to increase speed of submarines to 16/12 knots.

The Board Nevsky shipbuilding and mechanical plant on November 6, notified the ITC that the construction of the submarine having such properties is likely only if the displacement will be about 1,000 tons. It was assumed that all preparatory design work will be carried out only with the guarantee of order. Also required are three additional months to manufacture and test the model in the towing tank.

26/11/1909 board said that any of the 3 submarines will have a displacement of 750/950 tons at a total price 2250000 rubles.

Nevsky Plant project instead said only the tonnage and price, while the Baltic Shipyard presented entirely certain developments submarine displacement of 600 tons. So wrongful act was a prerequisite of energetic protests of Colonel IG Bubnov, which in a memorandum filed in the name of Major General AN Krylov, chairman of ITC, December 8, 1909, categorically sought to transmit the order to the Baltic Shipyard. Vice-Admiral Eberhard AA Head MGSH supported outlook IG Bubnov, but continued negotiations with MTC Nevsky Zavod, priemuschestvenno through assertiveness Beklemisheva MN which reasonably believed that absolutely need to explore the best practices zabugornye counterparts — submarines "Holland" who offered to make the Nevsky plant. December 13, 1909, during a meeting with Secretary of the Navy, Rear Admiral of the Provincial SA opponents have reconciled and decided to order each plant for three submarines. This decision was explained in the development MGSH "applets gain the Black Sea Fleet" (May 19, 1911 followed by a royal approval), involves the construction of six submarines.

The Board Nevsky Plant only notified the ITC on 11/23/1910 main engines for surface course — two-stroke diesel engines rated at 850 hp, designed by the German company "MAN" ("Maschinen-Augsburg-Nuremberg"). It was assumed that the creation of these engines will be established in Russia. 06/04/1911 presented the project to the submarine "Holland-31A" general arrangement. A month later, MTC meeting on mine case was subjected to review the draft of the submarine displacement of 650 tons and a speed of 17/12 knots. Also at the meeting, it was considered appropriate to reduce the speed of the boat to 16/11 knots surfaced / submerged, increase range underwater. The price of each submarine is set at 1,600 rubles, the period of construction with delivery in 28 months in the Black Sea. Minister of the Navy Vice Admiral Grigorovich IK The next day ordered to give the outfit and insisted on the reduction of the period of construction up to 2 years. Right Rear Admiral M. Bubnov ordered the ITC to oblige builders in two months to submit for approval to the Committee detailed drawings, calculations and specifications.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

GUKiS July 9, 1911 issued Nevsky factory outfit number 3413 for the construction of 3-class submarines "Holland — 31A" with a term of readiness for testing to 9 July 1913. MTC Meeting held on 8 October saw the government's request and gave permission to order in Germany, the main engines for surface speed. It was delivered to the condition that the plant will be set up the creation of such diesel engines at home and the first two will do for its own account as experience. Nevsky plant July 27, 1912 the company entered into a contract for the manufacture of MAN 6 8-cylinder two-stroke diesel engines of 850 hp The total contract price — 850 thousand marks. Delivery time 1st diesel — 11 months, the 5 th and 6 th through the 15 months after construction began.

The main motors were ordered factory "Simmons and Halske." "Schuckert & Co." and the Russian society "General Electricity Company" supplied the rest of the electrical equipment. The order for the batteries was issued to the company "Meto". Of the orders was located abroad: in the United States were manufactured compressors, pumps and vozduhohraniteli in Italy at the "Officine Galilei" — periscopes. From the use of zabugornyh contractors have also received some financial benefit, because the supply of bandwidth by orders for the Admiralty were not subject to customs duties. At this time, in Nikolayev was prepared place for assembly. October 10, 1913 was made festive tab 3 submarines, received the name "Sperm Whale", "Kit" and "bump." At displacement 621/994 tons, 45 percent of supplies buoyancy are fundamentally different from the types of submarines "Bars" and "Walrus" design IG Bubnov Submarines "Narwhal" treated polutorakorpusnym submarines had a double hull in the middle part in over 44 percent of the length. At the main dimensions 70.2 x6, 5×3, 4 meters overall structure looked like this: in the range of 122-150 frames (due to the stern) was positioned head bow ballast tank number 1 (capacity of 49.2 tons). At the bottom of the bow torpedo tubes were placed and anchored underwater.

The fore part above the water line was divided waterproof horizontal deck, forming a so Makar, add drives to accommodate the bow hydroplanes and surface anchor.

