It is known that the development of science and technology at all times (Middle Ages will not take, although even then invent something) subject to the law of progress, that is moving forward. Create new, more complex and sophisticated machinery and household fixtures, made the opening.
Ago, it would seem there is no way, because once discovered will not close again? But some people think differently — those to whom this or that invention in the throat is not profitable or disapprove. They are little before than stay! Here are some of these "closers" and we want to tell you today.
In Stanislaw Lem is a humorous play "office hours Tarantogi professor." This character Lem — an outstanding scientist, an appointment to come to him for the support of a variety of Near scientific cranks, and they are not alone. And one of the visitors said the professor, "I am not the inventor or discoverer. I antiotkryvatel, in other words, closers. In-depth analysis of world history in its entirety led me to the conclusion that mankind does not need any already open. Instead, they suffer from their excess. So I decided to help humanity. How so? By closing especially harmful discoveries. "
Harmless literary joke? In this case, yes. But in the real history of mankind "closers" enough. And far from being harmless pranksters.
The choice of weapons
The First World War. German scientists have developed methods of using liquid oxygen as an explosive. But the application of the results of their work was extremely disadvantageous largest chemical companies, "IG Farben "that produced explosives" traditional. " The success of the program would put the oxygen it came under threat. What happened then?
Urgent going "Council of the Gods" (the so-called ironic body control group). Without thinking, he made a decision: some of the scientists involved in this program, to bribe the inhibition studies. Also to bribe the press and that it only prints the message about the failures of the project. And as a radical measure anticipated hiring spies and destroy oxygen pipelines. Judging by the fact that the oxygen project never came out of the initial stage, the tactics of the "Council of the Gods" was a success.
"Swedish Match" (almost on Chekhov)
From time immemorial, people make fire, in essence, the same way, with minor variations: flint, Kresalo, certain forerunner of modern lighters. This method has had many shortcomings, it is very inconvenient and cumbersome. And invented the match. What could be better? Fast, easy and convenient. But they had the disadvantage and very serious. Every match you can light only once, after which it has to be thrown away. Okay, back in the city where one can immediately buy another box. But, say, on an expedition in the field? Remember the one and only match the heroes of Jules Verne, caught on a desert island …
So is it possible to get around this "match-vice"? This was reflected in 1928 by the German chemist Ferdinand Ringer. Thought, and … invented a match that could light up to 1000 times! The inventor set to release their offspring.
But no such luck. On the way undertakings Ringer got the biggest Swedish Trust, headed by the "King of matches," Willow by Mr. Kruger, the then world monopoly in this business. It was clear that such competition would have ruined this Kruger cleaned! Kruger decided to buy Ringer invention, as they say on the vine and "close" it.
But Ringer was not so easy. He rejected all offers to buy, established the factory and started production. Kruger was furious. First, he ordered the inventor to rob and steal secret. It did not work. Then in turn went bribery of Ringer and even members of his family. Again by. Finally, was the inventor of several assassination attempts in succession. Unable to withstand the pressure, Ringer gave up. Factory it declined and in 1937 ceased to exist.
Well, what with the very secret? Where is the "eternal" match now? Alas, no one knows. Hardly interested firms is profitable today. You can look into the kitchen and shake the box of matches. How many times will light each of them? That's it.
The collapse of the operation "Monastral"
History almost repeated itself, only this time the scene — America and the time — 1930. American chemists have created a new substance that was called "monastral." This preform was suitable for the production of a wide variety of paints and varnishes. He was also an almost ideal for dyeing fabrics. Painted Mona-Strahl jeans were simply doomed to become trendy — strength, color fastness, reliability and beauty.
But, as in the case of the ring-set, intervened monopolists. At this time — Concern "Dupont", made in traditional colors. He did not peddle. Immediately went to the big guns. It was decided to hire performers for the additive to the market parties Monastra la substances that would spoil the fabric of the bleaching or heating. But this "Dupont" was not enough. The second trick — dash toxic chemicals that irritate the skin. That's literally what was said in the minutes of the "historic" meeting of the Board of Directors: "Corrosive substances, resins and solvents are corrosive to the skin and cause a rash. It would be appropriate to apply such a mixture in combination with a dye CPC (the official name monastralya) fabrics will irritate the skin. "
Many years have passed since that "legendary" pores. And we still do not wear beautiful and comfortable jeans and a shirt stained monastralem …
The petrol scam
During the Second World War, the Portuguese engineer Vincent Amat invented an apparatus for producing synthetic fuel from lignite. Gasoline demand it at first did not find — it was much more expensive than usual. But the war came to an end, and in the conditions associated with this severe crisis synthetic gasoline Amata became the richest source of profit. Rich and the inventor himself, but … for long.
The war is over. Two years passed, and "closers" went on the attack. They have ensured that the Amata prosecuted and jailed for "fraud", "fake inventions" for 18 years. Simply former companions engineer eager to get his discovery for yourself …
But Amat was, as they say, is not timid. He was able to reach out to the prison director, and with it (ibid., in the dungeons!) Built another plant for the production of synthetic fuel. Simpler, more primitive, but it worked! And soon, Amat was supplying synthetic fuel other prisons. Here is an example of true entrepreneurship and fortitude worthy of emulation! The point, of course, revised. After seven years of imprisonment engineer was released. At this time, the invention of "close" failed.
Disaster will not, but …
It was, as they say, the beginning. And that's what happened in the early 1960s in the suburbs of Strasbourg called Königshofen already and for the "closers" is probably too much. But tell everything in order.
As a result of the police operation were arrested two members of the French Company of the West, "Brunner and Konfran Motor Oil". Charges sounded ominously — industrial espionage, sabotage, attempted sabotage. Who were these people and why they have put forward against such serious charges?
The fact is that at one of the company's electric furnace was designed, considered at the time of the art, supernovae. This is very worried West German manufacturers of electric furnaces, which until then did not know sorrow.
Well, we learned, but do not lose the spirit. Operations were conducted downright, without exaggeration, the military. Was created clogs-tazhnaya group with the task, to prevent the production of a new furnace at any cost. Infiltrating the company, the saboteurs (you can call them so) tried to steal drawings, equipment port, causing high Farben "defect rate … But the results of this activity all seemed to them by some puny little meet the requirements of employers.
Then two of the group — Franz Richter and Heinrich Koller — have decided to no less … blow up the plant, along with the entire staff. Only the heroic efforts of the police prevented a heinous crime. As reported in a police statement to the press, in the case of successful realization of the idea of criminals under the ruins of the plant would have been buried and much of Königshofen.
Never say "never"
As you can see, can impede progress, and even very successful. And no one will vouch for the fact that it does not happen in our time. On the contrary, there is a lot of evidence to the contrary — the search for drugs against AIDS, torpediruemyh medical card * lyami receiving grants for astronomical research, it is environmentally friendly automotive engines, unprofitable oil corporations. But that's another story.
"Secrets of the twentieth century" in March 2013