Flight and tactical characteristics of LPL
Crew: 3 people. / / Take-off weight: 15,000 kg / / Airspeed: 100 (~ 200) bond. (Km / h) / / Range: 800 km / / Ceiling: 2500 m / / Number and type of aircraft engines: 3 x AM-34 / / Power Take-off: 3 x 1,200 hp / / Max. Perm. excitement during takeoff / landing and diving: 4-5 / / Submerged speed: 4-5 knots / / depth: 45 m / / move the supplies under water: 45 miles / / Underwater battery life: 48 hours / / propeller engine power: 10 hp / / Dive time: 1.5 min / / Duration of ascent: 1.8 min / / Armament: • 18-inch. Torpedo: 2 pcs. • coaxial machine gun: 2 pcs.
The aircraft detects enemy air and causing disorienting blow. Then, remove from the line-of-sight, the car sits on the water and a half Minutka plunges to a depth of several meters. The goal is destroyed sudden torpedo hit. In the case of a miss apparatus for two minutes rises to the surface and soars to repeat an air attack. A bunch of 3 similar machines makes impassable barrier for at least some enemy ship. Beheld such a flying submarine designer Boris Petrovich Ushakov
Naturally, such a draft could not appear. If there is a amphibious car, why not teach the plane to dive under the water? It all started in the 30s. A second-year student of the Higher Naval Engineering School. FE Moscow (Leningrad), Boris Petrovich Ushakov embodied on paper the idea of a flying submarine (LPL), or, rather, an underwater plane.
In 1934, he gave a bulky folder of drawings, together with a report on the department's own university. Long-term project "walked" through the corridors, classrooms and school departments, was marked "confidential", Ushakov has repeatedly modified the scheme of the submarine in accordance with the acquired remarks. In 1935, he received three certificates of recognition to other nodes of their own design, and in April 1936 the project was sent to the Military Research Committee (NIVKI later — TSNIIVK) and once at the Naval Academy. Played a huge role in a detailed and generally positive report on the work of Ushakov, made captain I rank AP Surin.
Only in 1937, the project was endorsed by Dr. NIVKI head of the department of combat strategy means Leonid Yegorovich Goncharov: "Development of the project is better to continue to bring out the reality of it," — wrote the doctor. The document was also examined and approved by the chief military engineer Nyvka I rank Carl Leopoldovich Grigaytisom. In 1937-1938, the project still continued to "walk" through the corridors. No one believed in its reality. At first, he was included in the plan of the Division "B" NIVKI where on graduation he entered military technician Ushakov I rank, then again removed, and the young inventor continued to work without the help of others.
Winged submarine Donald Reid Commander-2
Developed with the assistance of the U.S. Navy in 1964, the submarine was in the form in which it is depicted in the diagram below, and was never in fact
-Submarine aircraft acquired evenly final appearance and "stuffing." Outside the apparatus still more like a plane than a submarine. All-metal machine weighing 15 tons with a crew of 3 people at a theoretical level should reach speeds of up to 200 km / h and have a range of 800 km. Speed under water — 3-4 knots, depth — 45 m, range "swim" — 5-6 km. In the movement of the aircraft was to be driven 3-1000-horsepower engines AM-34 design by Alexander Mikulin. Blowers allows the engine to produce a short-term boost with an increase in power up to 1200 hp
It should be noted that at the time of the AM-34 were more promising aviation engines pro-duction of the USSR. The design of the 12-cylinder piston unit in almost all anticipated the development of aircraft engines recognizable companies "Rolls-Royce", "Daimler-Benz" and "Packard" — only techno "closeness" of the USSR prevented Mikulina gain worldwide fame.
Inside the plane had 6 pressurized compartments for three engines, one residential, one for battery and one — for propulsion electric motor, 10 hp Residential compartment was not a cockpit, and was used only for scuba diving. Cockpit during a dive are flooded, as are a number of leaky compartments. This allowed us to make a fuselage made of light materials, not designed for the highest pressure. Wings are one hundred percent filled with water by gravity through the scuppers on the flap — to align internal and external pressure.
Supply system and fuel oil shut down shortly before the full immersion. With all of this piping is sealed. The plane was covered with anti-corrosion coatings (paint and varnish). The dive took place in four steps: first battened down sections of engines, later sections of the radiator and battery, then switched to control underwater, in the end, the crew passed in a sealed compartment. The aircraft was armed with 2 18-inch torpedoes and 2 machine guns.