Food (ribs 0-26) had a similar structure and
served as head of ballast tank number 5 (capacity 49.7 tons), which passed through the stern torpedo tubes and drives the horizontal and vertical stern rudders. Closer to the middle, just behind the extremities, between the flat with 2 bulkheads (frames 121-122 and 26-27) were located Trim the bow and stern tanks (capacity of 4.5 and 3.8 tons, respectively), calculated on a diving depth of 100 meters.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

General location Submarine "Narwhal" (project "Holland 31 A"): 1 — vozduhohranitel 2 — rowing electric motors, 3 — underwater anchor, 4, 5 — vertical wheel drive, 6 — Tubular TA, 7 — aft ballast tank; 8 — ventilation pipe, 9 — General Electric Station, 10 — gas outlet manifold, 11 — diesel engines, 12 — Rotary SLT, 13 — periscopes, 14 — conning tower, 15 — team room, 16 — mess-cabin and officers; 17 — spire, 18 — anchor Parker, 19 — drive hydroplanes; 20 — waterproof deck, 21 — bow ballast tank; 22 — a box-shaped keel, 23 — fuel tank, 24 — Battery; 25 — equalizing tank, 26 — nasal horizontal rudders 27 — spare torpedoes, 28 — the central control station, 29 — room conductors; 30 — mezhdubortnom tank; 31 — propeller shaft: 32 — trimming tanks

Strong body was divided into seven compartments watertight bulkheads. In the first of them (frames 107-121) placed vozduhohraniteli, breech bow torpedo tubes, capstan motor, spare torpedoes, torpedopogruzochny bow hatch. Second compartment occupied crew — wardroom and officers cabins (frames 95-107), steerage "lower ranks" (frames 78-95). Under the floor of the team offices located fuel tank capacity of 58 thousand liters., Also battery nasal group, consisting of 60 pieces. The middle part was used for placement of the control room, where they were concentrated different devices, management of vertical, horizontal bow and stern rudders. At the bottom of the compartment are average equalizing and two auxiliary tanks (5, 1.0, and 3.2 tons, respectively) designed for blowing at maximum immersion depth with the greatest air pressure.

In the 3rd compartment (frames 61 — 71) was located a further 60 parts of the battery elektrokambuz, accommodation conductors.

Second compartment (ribs 42-61) was driven by the main engines surface speed, vozduhohraniteli, oil tank.

In the seventh — Electromotive — compartment housed rowing electric motors, pumps, head of ballast, compressors, the main power plant, as part of the state-owned feed torpedo tubes.

The upper part of the body was protected by a strong light, is filled by immersing the superstructure, which ennobled sea keeping properties of the submarine. Above the central post (frames 67 — 79) established a strong felling with fencing of which served as the output shaft of the crew.

There are also ventilation pipe vnutrilodochnoy retractable ventilation, the upper deck was the navigating bridge when surfaced.

Strong body from 36 to 107 frames bowed second lightweight body, and annular space, shared by the above waterline waterproof massive stringers used as ballast tanks brain (capacity 132 tons). Ballast tanks submarine filled by gravity, it was undisputed advantage in comparison with the submarine type "Bars" and "Walrus". Tanks were located in a sturdy building, blown by compressed air from other ballast water was pumped through the box keel pumps. In this case, served as the main keel bilge main. This system allowed the submarine dives cross from position to position underwater for 40-50 seconds.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

Initially submarine type "Narwhal" were set by two stern and bow torpedo tubes including a spare set of torpedoes and two rotary twin torpedo tubes in the superstructure (back and front of the cabin). But because the rotary torpedo submarine is not manufactured in Russia, during the discussion of the draft July 4, 1911 MTC ordered the plant to study the possibility to change the rotary torpedo tubes in case of unsuitability of the eight torpedo tubes Drzewiecki or 4-torpedo system Drzewiecki- Podgorny.

On Nevsky Plant in November 1911 completed the rolling of metal on the stocks in December smelted the first 167 tons of steel. If auxiliary machinery and hull structures were made on time, during the construction of diesel experts at encountered unexpected difficulties from the start. Major-General HE Elisha, head underwater GUKiSa, claimed to reconcile the development of all units and units under construction diesel engines. Such "custody" has become a prerequisite that the May 17, 1913 the board of the plant applied to the underwater portion of Hooke and asked to urgently find the type of clutch. It made the order crankshafts impossible. In turn, the company has developed a highly durable MAN drawings found applicable the type of metal, and organized casting billets. In the end, in May 1914 was made the first pair of engines, which Russia has not been delivered. A lot of time was spent on the definition of the type of tubular torpedo tubes. Major General A. Remmert, head of department of mine Hooke, insisted on the installation of torpedo tubes manufacturing plant "G.A.Lessnera" and control Nevsky Plant offered torpedo like "Holland". Taking into account that the option allowed to win in the mass 2600 kg, Hooke's meeting April 25, 1913 decided to establish a South American type of torpedo tubes, having finished their design.

