The top 10 events in science for 2011 Facts
Graphene has become the leading material XXI century …
… Or, at least, so says George Osborne. After two scientists at Manchester University, Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim, won the Nobel Prize for research on graphene, the Prime Minister said that Britain will invest £ 50 million in the development of a national research program of the substance.
Graphene — a two-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms. It can be used to create a whole (from touch screens to cheap plastic), although they may take decades to achieve these results. According to a study by James Hone, graphene is the strongest material, 200 times stronger than steel. "It will take a huge weight of the elephant, to break the thin sheet of graphene." However, graphene is of greatest interest as a source of composite materials and electronics. So the companies IBM, Samsung, Nokia are investing billions of dollars in research material.
Flying at a speed greater than the speed of light, can become a reality
Despite claims by Einstein a century ago that no moving object can not exceed the speed of light, it seems that scientists have found an exception to this rule. In September, the Geneva physicists sent a neutrino beam (consisting of neutral particles that interact weakly with other substances) to other scientists who are in the laboratory at a distance of 454 kilometers. To their surprise, the researchers found that the rate of movement of the neutrino was slightly higher than the speed of light (one 60-billionth of a second). Most experts believed that the experiment can not be repeated, but with repeated firing beam result was confirmed.
Modern people live in Europe for thousands of years longer than it should before
Human bones and teeth found in England and Italy, moved the approximate date the appearance of man in Europe 5000 years ago. The prescribed age of two children's teeth and jaw bone fragment found in Puglia and Devon, respectively, of 45 and 41 thousand years. Until recently it was believed that homo sapiens appeared in Europe about 35-40 thousand years ago, replacing the Neanderthals, who lived on the continent a few hundred thousand years. If the extinction of Neanderthal man was guilty, then he should make it too fast. New research shows that the two species co-exist for 3-3.5 thousand years, which means that a person has had enough time to displace the Neanderthals.
Woman's brain behaves in a special way during orgasm
Recently, scientists have said that on the basis of scans was first created a film about how the female brain acts before, during and after orgasm. The film shows a steady increase in activity, while the scattered bundles of neurons are activated together in the climax. According to researchers at the University of Radzhers discovery may help men and women who can not reach orgasm.
Found similar planet Earth
Observations made through the American telescope "Kepler", discovered a planet that orbits a Sun-like star. The planet, called "Kepler-22", is 2.4 times the size of Earth and is located in the habitable zone of Goldilocks. Scientists believe that the surface temperature of the planet about 22 degrees, and a year lasts 299 Earth days. It is unclear whether there is a Kepler-22 water. "This is the only stumbling block in finding Earth's twin," said Douglas Hadzhings, a scientist at NASA. Prospects visiting planet is very small, as it is located 600 light-years from Earth. If you want, learn through radio about how things are on the planet, the answer will have to wait another 1200 years.
Nobel Prize can be obtained even dead
One of the basic rules of the Nobel Prize, established by the Committee administering the legacy of Alfred Nobel, was the granting of awards to living people, "The work of the dead should not be judged." But on October 3 Ralph Steinmann Nobel Committee was awarded for his contribution to medicine, not knowing that the Canadian scientist died of cancer three days ago. In revising the decision of the Committee, it was decided to leave the decision because it was "made in good faith with the certainty that the winner was alive." It should be noted that such a rule came in 1974. Up to this time the Nobel Prize to be awarded posthumously if the nomination took place before February of this year. Steinmann shared the prize with American and French biologist Bruce Boytlerom and Zhulem Hoffman. Prior to his death Steinmann for 4 years fighting pancreatic cancer through their own developed therapy.
Stem cells can not justify the high expectations placed on them in the XXI century
For a dream that paralyzed people will be able to walk again after a stem cell transplant, has suffered a devastating blow when Geron Corporation has refused to participate in the first of its kind experiment. It is because of excessive material costs. Four patients was performed stem cell transplant to make sure that the side effects will not appear. According to the company, they are not found, as there have been no improvements. In the laboratory experiment, the rats began to move paralyzed hind limbs. Other researchers are concerned with the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's with stem cells, are hoping for a positive result.
To Mars is still hard to get
Despite the fact that half a century made attempts to start the research station on Mars, the success is too shaky. Of the 38 missions, 19 found serious flaws, which is estimated at 50% of failures. The latest "victim Great Galactic Vampire" was the Russian interplanetary station "Phobos-Grunt", which was supposed to come with a 10-month mission in November 2011. Instead, the station is "stuck" in Earth orbit a few hundred kilometers from Earth. All attempts to restart the system failed. All hopes are now pinned on the American mission MSL, successfully launched in the same month. Estimated arrival date — August 2012. Then the rover Curiosity will be unloaded at the surface of the planet to study for several years, the samples extracted from the surface of the planet.
Archaeopteryx may not be the world's first bird
This stunning news to professor at the Chinese University Xin Zhu, who along with his colleagues studied the fossils Xiaotingia zhengi, similar to Archaeopteryx. Based on the study, it was concluded that the creature belonged not to the birds, and to a group of dinosaurs called Deynonihozavry. Even more surprising was the statement, based on the analysis that archeopteryx themselves are the same group. Deynonihozavry such as Velociraptor, walked on two legs, ate meat and had retractable claws. Of course, the opening is not yet precise, but it reveals the existence of another dinosaur bird. Archaeopteryx was discovered in the time of Victorian England in 1861, after Charles Darwin published the book "On the Origin of Species." Bird recognized the very first bird ever lived on the planet, but argue about Archaeopteryx to birds being still.
The existence of the boson higgovskogo
Maybe it is. But on the other hand, perhaps the opposite. Having spent 10 years and £ 6 billion to build the Large Hadron Collider on the Swiss-French border to conduct experiments on the collision of particles moving at high speed, in order to recreate the conditions of the appearance of the early universe, scientists said that the main objective for the detection of the Higgs boson, which provides other particles mass was achieved. Two experiments were conducted with the collider, revealed the appearance of a particle of mass 125 GeV (GeV). It is true that scientists have only previously attributed this to higgovskomu boson particle, as these may be statistical anomaly. After 12 months, a new experiment will be made for the approval of fact.