January 10, 1938 the project was re-examined the second department NIVKI. Yet everyone knew that the project is "crude" and to implement it will leave a lot of money, and the result can be null. The years have been very unsafe, were mass repressions and get a hot hand could even inadvertently dropped word or "wrong" name. The Committee made a number of harsh comments, expressing hesitation in aircraft capabilities Ushakov up into the sky, leaving the ship to catch up with the water, etc. Eyewash were asked to make a model and to test it in the pool. No more references to the Russian-submarine aircraft not. Ushakov long years worked in shipbuilding over the WIG aircraft and vehicles on the wings. And from a flying boat leaving only the scheme and pictures.
The plane-submarine Conveir, 1964: This project could be one of the most successful in the development of winged submarines, if not resistance, U.S. Senator Allen Elendera, suddenly closed the financing
The engine under the hood
Ushakovskoe similar project in the United States appeared many years later. As in the Soviet Union, its creator became an enthusiast, whose work is considered unreasonable and unfeasible. Fanatical designer and inventor, electrical engineer Donald Reid was developing submarines and the creation of their models since 1954. At some point, he came up with the idea to build the world's first flying submarine.
Reid has collected a number of models of flying submarines, and when satisfied of their efficiency, started to assemble this unit. For this he used in the main part of the write-off of aircraft. The first prototype of the aircraft, submarines Reid RFS-1 Reid collected by 1961. The device was registered as a plane at number N1740 and was powered by a 65-horsepower 4-cylinder aircraft engines Lycoming. In 1962, the offspring of Donald Bruce manned aircraft RFS-1 proparhal 23 m above the surface of the Shrewsbury River in New Jersey. Experiments on the dive could not take place: the harsh impact design deficiencies.
For transformation into a submarine aircraft pilot had to remove the propeller and engine shut
with a rubber cap, working on the principle of the diving bell. In the tail was placed in the electric motor 1 hp (To move under water). The cabin was not sealed — the pilot had to use scuba gear.
About Reid has written a number of popular magazines, and in 1964 he became interested in the U.S. Navy. In the same year he built the second instance of the boat — Commander-2 (the first was a "war," the name of Commander-1). July 9, 1964 plane headed for the speed of 100 km / h and performed the first dive. In the first model aircraft when submerged remnants of fuel from the tank was pumped into the reservoir, and the water is pumped into the tanks to weight design. So Makar, fly again RFS-1 could not. Second modification was to lose this defect, but it did not come earlier, because I had to recycle the entire structure. After all, the fuel tanks were also used as tanks for dipping.
But the design proved to be very low power and lightweight to be used for military purposes. Soon control of the Navy lost interest in the project and curtailed funding. Until his death in 1991, Reid tried to "promote" their own project, but of success and not headed for.
In 2004, his son Bruce wrote and published a book, "Flying Submarine: The Story of the invention, a flying submarine Reid RFS-1". Himself plane RFS-1 is stored in the Museum of Aviation in Pennsylvania.
However, some sources say that the project was the development of Reid. The U.S. Navy has decided to build a "Airship» (Aeroship) — dvuhfyuzelyazhny aircraft capable of submerged. Frame in 1968 by the Global Industry Exhibition this aircraft made a spectacular landing on the water and then dive and ascent. Yet the official programm exhibitions of the year (held in San Antonio) did not include a demonstration of the submarine aircraft. Follow the traces of this construction are lost "classified."
Unmanned aircraft submarine The Cormorant, developed by Skunk Works (USA) and tested in a full-size model in 2006. All the details about this project are hiding under the heading "top secret"
Underwater rock 1960
In April 1945, suddenly appeared on the horizon, a man named Houston Harrington, who has applied for a patent, "The combination of the airplane and the submarine." The patent was obtained on December 25, but it did not go further. Submarine Harrington looked very well, but none of its flight data, nor the qualities of underwater nothing is clear. Then Harrington became famous in the United States as the owner of the record label Atomic-H.
Another patent was obtained by a similar construction in the United States in 1956. She did the Yankees Donald Doolittle (with Reid). This design is not quickly pushed herself off the plane, and from the submarine. Movement under the water usually provides an electric motor, but the flight was performed using 2-jet engines.
In 1964, the U.S. Air Force Conveir proposed development of a small-submarine aircraft. Received documents — drawings, plans, and even a few mind-blowing "images". Conveir received from the Office of Naval Weapons technical requirements, which included a speed 280-420 km / h, the immersion depth of 460 m, range 555-955 km, etc. Despite the obviously inflated claims, the contract was signed.