MGSH trying to enter the submarine as you can frolic in the system, made a number of proposals that IK Grigorovich approved July 22, 1914. It was envisaged to set in place the basic 250-horsepower engines, internal combustion engines, taken from the Amur gun-boats of the tower, "Squall"; issue Nevsky factory outfit at creating critical works round the clock. In place of the rotary torpedo set of devices Drzewiecki. Make critical order 72 torpedoes and batteries for 3 submarines. Despite all the efforts, all the boats first World remained on the stocks.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

GAM 1 November 1914 entered into a contract with an American company, "New London" for the supply of 12 160-horsepower diesel engines for submarines "Narwhal". January 28, 1915 all engines on board the "Tambov" Volunteer of the fleet were delivered to Vladivostok. In revenge with engines arrived group of workers and technicians of the company under the control of an engineer Gilmore RB The engines were brought in Nikolaev, set in pairs so that each side of the aft diesel ran straight to the propeller shaft, and bow to it are connected by a 2-pairs of gears and gear shaft.

The commission, headed by Rear Admiral A. Griffon, June 20, 1915 began testing a submarine "Narwhal", which after 9 days had to cut short due to rotating the
clutch aft of the left engine. She warmed up so that they began to smoke wood fists.

With the clutch starboard came the same. The Commission made a further conclusion: "clutches with this device, are unreliable clutch." July 4 submarine during trials developed speed of 12 knots, but when you stop diesel engines coupling the left side for 20 minutes could not divide. In the report, apart from the threat of insecurity and noted that "the transfer device cumbersome to work with a loud noise, bearings often become loose." The submarine "Narwhal" July 18-19, defected to Sevastopol from Nikolayev, where the tests were carried out before August 23.

At the submarine "Kit" such defects were observed, but, despite this, the command of the Black Sea Fleet insisted on the immediate inclusion of submarines into service. Submarines "Narwhal" and "Keith" in the final version had four internal torpedo tubes and eight torpedo tubes Drzewiecki. This weapon allowed commanders Underwater boats abandon receiving spare torpedoes, especially when you consider that their loading caused a lot of problems. Underwater boat "Sperm Whale" in October 1915 started the tests with 4 torpedo tubes Drzewiecki-Podgorny, a submarine "Kit" and "Narwhal" is already owned the first war patrol. Fighting ability of boats has increased considerably and installation 2-75-millimeter guns.

In a submarine "Kit" on the way to the Bosphorus October 4, 1915 in storm criteria have failed compressors, crankshaft broke right diesel engine, burst mounting support bearings. Three weeks later, a similar tragedy occurred and the submarine "Narwhal". Both subs had to send for repair in Nikolaev. Prerequisites breakdowns investigated spec. Commission led by Captain First Rank YS Soldatov. South American engineer Gilmore RB participated in the commission tried to blame the minders who Tipo violated rules about engines, but when disassembling the devices were found shell cracks and crank shafts, yokes and foundations. Diesels "New London" had been very feeble for rotating propeller shafts, huge propellers, clutches and electric motors.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

The transfer device according to the Council, the dismantled; submarine "Sperm Whale" and "Kit" ICE connected "directly" through friction clutches, and on nasal Underwater boat "Narwhal" — with dynamos that were delivered to submarine type "AG" in the United States. GAM immediately rebuked use on submarines "Sperm Whale" and "Kit" stern and bow diesels, prescribing only walk under fodder diesels. Start nasal diesels permitted only in exceptional cases. Due to the installation of random engines highest rate fell to 9.5 knots, charging time increased to 20 hours. Insecurity devices become more distinct. The only positive factor was the increase in range to 3,500 miles. Despite the shortcomings of surface speed engines, submarine commanders noted certain positive qualities submarines "Narwhal": Cancel agility, availability of central control, comfortable accommodation batteries not bad ventilation of machinery spaces, improved habitability criteria compared with subs like "Walrus" .

The Black Sea submarines "Holland-31A" after the entry into operation intensively involved in the fighting Black Sea Fleet. For example, the submarine "Narwhal" in the area of the lighthouse Kefken October 16, 1916 killed an enemy transport displacement of about 4 million gross registered tons, and the crew of the submarine "Sperm Whale" March 1, 1917 disruptive bullets killed 5 schooners laden with coal.

Submarines "Narwhal" after the end of hostilities were laid up in Sebastopol, where in April 1919 the British interventionists them drowned. EPRON in 1934 raised the submarine "Kit" and the submarine "Sperm Whale" and "Narwhal" are based on sea days are up to now.

Submarines "Narwhal" (Project of the American company "Holland 31")

Construction polutorakorpusnyh submarines "Narwhal", which features a good seaworthiness, over-survivable due to the presence of watertight bulkheads, quick dive became a fundamental step in the history of Russian shipbuilding. Many of the design decisions that were used for the first time on their own, found the application in the projects that were presented at the competition in 1916. On the other hand, the introduction of random engines for surface speed showed the weakness of Russian machine-building industry, which failed to promptly make the creation of diesel engines for submarines.

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