The project was implemented Reid thought about using the fuel tanks as tanks for diving, but the fuel is not merged, as reported in other special tanks — for the best rassredotachivaniya load under water. Living compartment and the engine compartment is sealed, the other part of the U-boat filled with water. In the manufacture of submarines planned to use ultra-light and heavy-duty materials, including titanium. The team consisted of 2 persons. There have been several models that have been successful tests.
The denouement came suddenly: in 1966, recognized Elender Senator Allen, head of the Senate Committee on arms, openly derided the project and gave the order to complete the development. The full-size model has not been made.
The border under lock and key
Inventors are not in a hurry with the creation of t for 2-environments. The main problem — the highest difference in the density of air and water. While plane should be as light as possible, the submarine, on the contrary, tends to weighting contribution for maximum efficiency. It is necessary to make all the various aerodynamic and hydrodynamic concepts for water and air. For example, the wings support the aircraft in the air, but prevent the water. Strength of the design also plays a huge role and leads to a weighting of boats, aircraft, because a similar unit shall withstand the water pressure is very great.
Developed by Skunk Works project Cormorant («cormorant") — Swimming unmanned aerial vehicles, propelled by with 2 jet engines. "Cormorant" can start with special underwater vehicles — class submarines "Ohio". In store underwater course in "Baklan" is very small — just to get to the surface, and then, on the implementation of the freeboard jobs back to the media. Underwater drone wings folded and do not interfere with movement.
Airframe is made of titanium, there are no voids (they are filled with a material similar foam), and the geometry of the body resembles a cross between a seagull and "Stealth".
Tests were conducted separate systems "Baklan" tested its reduced model, and full-scale model, devoid of parts of the structure. But beginning in 2007, information about the developments "Baklan" is actually missing, perhaps, came under the traditional classified as "top secret."
Submarine aircraft carriers
Naturally, there were many projects that are similar in principle to the aircraft, submarines. The most relevant — and quite realized — are referred to as "underwater aircraft carriers" — submarine carrying on planes for themselves.
In 1942, in the Land of the Rising Sun has begun construction of similar vehicles, and in 1944 the two-submarine aircraft carrier I-400 and I-401 were launched. They carried on for you three specialized fighter "Seyran» M6A. Light aircraft launched a boat on the surface with the help of a catapult launch was carried out for 30 minutes. Planes could not help others return to a ground base after the operation. In general, the modification was "Seyran" and without the chassis — for suicide bombers. Their launch is easier, 14 minutes on everything. But nearing the end of the war. Construction of other boats laid (numbers 402, 403 and 404) was suspended because of Overhead project. "Seyran" is made of 20 pieces. Cabs fighters were sealed in case you have to run right out of the water. In addition, lungs were taken two submarine I-13 and I-14 to carry the 1st fighter. First battle "swim" submarines planned Aug. 17, 1945, but before the end, they do not sailed later it was postponed until August 25, and Japan surrendered on September 2, and did not allow to carry out a fundamental project. In general, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun managed to conduct military tests of low-submarine aircraft carrier I-25. In September 1942, a reference to the most experienced similar boat and seaplane took off in the woods of Ohio threw two firebombs. The effect was virtually zero: forest fire did not start. But we can say that such structures all the same and used for combat purposes.
Submarine aircraft carriers built not only Japan. Back in 1928 in England converted boat HMS M2 for take-off and landing light seaplanes. The submarine sank in 1932, and a similar experie
nce in the UK is no longer repeated. The only attempt was similar to the French submarine "Pirate", built in 1930 and sunk in 1942. In the USSR in 1930 was being developed special submarines for similar purposes (series 14 bis). Aircraft developed their IV Four-in (project CPF-1). The tiny plane could be ready to take off for almost 5 minutes, and the container for it was a pipe diameter of 2.5 m and a length of 7.5 aircraft was tested and found several international speed records in the class of small seaplane also be successfully demonstrated at the international air show in Milan in 1936. But after working on aircraft carriers for Chetverikova was discontinued (1938), the project has lost relevance.
In Germany, a similar project was developed in 1939-1940. Were designed light aircraft Ar.231 V1 and Ar.231 V2. However, the long time required for assembly (10 minutes), and indescribably difficult managing to get the plane brought the project to an end. Another attempt was a German intelligence gyroplane design Fa-330 for takeoff with limited space, and this unit is poorly proved at trial.